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Richard Loulou

Emeritus Professor, Operations Management
Contact Information
Email address: 
richard [dot] loulou [at] mcgill [dot] ca

Bronfman Building, [Map]
1001 rue Sherbrooke Ouest
Montreal, Quebec
H3A 1G5


MS University of California at Berkeley
PhD University of California at Berkeley
Doctorat d'Etat Université de Grenoble

Operations Management

Richard Loulou joined the Faculty of Management in 1970 and has been Associate Dean Academic since 1993. In 1980, he co-founded the Groupe d'Étude et de Recherches en Analyse des Décisions (GÉRAD), and served as its Director from 1988 to 1992. GÉRAD is a joint research centre of McGill, École des Hautes Études Commerciales (Montréal), and École Polytechnique (Montréal). Dr. Loulou has taught such undergraduate and graduate courses as Applied Optimization, Simulation, Stochastic Processes and Operations Research. He has been a Visiting Professor and Researcher at Université de Sherbrooke and Université de Grenoble, France, during the period of his association with McGill.

Richard Loulou's research focusses on the modeling and analysis of energy/environment systems. His current projects involve the development of mathematical and economic models of large scale energy systems and their use for the investigation of numerous issues related to energy and the environment, with special emphasis on the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions. In association with Dr Amit Kanudia, Richard Loulou leads a team of researchers which continuously develops, maintains, and enhances the MARKAL techno-economic model, and its application to Canada, the USA, and several other regions of the World. The current phase of the MARKAL project invloves the creation of a World-Wide model based on multi-regional models linked via energy and GHG permit trade variables. This new model is named TIMES (The Integrated Markal-Efom System), and represents the next generation of model created by ETSAP and destined to replace the existing versions of MARKAL and EFOM. This work is done in collaboration with, and with the sponsorship of the Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme, an implementing agreement of the International Energy Agency.

Another major current project concerns the use of the 7-region Canadian MARKAL model to analyze alternate paths to satisfy Canada's GHG abatement target under the Kyoto Protocol. This project is undertaken in direct collaboration with the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Throughout his academic career Dr. Loulou has maintained a close association with the business community, involving contractual research with private and public organizations such as Natural Resources Canada, Environment Canada, Hydro-Québec, BC Hydro, GCSI Inc., Northern Telecom, Montréal Children's Hospital and Québec Cartier Mining. Formerly Associate Editor for INFOR and for INTERFACES, he has also contributed to the profession as an evaluator for grants, scholarships and proposals for Conseil des Universités, FCAR and NSERC.

Taught previously at: 

Visiting Professor, Université de Sherbrooke
Visiting Professor, Université de Grenoble, France

Selected publications: 

Papers in Peer-Reviewed Journals

Lavigne, D., R. Loulou, and G. Savard (2000), ''Pure competition, regulated and Stackelberg equilibria: Application to the energy system of Québec'', European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 125, No 1, pp. 1 -- 17

Rahman, A., and R. Loulou (2000) ''Technology Acquisition with Technological Progress : Effects of Expectations, Rivalry, and Uncertainty'', European Journal of Operations Research. In Print.

Kanudia, A., and R. Loulou (1999), "Advanced Bottom-up Modelling for National and Regional Energy Planning in Response to Climate Change", International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 12, Nos. 2/3, 191-216

Loulou, R., and A. Kanudia (1999) "Minimax Regret Strategies for Greenhouse Gas Abatement: Methodology and Application", Operations Research Letters, 25, 219-230.

Bhatnagar, R., P. Chandra, R. Loulou, and J. Qiu (1999), "Order Release and Product Mix Coordination in a Complex PCB Manufacturing Line with Batch Processor", International Journal of Flexible Manufacturing Systems, special issue.

Loulou, R., and A. Kanudia (1999), "The Kyoto Protocol, Inter-Provincial Cooperation, and Energy Trading : a Systems Analysis with integrated MARKAL Models", Energy Studies Review, vol 9, No 1, pp. 1-23

Loulou, R., A. Kanudia, and D. Lavigne, (1998), "GHG Abatement in Central Canada with Inter-provincial Cooperation", Energy Studies Review, v. 8 No 2, 120-129 (this volume was published with 1996 as year of issue, but was printed in January 1998).

Kanudia, A., and R. Loulou (1998), "Robust Responses to Climate Change via Stochastic MARKAL: the case of Québec", European Journal of Operations Research, vol. 106, pp. 15-30.

Prades, J., R. Loulou, and J.-Ph. Waaub, Stratégies de Gestion des Gaz à effet de serre -Le cas des transports urbains, Presses de l'Université du Québec, Montréal, 277 pages, 1998 (research monograph).

Loulou, R., D. Lavigne, et J.-Ph. Waaub (1998), "Sustainable Greenhouse Gas abatement: the case of Québec", Energy Studies Review, v. 8, No 2,102-119 (this volume was published with 1996 as year of issue, but was printed in January 1998)

(Savard G. and Lavigne, D.) "Decomposition of Multi-Player Linear Programs", Annals of Dynamic Games, v. 1, 1995, pp. 149-167. 

(and Qiu, J.) "Multi-Product Production/Inventory Control under Random Demand", IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, v. 40, no. 3, February 1995, pp. 21-27. 

(and, Savard G., Lavigne, G.), "Decomposition of Multi-Player Linear Programs", Annals of Dynamic Games, v. 1 (1994), pp. 149-167. 

(Chauny, F. and Loulou, R.) "LP-based Method for the Multi-sheet Cutting Stock Problem", INFOR, v. 4 (1994), pp. 253-264. 

(Qiu, J.), "Multi-Product Production/Inventory under Uncertain Demands", IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 1994. 

(Haurie, A., and Savard, G.), "A Two-Player Game Model of Power Cogeneration in New England", IEEE Trans. Aut. Control, v. 37, no. 9 (September 1992), pp. 1451-1456. 

(Berger, C., Dubois, R., Haurie, A., Lessard, E., and Waaub, J.P.) "Canadian MARKAL: An advanced linear programming system for energy and environmental modelling", INFOR, v. 20 (August 1992), pp. 114-125. 

(and Waaub, J.P.), "CO2 Emission Reductions With Cooperation in Quebec and Ontario: A MARKAL perspective", Energy Studies Review, v. 4, no. 3 (1992), pp. 278-296. 

"Minimal Cut-Cover of a Graph with An Application to the Testing of Electronic Boards", Operations Research Letters, v. 12, no. 5 (December 1992), pp. 301-305. 

(Chauny, F., Sadones, S. and Soumis, F.), "A Two-Phase Heuristic for the Two-Dimensional Cutting-Stock Problem", Journal of the Operational Research Society, v. 42, no. 1 (1991), pp. 39-47. 

(Berger, C., Haurie, A., Lessard, E., and Waaub, J.P.), "Exploring Acid Gas Emission Reductions in the Province of Quebec via MARKAL-Quebec", Energy Studies Review, v. 3, no. 2 (1991), pp. 124-141. 

(Berger, C., Dubois, R. Haurie, A. and Lessard, E.), "Assessing the Dividends of Power Exchange Between Quebec and New York State", International Journal of Energy Research, v. 14 (1990), pp. 253-273. 

(Berger, C., Fuller, D., Haurie, A., Luthra, D., Waaub J.P.), "Modelling Energy Use in the Mineral Processing Industries of Ontario with MARKAL-Ontario", Energy, v. 12, no. 9 (1990) pp. 741-758. 

(Chauny, F., Haurie, A. and Wagneur, E.), "Clamps Positioning and Optimal Holding Positions in a DNC Punch Press", I.E.E.E. Transactions on Automatic Control, v. 33 (1988), pp. 404- 407.

Chapters in Books

(and Lavigne, D.) "MARKAL Model with Elastic Demands: Application to GHG Emission Control", Operations Research and Environmental Engineering, C. Carraro and Q. Haurie eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, 1996, pp. 201-220.

Research monographs

Prades, J., R. Loulou, and J.-Ph. Waaub, Stratégies de Gestion des Gaz à effet de serre -Le cas des transports urbains, Presses de l'Université du Québec, Montréal, 277 pages, 1998.

Research reports

Loulou, R., Kanudia, K., Labriet, M., Margolick, M., and K. Vaillancourt, "Analysis of GHG emission reduction options via MARKAL", report written for the National Climate Change Implementation Process, May 2000, 216 pages.

Conference Proceedings

Loulou, R. "An Incomplete Bibliography on GHG Abatement Cost Research in Canada", prepared for the Canadian University Program on Global Change, for a National meeting held in Edmonton, January 22-23, 1998, 19 pp.

Kanudia, A., R. Loulou, and P.R. Shukla, "Joint Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol: A Central Canada-India Case Study", Proceedings of the Ahmedabad Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Mitigation, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, 8 February 1998, 18 pp.

Loulou, R., and A. Kanudia, 1998, « Joint Mitigation under the Kyoto Protocol : The Case for a U.S,-Canada-India Long Term Cooperative Scheme » , proceedings of the ETSAP-IEA-OECD Workshop on Energy Models for Decision Support held in Berlin, E. Laege and P. Schaumann eds., 4-5 May 1998, pp. 73-98.

(and Kanudia, A.) "Robust Energy Technologies via Stochastic MARKAL: The Case of Quebec", Proceedings of the VITO/ETA Workshop on Energy Technology Evaluation, Leuven, Belgium, May 5-6 1996. 

(Haurie, A.), "Modelling Equilibria and Risk under Global Environmental Constraints in Energy Models", Proceedings of the 1991 Steamboat Springs Conference on Environmental Modelling, Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 1994. 

(Berger, C., Soucy, J. and Waaub, J.P.), "CO2 control in Quebec and Ontario: a system analysis", Proceedings of ETSAP Annex IV: Greenhouse Gases and National Energy Options, May 1993, pp. B9B16. 

(Berger, C.), "Extended Markal: A brief user manual", Proceedings of the IEA-ETSAP/Annex IV Workshop, Geneva, 5-12 May 1993, pp. 1-53. 

(and Savard, G., Lavigne, D.), "Decomposition and equilibrium computation with multiplayer linear programs", Proceedings of Fifth International Symposium on Dynamic Games and Applications, Grimentz, Switzerland, July 1317, 1992, pp. 124. 

(Haurie, A., and Vial, J.P.), "Programmation mathématique et analyse des choix énergétiques et environnementaux", Comptesrendus du Séminaire du CUEPE, Université de Genève, Genève, Octobre 1992, pp. 1221. 

(Berger, C., and Haurie, A.,), "Electricity trading in the americancanadian northeast: A game theoretic approach", Proc. 33rd International Conference of the Applied Econometrics Association, Montpellier, France, Oct. 2425, 1991, pp. 6174. 

(Poulin, R. and Chauny, F.), "Mineral Aggregate Transport Simulation", Computer Applications in the Mineral Industry, Second Canadian Conference, R. Poulin, R.C.T. Pakalnis and A.L. Mular eds. v. 1, 1991 pp. 181-190. 

(Haurie, A., and Savard, G.), "A Two Level Systems Analysis Model of Power Cogeneration Under Asymetric Pricing", Proceedings of the American Control Conference, May 2123, 1990, pp. 201-207. 

(Lessard, E. and Savard, G.), "Computation of Cooperative and Stackelberg Solutions when players are described by Linear Programs", Lecture notes in Control and Information Service, v. 156: Differential Games: Developments in Modelling, Hamalainen and Etahmo eds., Springer-Verlag, 1990 pp. 285-292. 

(Lessard, E., Savard, G.), "Computation of cooperative and Stackelberg solutions when players are described by linear programs", Proceedings of the fourth Conference on Differential Games and Applications, Helsinki, August 910, 1990, pp. 113-120. 

(Berger, C., Dubois, R., Haurie, A.), "Modelling Electricity Trading in the Northeast" Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the International Association for Energy Economics, Ottawa, October 1-3 1990, pp. 304-315 

(Berger, C., Haurie, A., Lessard, E., and Waaub, J.P.), "Exploring acid gas emissions in the Province of Quebec via MARKALQuebec", Proceedings of the ETSAP Workshop, OECD, Paris, June 1989. 

(Berger, C., Haurie and Waaub, J.-PH), "Implementation of the Markal-Québec Energy Model with Emission Factors, Abatement Technologies, and SO2 Constraints", Proceedings of the International RISO Conference on Environmental Models: Emissionas and consequences, May 22-25 1989, pp. 215-227. 

(Chauny, F., Sadones, S., Soumis, F.), "A Class of Asymptotically Optimal Strip-Packing Heuristics", Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems 302, Advances in Optimization and Control, H.A. Eiselt and G. Pederzoli (Eds.), Springer-Verlag, 1988, pp. 67-69. 

(Chauny, F., Haurie, A., L'Ecuyer, P.), "Dynamic Programming Solution to the Stochastic Multiple Lot Dispatching in an FMS", Proceedings of the First Rensselaer International Conference on Computer Integrated Manufacturing, IEEE Computer Society Press, 1988 pp. 238-243.