Marc D. McKee

Academic title(s): 

Full Professor with a joint appointment in:

Faculty of Dental Medicine and Oral Health Sciences

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology

Canada Research Chair in Biomineralization

Marc D. McKee
Contact Information
Email address: 
marc.mckee [at]

Career appointments and degrees

Marc McKee is a full professor at McGill University in Montreal with a joint appointment in the Faculty of Dental Medicine and Oral Health Sciences, and in the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology).  He holds the Canada Research Chair in Biomineralization.  He received his B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from McGill University in cell biology, and completed a postdoctoral fellowship in the Department of Orthopedic Surgery at Harvard University and The Children's Hospital in Boston.  He then held academic appointments at the Forsyth Institute in Boston (1989), and at the University of Montreal (1990), after which he moved to McGill University in 1998.


Check out recent PhD graduate Daniel J. Buss's two new papers just out on biomineralization of organic fiber networks - one about chicken eggshell, and the other about Achilles tendon insertion into bone:

Chicken eggshell: Attaching organic fibers to mineral: The case of the avian eggshell

Achilles tendon: Mineral tessellation in mouse enthesis fibrocartilage, Achilles tendon, and Hyp calcifying enthesopathy: A shared 3D mineralization pattern  

Check out also this recent paper by postdoctoral fellow Joseph Deering on the eggshell of the common leopard gecko:  Multiscale mineralization in the leopard gecko eggshell


  • Consider marveling at, and studying, BIOMINERALIZATION as a graduate student in the McKee lab.
  • Does the term "biorocks" intrigue you?
  • Might you be fascinated by how geology, crystallography and biology all come together in biomineralization processes that form hard bones, teeth, inner ear otoconia, kidney stones and eggshells?
  • Are you interested in multiscale microscopies that reveal 3D structures in biology all the way down to the nanoscale?
  • Are you interested in bioimaging and how structure provides function in biomineralized hierarchical assemblies found throughout Nature?
  • Might you be amazed by the fact that your proteins and small biomolecules can "sculpt" the same rocks you might find on the side of a trail during a hike, or in a gem display at a museum, to create and organize nano-structured biorocks within organisms?
  • Would you like to study why bones and teeth are soft in some inherited rare skeletal and dental mineralization diseases, and what we can do about it?
  • Are you fascinated by biology at large? Have you enjoyed the BBC's and Sir David Attenborough's Planet Earth and Blue Planet series and their other episodes? (you should)
  • If these statements and questions have grabbed your attention, the McKee lab currently has openings for graduate students, and is seeking candidates with at least some degree of research experience in academia or industry.
  • Join my international biomineralization research group of highly motivated, enthusiastic and curious students and staff who are interested in knowing how biology interfaces with mineralogy at the micro- and nanoscale.

Research in McKee's laboratory is primarily focused on mineralization (calcification) of extracellular matrices in bones and teeth, in mineralization pathologies, and in other biomineralizing systems such as inner-ear otoconia and eggshells.  In particular, in addition to characterizing mineralization patterns in various tissues, he is investigating the role of mineral-binding proteins, peptides, amino acids, and small molecules – most notably a protein called osteopontin – and the enzymes that modify these biomolecules to influence their mineralization-regulating activities.  His studies on pathologic mineralization include work on rare bone diseases where skeletal and dental mineralization is defective (osteomalacia / odontomalacia), and bones and teeth are soft and deform.  His work also includes investigating the actions of regulatory molecules where debilitating mineral deposition occurs in soft tissues such as in the kidney (urolithiasis, kidney stones), in blood vessels (vascular calcification), and in tendon and ligament insertions (entheses).

McKee and McGill University colleague Natalie Reznikov have developed the concept of the Stenciling Principle for extracellular matrix mineralization.  This principle describes that at very specific locations in extracellular matrices, enzymes precisely control the selective removal (stenciling) of inhibitory small molecules (pyrophosphate) and proteins (osteopontin) to regulate mineral crystal growth.  The underlying notion of this principle derives from the original pivotal paradigm for double-negative regulation discovered by Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod in the late 1950s.  The paradigm of "repressing a repressor" to induce an activation effect – originally explaining genetic regulation of enzyme expression in bacteria – continues until today and explains many processes in developmental biology, cancer biology, and even ecology.  For bone, the Stenciling Principle describes a double-negative "inhibiting an inhibitor" scenario for enzyme-substrate/inhibitor pairs that permits and regulates the growth of small mineral foci in the extracellular matrix.  These mineral foci eventually enlarge to form a tightly packed, 3D crossfibrillar (collagen) mineralization pattern at the microscale termed crossfibrillar mineral tessellation.  This structural feature of bone is important for imparting micromechanical robustness to bone tissue – without it (as in osteomalacia), bones painfully bend and deform.  Pertaining to the Stenciling Principle, McKee specifically focuses on the enzyme-substrate/inhibitor relationship between tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP, TNSALP, ALPL) and pyrophosphate (PPi), and between phosphate-regulating endopeptidase homolog X-linked (PHEX) and osteopontin (OPN).  He also investigates what goes wrong with mineralization in the rare bone diseases hypophosphatasia (HPP) and X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) that have inactivating gene mutations in TNAP and PHEX, respectively.

In parallel to his calcium-phosphate mineralization work, McKee has a longstanding research program on calcium-carbonate mineralization (eggshells, otoconia, and synthetic helical/chiral crystal suprastructures).  In past work, he examined extensively extracellular matrix organization and composition at cell-matrix and matrix-matrix interfaces (including at implantable biomaterial interfaces), and the tooth enamel maturation stage of amelogenesis.

Research methods

To study biomineralization processes and mineralized tissue hierarchical structure at the nano- and microscale, a variety of morphological, biochemical, immunochemical, cell biological and molecular techniques are used which include among others: electron microscopy and electron tomography, focused-ion beam milling (FIB-SEM serial-surface-view with 3D reconstruction and deep learning approaches), atomic force microscopy, micro-computed tomography and other X-ray analytical approaches, optical microscopies, immunocytochemistry, in vivo experimentation using normal and transgenic mice, in vitro cell culture and crystal growth systems, standard biochemical and chemical assays, and computational simulations.

Research group/network affiliations

McKee is a member of the following research groups/networks: National Network for Canadian Oral Health Research, Québec FRQS Centre de Recherche en Biologie Structurale, Québec FRQS Réseau de Recherche en Santé Buccodentaire et Osseuse, McGill Centre for Bone and Periodontal Research, McGill Institute for Advanced Materials, McGill Sustainability Systems Initiative, and the McGill Regenerative Medicine Network.

Areas of expertise: 

Mineralization/calcification, mineralized tissues, bones, teeth, otoconia, rare bone and tooth mineralization diseases, osteomalacia/odontomalacia, mouse models of disease, hypophosphatasia, X-linked hypophosphatemia, electron and X-ray microscopy and tomography, osteopontin, avian/reptile eggshells, synthetic crystal growth and dissolution systems, nanostructure of biominerals.



  • Identifying novel mechanisms for dentoalveolar mineralization defects in X-linked hypophosphatemia (Co-applicant; PI is Brian Foster) National Institutes of Health (NIH, USA), R01 operating grant
  • Protein mineral interactions at the organic-inorganic interface in biominerals (McKee Principal Investigator, no co-applicants) Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, Discovery operating grant
  • Upsampling of low-resolution/large-volume 3D tomographic images using generative adversarial neural networks applied to biological anthropology, medical imaging and evolutionary biology (Co-applicant; PI is Natalie Reznikov) NSERC/FRQNT NOVA joint funding program Quebec/Canada, operating grant; New Frontiers Research Fund (NFRF) – Exploration Program Canada, operating grant
  • Mineralization mechanisms and osteopontin in bones and teeth (McKee Principal Investigator, no co-applicants) Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Project operating grant
  • Canada Research Chair in Biomineralization (Tier 1) (McKee Principal Investigator, no co-applicants) Canada Research Chairs Program, operating and salary award grant
  • Atomistics of engineering and natural materials (Co-applicant; PI is Moutanabbir O) Canada Foundation for Innovation, Innovation Fund equipment infrastructure grant
  • Correlative 3D nanoimaging and molecular mapping in situ of mineralized tissues (McKee Principal Investigator, no co-applicants) Canada Foundation for Innovation, JELF equipment infrastructure grant
Research areas: 
Mineralized Tissues and Extracellular Matrix Biology
Awards, honours, and fellowships: 


  • 2019  Adele L. Boskey Award, Esteemed Award from the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research
  • 2018  CP Leblond Award, Quebec provincial health research funding agency (FRQ-S) Network for Oral and Bone Health Research
  • 2018  Canada Research Chair in Biomineralization (Tier 1), Government of Canada CRC Chair Program
  • 2008  Faculty of Medicine Honour List for Educational Excellence, McGill University
  • 2006  James McGill Professor, McGill University Internal Chair Program
  • 2005  Faculty of Dentistry Howard S. Katz Award for Excellence in Teaching, McGill University
  • 2003  Basic Research in Biological Mineralization Award, Distinguished Scientist Award from the International Association for Dental Research
  • 2001  William Dawson Scholar, McGill University Internal Chair Program
  • 1996  Young Investigator Award, Distinguished Scientist Award from the International Association for Dental Research
  • 1996  Quebec Science (popular magazine) "Top-Ten" Discoveries of the Year, Role of osteopontin in mineralized tissues
  • 1994  Quebec Science (popular magazine) "Top-Ten" Discoveries of the Year, Bioactive coating for titanium implants

McKee Lab Biomineralization Team

Selected publications: 

Publication summary:  Of 248 total publications, McKee has 221 scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals (including in Nature, Nature Genetics, Nature Communications, Cell, Science Advances, J. Experimental Medicine, J. Cell Biology, Genes & Development, Development, Circulation, Circulation Research, Advanced Functional Materials, Materials Horizons, J. Exp. Medicine, Kidney International, Matrix Biology, Biomaterials, J. Bone and Mineral Research, J. Dental Research, iScience), and 22 book chapters and conference proceedings papers.  He has a Google Scholar h-index of 89 with >35,000 total citations, and an i10-index of 207.  Citations of McKee’s publications according to the all-science Elsevier Scopus database place him in the top 1% (99.4th percentile) of cited scientists worldwide (

( click here for McKee Google Scholar Website )


McKee MD and Warshawsky H (1984) Quantitative analysis of rough endoplasmic reticulum approaches to the cell membrane in the secretory ameloblast of the rat incisor. Anat. Rec., 209: 289-295.

McKee MD and Warshawsky H (1984) In vivo experimentation on rat incisor enamel organs through a surgical window. Anat. Rec., 210: 693-705.

McKee MD and Warshawsky H (1986) Response of the rat incisor dental tissues to penetration of the labial alveolar bone in preparation of a surgical window. J. Biol. Buccale, 14: 39-51.

McKee MD and Warshawsky H (1986) Effects of various agents on staining of the maturation pattern at the surface of rat incisor enamel. Archs. Oral Biol., 31: 577-585.

McKee MD and Warshawsky H (1986) Modification of the enamel maturation pattern by vinblastine as revealed by glyoxal bis(2-hydroxyanil) staining and 45calcium radioautography. Histochemistry, 86: 141-145.

McKee MD, Martineau-Doizé B and Warshawsky H (1986) Penetration of various molecular-weight proteins into the enamel organ and enamel of the rat incisor. Archs. Oral Biol., 31: 287-296.

Martineau-Doizé B, McKee MD, Warshawsky H and Bergeron JJM (1986) In vivo demonstration by radioautography of binding sites for insulin in liver, kidney and calcified tissues of the rat. Anat. Rec., 214: 130-140.

McKee MD, Warshawsky H and Nanci A (1987) Use of backscattered electron imaging on developed radioautographic emulsions: Application to viewing the rat incisor enamel maturation pattern following 45calcium injection. J. Electron Microsc. Tech., 5: 357-365.

McKee MD, Zerounian C, Martineau-Doizé B and Warshawsky H (1987) Specific binding sites for transferrin on ameloblasts of the enamel maturation zone in the rat incisor. Anat. Rec., 218: 123-127.

Uchida T, McKee MD and Warshawsky H (1987) A radioautographic study of the effects of vinblastine on the fate of injected 45calcium and 125I-insulin in the rat incisor. Archs. Oral Biol., 32: 433-437.

Smith CE, McKee MD and Nanci A (1987) Cyclic induction and rapid movement of sequential waves of new smooth-ended ameloblast modulation bands in rat incisors as visualized by polychrome fluorescent labelling and GBHA-staining of maturing enamel. Adv. Dent. Res., 1: 162-175.

McKee MD, Brown JI and Warshawsky H (1988) A simple method for the preparation of isolated enamel crystallites for transmission electron microscopy. J. Electron Microsc. Tech., 8: 225-226.

McKee MD, Wedlich L, Pompura JR, Nanci A, Smith CE and Warshawsky H (1988) Demonstration by staining and radioautography of cyclical distributions of protein at the enamel surface in rat incisors. Archs. Oral Biol., 33: 413-423.

McKee MD, Martin JR and Landis WJ (1989) Biophysical analyses of sequential bands of enamel related to ruffle-ended and smooth-ended maturation ameloblasts. J. Dent. Res., 68: 101-106.

McKee MD and Warshawsky H (1989) Banding patterns in rat incisor enamel stained by histochemical complexing methods for calcium. Anat. Rec., 224: 7-13.

McKee MD, Warshawsky H and Nanci A (1989) Cyclical incorporation of 33P into rat incisor enamel in vivo as visualized by whole-mount radioautography. Archs. Oral Biol., 34: 989-993.

McKee MD, Nanci A, Landis WJ, Gerstenfeld LC, Gotoh Y and Glimcher MJ (1989) Ultrastructural immunolocalization of a major phosphoprotein in embryonic chick bone. Connect. Tissue Res., 21: 21-29.

Gerstenfeld LC, Lian JB, Gotoh Y, Lee DD, Landis WJ, McKee MD, Nanci A and Glimcher MJ (1989) Use of cultured embryonic chicken osteoblasts as a model of cellular differentiation and bone mineralization. Connect. Tissue Res., 21: 215-225.

McKee MD, Nanci A, Smith CE and Warshawsky H (1989) Cyclical aspects of enamel maturation and the role of ruffle-ended and smooth-ended ameloblasts. In: Enamel V. Fearnhead RW, ed. Florence Publishers, Yokohama. pp. 41-50.


McKee MD, Nanci A, Landis WJ, Gotoh Y, Gerstenfeld LC and Glimcher MJ (1990) Developmental appearance and ultrastructural immunolocalization of a major 66 kDa phosphoprotein in embryonic and post-natal chicken bone. Anat. Rec., 228: 77-92.

Gerstenfeld LC, Gotoh Y, McKee MD, Nanci A, Landis WJ and Glimcher MJ (1990) Expression and ultrastructural immunolocalization of a major 66 kDa phosphoprotein synthesized by chicken osteoblasts during mineralization in vitro. Anat. Rec., 228: 93-103.

Gerstenfeld LC, Gotoh Y, Landis WJ, McKee MD, Nanci A and Glimcher MJ (1990) Expression and ultrastructural localization of the major phosphoprotein synthesized by chicken osteoblasts during in vitro mineralization. In: Calcium Regulation and Bone Metabolism. Cohn DV, Glorieux FH and Martin TJ, eds. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 227-232.

McKee MD, Aoba T and Moreno EC (1991) Morphology of the enamel organ in the miniature swine. Anat. Rec., 230: 97-113.

McKee MD, Nanci A, Landis WJ, Gotoh Y, Gerstenfeld LC and Glimcher MJ (1991) Effects of fixation and demineralization on bone phosphoprotein and other matrix components as evaluated by biochemical analyses and quantitative immunocytochemistry. J. Bone Miner. Res., 6: 937-945.

Sodek J, Chen J, Kasugai S, Nagata T, Zhang Q, McKee MD and Nanci A (1992) Elucidating the functions of bone sialoprotein and osteopontin in bone formation. In: The Chemistry and Biology of Mineralized Tissues. Slavkin HC and Price P, eds. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 297-306.

McKee MD, Glimcher MJ and Nanci A (1992) High resolution immunolocalization of osteopontin and osteocalcin in bone and cartilage during endochondral ossification in the chicken tibia. Anat. Rec., 234: 479-492.

Landis WJ, Hodgens KJ, McKee MD, Nanci A, Song MJ, Kiyonaga S, Arena J and McEwen B (1992) Extracellular vesicles of calcifying turkey leg tendon characterized by immunocytochemistry and high voltage microscopic tomography and 3-D graphic reconstruction. Bone Miner. 17: 937-941

Nanci A, McKee MD and Smith CE (1992) Immunolocalization of enamel proteins during amelogenesis in the cat. Anat. Rec., 233: 335-349.

McKee MD and Nanci A (1993) Ultrastructural, cytochemical and immunocytochemical studies on bone and its interfaces. Cells & Materials, 3: 219-243.

McKee MD (1993) Effects of CO2 laser irradiation in vivo on rat alveolar bone and incisor enamel, dentin, and pulp. J. Dent. Res., 72: 1406-1417.

Lian JB, McKee MD, Todd AM and Gerstenfeld LC (1993) Induction of bone-related proteins, osteocalcin and osteopontin, and their matrix ultrastructural localization with development of chondrocyte hypertrophy in vitro. J. Cell. Biochem., 52: 206-219.

McKee MD, Farach-Carson MC, Butler WT, Hauschka PV and Nanci A (1993) Ultrastructural immunolocalization of noncollagenous (osteopontin and osteocalcin) and plasma (albumin and 2HS-glycoprotein) proteins in rat bone. J. Bone Miner. Res., 8: 485-496.

Chen J, McKee MD, Nanci A and Sodek J (1994) Bone sialoprotein mRNA expression and ultrastructural localization in fetal porcine calvarial bone: Comparisons with osteopontin. Histochem. J., 26: 67-78.

Nanci A, Zalzal S, McCarthy GF, Kawaguchi H, Sakkal S, Ste-Marie L-G and McKee MD (1994) Bone growth at implant surfaces. In: Proc. Symp. - Biomaterials: Cellular Responses to Implanted Materials (Report 94-29), Skalak R, Chien S, eds. Institute for Mechanics and Materials, and Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Univ. of California, La Jolla, CA. pp. 55-57.

Nanci A and McKee MD (1994) The bone-biomaterial interface contains similar components as naturally-occurring cement lines in bone. In: Electron Microscopy 1994. Vol. 3B, B. Jouffrey and C. Colliex, eds. Les Éditions de Physique, Les Ulis (France). pp. 885-886.

Nanci A, McCarthy GF, Clokie C, Warshawsky H, Zalzal S, and McKee MD (1994) Tissue response to titanium implants in the rat tibia: Ultrastructural, immunocytochemical and lectin-cytochemical characterization of the bone-titanium interface. Cells & Materials, 4: 1-30.

Kawaguchi H, McKee MD, Okamoto H and Nanci A (1994) Immunocytochemical and lectin-gold characterization of the interface between alveolar bone and implanted hydroxyapatite in the rat. Cells & Materials, 3: 337-350.

Marks SC, McKee MD, Zalzal S and Nanci A (1994) Epithelial attachment of the dental junctional epithelium: Ultrastructural features in porcine molars. Anat. Rec., 238: 1-14.

McKee MD and Nanci A (1994) Expression and distribution of non-collagenous and plasma proteins at natural bone matrix interfaces and implant surfaces. Proc. VII Intl. Symp. Ceramics Med. (Symposium on the Biology of Mineralized Tissues), Turku, Finland. pp. 4-6.

Nanci A, Zalzal S, Kawaguchi H, McCarthy GF, Ste-Marie L-G, Sakkal S and McKee MD (1994) Characterization of the tissue response to titanium and hydroxyapatite: The bone-biomaterial interface shows structural and compositional similarities to cement lines in bone. Proc. of the Scientific/Regulatory Interface Symposium. Montreal, QC. pp. 25-26.

McKee MD and Nanci A (1995) Osteopontin and the bone remodeling sequence: Colloidal-gold immunocytochemistry of an interfacial extracellular matrix protein. Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci., 760: 177-189.

Gerstenfeld LC, Uporova T, Ashkar S, Salih E, Gotoh Y, McKee MD, Nanci A and Glimcher MJ (1995) Regulation of avian osteopontin pre- and post-transcriptional expression in skeletal tissues. Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci., 760: 67-82.

McKee MD and Nanci A (1995) Postembedding colloidal-gold immunocytochemistry of noncollagenous extracellular matrix proteins in mineralized tissues. Microsc. Res. Tech., 31: 44-62.

McKee MD, Nanci A and Khan SR (1995) Ultrastructural immunodetection of osteopontin and osteocalcin as major matrix components of renal calculi. J. Bone Miner. Res., 10: 1913-1929.

McKee MD and Nanci A (1996) Introduction - Microscopy of Bone (Topical Issue). Microsc. Res. Tech., 33:91.

Nanci A, Zalzal S, Gotoh Y, McKee MD. (1996) Ultrastructural characterization and immunolocalization of osteopontin in rat calvarial osteoblast primary cultures. Microsc. Res. Tech., 33: 214-231

McKee MD, and Nanci A (1996) Osteopontin at mineralized tissue interfaces in bone, teeth and osseointegrated implants: Ultrastructural distribution and implications for mineralized tissue formation, turnover and repair. Microsc. Res. Tech., 33: 141-164.

Chackalaparampil I, Peri A, Nemir M, McKee MD, Lin P-H, Mukherjee BB and Mukherjee AB (1996) Cells in vivo and in vitro from osteopetrotic mice homozygous for c-src disruption show suppression of synthesis of osteopontin, a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein. Oncogene, 12:1457-1467.

McKee MD and Nanci A (1996) Secretion of osteopontin by macrophages and its accumulation at tissue surfaces during wound healing in mineralized tissues: A potential requirement for macrophage adhesion and phagocytosis. Anat. Rec. 245:394-409.

McKee MD, Zalzal S and Nanci A (1996) Extracellular matrix in tooth cementum and mantle dentin: Localization of osteopontin and other noncollagenous proteins, plasma proteins and glycoconjugates by electron microscopy. Anat. Rec., 245:293-312.

McKee MD and Nanci A (1996) Letter to the editor - Osteopontin deposition in remodeling bone: An osteoblast mediated event. J. Bone Miner. Res., 11:873-874.

Gokhale JA, McKee MD and Khan SR (1996) Immunocytochemical localization of Tamm-Horsfall protein in the kidneys of normal and nephrolithic rats. Urol. Res., 24:201-209.

Butler WT, Ridall AL and McKee MD (1996) Osteopontin. In: Principles of Bone Biology. Bilezikian J, Raisz L and Rodan G, eds., Academic Press, San Diego. Chapter 13, pp. 167-181.

McKee MD and Nanci A (1996) Osteopontin: An interfacial extracellular matrix protein in mineralized tissues. Connect. Tissue Res., 35:197-205.

Luo G*, Ducy P*, McKee MD*, Pinero GJ, Loyer E, Behringer RR and Karsenty G (1997) Spontaneous calcification of arteries and cartilage in mice lacking matrix Gla protein. Nature, 386:78-81. *Co-first authors; contributed equally to the study.

Gorski JP, Kremer E, Chen Y, Ryan S, Fullenkamp C, Delviscio J, Jensen K and McKee MD (1997) Bone acidic glycoprotein-75 self-associates to form macromolecular complexes in vitro and in vivo with the potential to sequester phosphate ions. J. Cell. Biochem., 64:547-564.

McKee MD, Nanci A and Khan SR (1997) Ultrastructural immunolocalization of Tamm-Horsfall protein in human kidney stones. In: Renal Stone Disease: Crystallization Process, Pathophysiology, Metabolic Disorders and Prevention. Jungers P and Daudon M, eds., Elsevier, pp.124-125.

Schinke T, McKee MD, Kiviranta R and Karsenty G (1998) Molecular determinants of arterial calcification. Annals Med., 30:538-541.

Bosshardt DD, Zalzal S, McKee MD and Nanci A (1998) Developmental appearance and distribution of bone sialoprotein and osteopontin in human and rat cementum. Anat. Rec. 250:13-33.

Nanci A, Wuest JD, Péru L, Brunet P, Sharma V, Zalzal S, McKee MD (1998) Chemical modification of titanium surfaces for covalent attachment of biological molecules. J. Biomed. Mater. Res., 40:324-335.

Rittling SR, Matsumoto HN, McKee MD, Nanci A, An X, Novick KE, Kowalski AJ, Noda M and Denhardt DT (1998) Mice lacking osteopontin show normal development and bone structure but display altered osteoclast formation in vitro. J. Bone Miner. Res., 13:1101-1111.

Irie K, Zalzal S, McKee MD, Ozawa H and Nanci A (1998) Morphological and immunocytochemical characterization of primary osteogenic cell cultures derived from fetal rat cranial tissue. Anat. Rec., 252:554-567.

Nanci A, McKee MD, Zalzal S and Sakkal S (1998) Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical analysis of the tissue reponse to metal implants in the rat tibia. In: Biological Mechanisms of Tooth Eruption, Resorption and Replacement by Implants. Davidovitch Z and Mah J, eds. Harvard Society for the Advancement of Orthodontics, Boston. pp. 487-500.

Schinke T, McKee MD and Karsenty G (1999) Extracellular matrix calcification: Where's the action? Nature Genetics, 21:150-151.

Wada T, McKee MD, Steitz S, Giachelli CM (1999) Calcification of vascular smooth muscle cell cultures: Inhibition by osteopontin. Circ. Res., 84:166-178.

Hincke MT, Gautron J, Tsang CPW, McKee MD and Nys Y (1999) Molecular cloning of the core protein of a major eggshell proteoglycan, Ovocleidin-116. J. Biol. Chem., 274:32915-32923.

Dumont J, Ionescu M, Reiner A, Poole AR, Tran-Khanh N, Hoemann CD, McKee MD and Buschmann MD (1999) Mature full-thickness articular cartilage explants attached to bone are physiologically stable over long-term culture in serum-free media. Connect. Tissue Res., 40:259-272.


Khan SR and McKee MD (2000) Ultrastructural localization of matrix molecules in human kidney stones. In: Urolithiasis 2000 (Proc. 9th Int'l Symp. on Urolithiasis), eds. Rodgers AL, Hibbert BE, Hess B, Khan SR and Preminger GM, University of Cape Town Press, Cape Town, South Africa, pp. 144-145.

Hincke MT, St. Maurice M, Nys Y, Gautron J, Panheleux M, Tsang CPW, Bain MM, Solomon SE and McKee MD (2000) Eggshell proteins and shell strength: Molecular biology of eggshell matrix proteins and industry applications. In: Egg Nutrition and Biotechnology, eds. Sim JS , Nakai S, and Guenter W, CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom, Chapter 36, pp. 447-461.

Boskey AL, McKee MD and Karsenty G (2000) Mineral characterization of bones and soft tissues in matrix Gla protein-deficient mice. In: Chemistry and Biology of Mineralized Tissues, eds. Goldberg M, Boskey A and Robinson C, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Rosemont, IL, Chapter 11, pp. 63-65. (Peer-reviewed article).

Goldberg HA, Hunter GK, Mundy MA, Warner KJ and McKee MD (2000) Nature of hydroxyapatite crystals formed in the presence of bone sialoprotein, osteopontin and synthetic homopolymer analogues. In: Chemistry and Biology of Mineralized Tissues, eds. Goldberg M, Boskey A and Robinson C, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Rosemont, IL, Chapter 36, pp. 225-228. (Peer-reviewed article).

Andersson G, Norgard M, Hultenby K, McKee MD, Reinholt FP and Marks SC (2000) Dissection of mechanisms for transport of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase in osteoclasts using congenital osteopetroses. In: Chemistry and Biology of Mineralized Tissues, eds. Goldberg M, Boskey A and Robinson C, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Rosemont, IL, Chapter 62, pp. 371-375. (Peer-reviewed article).

McKee MD and Sodek J (2000) Bone matrix proteins. In: The Osteoporosis Primer. Henderson JE and Goltzman D, eds. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. pgs. 46-63.

Sodek J and McKee MD (2000) Cellular and molecular biology of alveolar bone. Periodontol. 2000, 24:99-126.

McCulloch CAG, Lekic P and McKee MD (2000) Role of physical forces in regulating the form and function of the periodontal ligament. Periodontol. 2000, 24:56-72.

Hincke MT, Gautron J, Panheleux M, Garcia-Ruiz J, McKee MD and Nys Y (2000) Identification and localization of lysozyme as a component of eggshell membranes and eggshell matrix. Matrix Biol., 19:443-453.

Sodek J, Ganss B and McKee MD (2000) Osteopontin. Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med., 11:279-303.

Jono S, McKee MD, Murry CE, Shioi A, Nishizawa Y, Mori K, Morii H and Giachelli CM (2000) Phosphate regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification. Circ. Res., 87:10-17.

Segal G, Lee W, Arora PD, McKee MD, Downey G and McCulloch CAG (2000) Involvement of actin filaments and integrins in the binding step in collagen phagocytosis by human fibroblasts. J. Cell Science 114:119-129.


Miao D, Bai X, Panda D, McKee MD, Karaplis AC and Goltzman D (2001) Osteomalacia in Hyp mice is associated with abnormal Phex expression and with altered bone matrix protein expression and deposition. Endocrinology 142:926-939.

Vali H, McKee MD, Ciftcioglu N, Sears SK, Plows FL, Chevet E, Ghiabi P, Plavsic M, Kajander EO and Zare RN (2001) Nanoforms: A new type of protein-associated mineralization. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 65:63-74.

Gautron J, Hincke MT, Mann K, Panhéleux M, Bain M, McKee MD, Solomon SE and Nys Y (2001) Ovocalyxin-32, a novel chicken eggshell matrix protein: Isolation, amino acid sequencing, cloning and immunocytochemical localization. J. Biol. Chem., 276:39243-39252.

Nys Y, Gautron J, McKee MD, Garcia-Ruiz JM and Hincke MT (2001) Biochemical and functional characterization of eggshell matrix proteins in hens. World's Poultry Sci. J., 57:401-413.


McKee MD and Kaartinen MT (2002) Regulation of biomineralization by bone proteins and their assembly into extracellular matrices: Implications for implant osseointegration. In: Aging, Osteoporosis and Dental Implants. Zarb G, Lekholm U, Albrektsson T and Tenenbaum H, eds. Quintessence Pub. Co., Inc., Carol Stream, IL. pgs. 191-205.

Goldsmith HL, Labrosse JM, McIntosh FA, Kaartinen MT, Maenpaa PH and McKee MD (2002) Homotypic interactions of soluble and immobilized osteopontin. Annals Biomed. Eng, 30:840-850.

Luedtke CC, McKee MD, Cyr D, Gregory M, Kaartinen MT, Mui J and Hermo L (2002) Osteopontin expression and regulation in the testis, efferent ducts and epididymis of rats during postnatal development through to adulthood. Biol. Reprod., 66:1437-1448.

Butler WT, Brunn JC, Qin C and McKee MD (2002) Extracellular matrix proteins and the dynamics of dentin formation. Connect. Tissue Res., 43:301-307.

Boskey AL, Spevak L, Paschalis E, Doty SB and McKee MD (2002) Osteopontin deficiency increases mineral content and mineral crystallinity in mouse bone. Calcif. Tissue Intl., 71:145-154.

Speer M, McKee MD, Guldberg RE, Liaw L, Yang HY, Tung E, Karsenty G and Giachelli CM (2002) Inactivation of the osteopontin gene enhances vascular calcification of matrix Gla protein-deficient mice: Evidence for osteopontin as an inducible inhibitor of vascular calcification in vivo. J. Exp. Med. 196:1047-1055.

Kaartinen MT, El-Maadawy S, Rasanen NH and McKee MD (2002) Tissue transglutaminase and its substrates in bone. J. Bone Miner. Res., 17:2161-2173.

Bai X, Miao D, Panda D, Grady S, McKee MD, Goltzman D and Karaplis AC (2002) Partial rescue of the Hyp phenotype by osteoblast-targeted PHEX (phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome) expression. Molec. Endocrinol. 16:2913-2925.

Steitz SA, McKee MD, Liaw L and Giachelli CM (2002) Osteopontin inhibits mineral deposition and promotes regression of ectopic calcification. Amer. J. Pathol., 161:2035-2046.


Chau H, El-Maadawy S, McKee MD and Tenenhouse HS (2003) Renal calcification in mice homozygous for the disrupted type IIa Na/Pi cotransporter gene Npt2. J. Bone Miner. Res., 18:644-657.

Hincke MT, Gautron J, Mann K, Panhéleux M, McKee MD, Bain M, Solomon SE and Nys Y (2003) Purification of ovocalyxin-32, a novel chicken eggshell matrix protein. Connect. Tissue Res., 44[Suppl. 1]:16-19. (Peer-reviewed article)

El-Maadawy S, Kaartinen MT, Schinke T, Murshed M, Karsenty G and McKee MD (2003) Cartilage formation and calcification in arteries of mice lacking matrix Gla protein. Connect. Tissue Res., 44[Suppl. 1]:272-278. (Peer-reviewed article)

Wolf NS, Penn PE, Rao D and McKee MD (2003) Intra-clonal plasticity for bone, smooth muscle, and adipocyte lineages in bone marrow stroma fibroblastoid cells. Exp. Cell Res. 290:346-357.

Mann K, Gautron J, Nys Y, McKee MD, Bajari T, Schneider WJ and Hincke MT (2003) Disulfide-linked clusterin is a component of the chicken eggshell matrix and egg white. Matrix Biol., 22:397-407.

Mann K, Gautron J, Hincke MT, McKee MD, Schnieder WJ and Nys Y (2003) Clusterin is an egg white and egg shell protein. In: Proc. Xth Eur. Symp. on the Quality of Eggs and Egg Products, Saint-Brieuc, Ploufragran, France. Eds. Baeza E, Nys Y, Protais J and Salvat G. pgs. 776-782.

Gautron J, Hincke MT, Mann K, McKee MD, Bain M, Solomon SE and Nys Y (2003) Isolation, amino acid sequencing, cloning, localization and expression of ovocalyxin-32, a novel chicken eggshell matrix protein. In: Proc. 8th Int'l Symp. on Biomineralization. Tokai University Press, Kanagawa, Japan. Eds. Kobayashi I and Ozawa H. pgs. 163-166.


Bukka P, McKee MD and Karaplis A (2004) Molecular regulation of osteoblast differentiation. In: Bone Formation. Topics in Bone Biology, Vol. 1, eds. F. Bronner and M.C. Farach-Carson, Springer, London. Chap. 1, pp. 1-17.

Miao D, Bai X, Panda DK, Karaplis AC, Goltzman D and McKee MD (2004) Cartilage abnormalities are associated with abnormal Phex expression and with altered matrix protein and MMP-9 localization in Hyp mice. Bone, 34: 638-647.

Charlebois M, McKee MD and Buschmann MD. Nonlinear tensile properties of bovine articular cartilage and their variation with age and depth. J. Biomech. Eng., 126(2): 129-137.

Goulet F, Rancourt D, Cloutier R, Tremblay P, Belzil A-M, Lamontagne J, Bouchard M, Tremblay J, Stevens L-M, Labrosse J, Langelier E and McKee MD (2004) Torn anterior cruciate ligament: A new bioengineered substitute brought from the laboratory to the knee joint. Applied Bionics Biomech., 1: 115-121 .

Murshed M, Schinke T, McKee MD and Karsenty G (2004) Extracellular matrix mineralization is regulated locally: Different roles of two Gla-containing proteins. J. Cell Biol., 165: 625-630.

Binette JS, Garon M, Savard P, McKee MD and Buschmann MD (2004) Tetrapolar measurement of electrical conductivity and thickness of articular cartilage. J. Biomech. Eng. ASME, 126: 1-10.

Essalihi R, Ouellette V, Dao HH, McKee MD and Moreau P (2004) Phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells during medial arterial calcification: A role for endothelin? J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol., 44: S147-S150.


Funnell WRJ, Siah TH, McKee MD, Daniel S and Decraemer WF (2005) On the coupling between the incus and the stapes in the cat. J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngology. 6: 9-18.

Hoemann CD, Sun J, Legare A, McKee MD and Buschmann MD (2005) Tissue engineering of cartilage using an injectable and adhesive chitosan-based cell-delivery vehicle. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 13: 318-329.

Speer MY, Chien Y-C, Quan M, Yang H-Y, Vali H, McKee MD and Giachelli CM (2005) Smooth muscle cells deficient in osteopontin have enhanced susceptibility to calcification in vitro. Cardiovasc. Res., 66: 324-333.

Murshed M, Harmey D, Millan JL, McKee MD and Karsenty G (2005) Co-expression in osteoblasts of broadly expressed genes accounts for the spatial restriction of extracellular matrix mineralization to bone. Genes and Development, 19: 1093-1104.

Kaartinen MT, Sun W, Kaipatur N and McKee MD (2005) Transglutaminase crosslinking of SIBLING proteins in teeth. J. Dent. Res. 84:607-612.

Essalihi R, Dao HH, Gilbert L-A, Bouvet C, Semerjian Y, McKee MD and Moreau P (2005) Regression of medial elastocalcinosis in the rat aorta: A new vascular function for carbonic anhydrase. Circulation, 112:1628-1635.

Tran-Khanh N, Hoemann CD, McKee MD, Henderson JE and Buschmann MD (2005) Aged bovine chondrocytes display a diminished capacity to produce a collagen-rich, mechanically functional cartilage extracellular matrix. J. Orthop. Res., 23: 1354-1362.

McKee MD, Addison WN and Kaartinen MT (2005) Hierarchies of extracellular matrix and mineral organization in bone of the craniofacial complex and the skeleton. Cells Tissues Organs, 181:176-188


Hoemann CD, Sun J, McKee MD, Chevrier A, Rossomacha E, Rivard G-E, Hurtig M and Buschmann MD (2007) Chitosan-glycerol phosphate/blood implants elicit hyaline cartilage repair integrated with porous subchondral bone in microdrilled rabbit defects. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 15:78-89.

Lu Y, Ye L, Yu S, Zhang S, Xie Y, McKee MD, Li Y, Kong J, Eick D, Dallas SL and Feng JQ (2007) Rescue of odontogenesis in Dmp1-deficient mice by targeted re-expression of DMP1 reveals roles for DMP1 in early odontogenesis and dentin apposition in vivo. Dev. Biol., 303:191-201.

Gautron J, Murayama E, Vignal A, Morisson M, McKee MD, Rehault S, Labas V, Belghazi M, Vidal ML, Nys Y and Hincke MT (2007) Cloning of Ovocalyxin-36, a novel chicken eggshell protein related to lipolysaccharide-binding proteins (LBP), bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI) and Plunc family proteins. J. Biol. Chem., 282:5273-5286.

Kaartinen MT, Murshed M, Karsenty G and McKee MD (2007) Osteopontin upregulation and polymerization by transglutaminase 2 in calcified arteries of matrix Gla protein-deficient mice. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 55:375-86.

Addison WN, Azari F, Sorensen ES, Kaartinen MT and McKee MD (2007) Pyrophosphate inhibits mineralization of osteoblast cultures by binding to mineral, upregulating osteopontin and inhibiting alkaline phosphatase activity. J. Biol. Chem., 282:15872-83.

Lee NK, Sowa H, Hinoi E, Ferron M, Ahn J-D, Confavreux C, Dacquin R, Mee PJ, McKee MD, Jung DY, Zhang Z, Kim JK, Mauvais-Jarvis F, Ducy P and Karsenty G (2007) Endocrine regulation of energy metabolism by the skeleton. Cell, 130:456-469.

Khosla S, Burr D, Cauley J, Dempster DW, Ebeling PR, Felsenberg D, Gagel RF, Gilsanz V, Guise T, Koka S, McCauley LK, McGowan J, McKee MD, Mohla S, Pendrys DG, Raisz LG, Ruggiero SL, Shafer DM, Shum L, Silverman SL, Van Poznak H, Watts N, Woo S-B and Shane E (2007) Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw: Report of a task force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. J. Bone Miner. Res., 22:1479-1491.

Essalihi R, Zandvliet ML, Moreau S, Gilbert L-A, Bouvet C, Lenoel C, Nekka F, McKee MD and Moreau P (2007) Distinct effects of amlodipine treatment on vascular elastocalcinosis and stiffness in a rat model of isolated systolic hypertension. J. Hypertension, 25:1879-1886.

Barbosa AC, Funato N, Chapman S, McKee MD, Richardson JA, Olson EN and Yanagisawa H (2007) Hand transcription factors cooperatively regulate development of the distal midline mesenchyme. Dev. Biol., 310:154-168.

Harris SE, Gluhak-Heinrich J, Harris MA, Yang W, Bonewald LF, Riha D, Rowe PSN, Robling AG, Turner CH, Feng JQ, McKee MD and Nicollela D (2007) DMP1 and MEPE expression are elevated in osteocytes after mechanical loading in vivo: Theoretical role in controlling mineral quality in the pericellular matrix. J. Musculoskelet. Neuronal Interact., 7:313-315.


Pedraza CE, Chien YC and McKee MD (2008) Calcium oxalate crystals in commercial fetal bovine serum: Implications for cell culture, phagocytosis and biomineralization studies in vitro. J. Cell. Biochem. 103:1379-1393.

Hincke MT, Wellman-Labadie O, McKee MD, Gautron J, Nys Y and Mann K (2008) Biosynthesis and structural assembly of eggshell components. In: Egg Bioscience and Biotechnology, ed. Mine Y, John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA. pp. 97-128.

Millan JL, Narisawa S, Lemire I, Loisel TP, Boileau G, Leonard P, Gramatikova S, Camacho NP, McKee MD, Crine P and Whyte MP (2008) Enyzme replacement therapy for murine hypophosphatasia. J. Bone Miner. Res., 23: 777-787. with accompanying highlight editorial by M.T. Drake and S. Khosla.

Jahnen-Dechent W, Schafer C, Ketteler M and McKee MD (2008) Mineral chaperones: A role for fetuin-A and osteopontin in the inhibition and regression of pathologic calcification. J. Mol. Med.-JMM 86: 379-389.

Hincke MT, Chien YC, Gerstenfeld LC and McKee MD (2008) Colloidal-gold immunocytochemical localization of osteopontin in avian eggshell gland and eggshell. J. Histochem. Cytochem., 56: 467-476.

Hu JCC, Hu Y, Smith CE, McKee MD, Wright JT, Yamakoshi Y, Papagerakis P, Hunter GK, Feng JQ, Yamakoshi F and Simmer JP (2008) Enamel defects and ameloblast-specific expression in enamelin knockout/LacZ knockin mice. J. Biol. Chem. 283: 10858-10871.

Ghannad F, Nica D, Garcia Fulle MI, Grenier D, Putnins EE, Johnston S, Eslami A, Koivisto L, Jiang G, McKee MD, Hakkinen L and Larjava HS (2008) Absence of αvβ6 integrin is linked to initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Am. J. Pathol., 172: 1271-1286.

Khosla S, Burr D, Cauley J, Dempster DW, Ebeling PR, Felsenberg D, Gagel RF, Gilsanz V, Guise T, Koka S, McCauley LK, McGowan J, McKee MD, Mohla S, Pendrys DG, Raisz LG, Ruggiero SL, Shafer DM, Shum L, Silverman SL, Van Poznak H, Watts N, Woo S-B and Shane E (2008) Letter to the Editor, re: Marx RE et al. Oral bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw ... (J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 65:2397-2410, 2007), J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 66: 1320-1321.

Azari F, Vali H, Guerquin-Kern JL, Wu TD, Croisy A, Sears SK, Tabrizian M and McKee MD (2008) Intracellular precipitation of hydroxyapatite mineral and implications for pathologic calcification. J. Struct. Biol., 162: 468-479.

Pedraza CE, Bassett DC, McKee MD, Nelea V, Gbureck U and Barralet JE (2008) The importance of particle size and DNA condensation for calcium phosphate nanoparticle transfection. Biomaterials, 29: 3384-3392.

Chien YC, Hincke MT, Gautron J, Vali H and McKee MD (2008) Ultrastructural matrix-mineral relationships and localization of osteopontin in avian eggshell, and effects of osteopontin on calcite growth in vitro. J. Struct. Biol., 163:84-99.

Kaipatur NR, Murshed M and McKee MD (2008) Matrix Gla Protein inhibition of tooth mineralization. J. Dent. Res., 87:839-844.

Pedraza CE, Nikolcheva LG, Kaartinen MT, Barralet JE and McKee MD (2008) Osteopontin functions as an opsonin and facilitates phagocytosis by macrophages of hydroxyapatite-coated microspheres: Implications for bone wound healing. Bone, 43:708-716.

Addison WN, Nakano Y, Loisel T, P. Crine and McKee MD (2008) MEPE-ASARM peptides control extracellular matrix mineralization by binding to hydroxyapatite: An inhibition regulated by PHEX cleavage of ASARM. J. Bone Miner. Res. 23:1638-1649.

Dai MR, Li Y, Head TW, McKee MD and SD Tran (2008) Point of Care: What is the recommended dental management for patients who are receiving oral bisphosphonate therapy. J. Can. Dent. Assoc., 74:617-618.

Li Y, Dai MR, Head TW, McKee MD and SD Tran (2008) Point of Care: What is the recommended dental management for patients who are receiving oral bisphosphonate therapy. J. Can. Dent. Assoc., 74:618-621.

McKee MD (2008) Extracellular matrix proteins, alkaline phosphatase and pyrophosphate as molecular determinants of bone, tooth, kidney and vascular calcification. In: Renal Stone Disease 2, Proc. 2nd Intl. Urolithiasis Res. Symp., Eds. Evan AP, Lingeman JE, McAteer JA and Williams JC, Pub. by Amer. Institute of Physics, Melville, NY, pp. 25-32.

Settembre C, Arteaga-Solis E, McKee MD, de Pablo R, Al-Awqati Q, Ballabio A and Karsenty G (2008) Proteoglycan desulfation determines the efficiency of chondrocyte autophagy and the extent of FGF signaling during endochondral ossification. Genes Dev, 22:2645-2650.


Chien YC, Hincke MT and McKee MD (2009) Avian eggshell structure and osteopontin. Cells Tissues Organs, 189:38-43.

Sabatier L, Chen D, Fagotto-Kaufmann C, Hubmacher D, McKee MD, Annis DS, Mosher DF and Reinhardt DP (2009) Fibrillin assembly requires fibronection. Mol. Biol. Cell. 20:846-858.

Funato N, Chapman SL, McKee MD, Funato H, J.A. Morris, JM Shelton, Richardson JA and Yanagisawa H (2009) Hand2 controls osteoblast differentiation in the branchial arch by inhibiting DNA binding of Runx2. Development 136:615-625.

Hoemann CD, El-Gabalawy H, and McKee MD, (2009) In vitro osteogenesis assays: Influence of primary cell source on alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization. Pathol. Biol., 57:318-323.

Chen H, Sun J, Hoemann CD, Lascau-Coman V, Ouyang W, McKee MD, Shive MS and Buschmann MD (2009) Drilling and microfracture lead to different bone structure and necrosis during bone-marrow stimulation for cartilage repair. J. Orthop. Res. 27:1432-1438.

Guzman-Morales J, El-Gabalawy H, Pham MH, Tran-Khanh N, McKee MD, Wu W, Centola M and Hoemann CD (2009) Effect of chitosan particles and dexamethasone on human bone marrow stromal cell osteogenesis and angiogenic factor secretion. Bone 45:617-626.

Chien Y-C, Masica DL, Gray JL, Nguyen S, Vali H and McKee MD, (2009) Modulation of calcium oxalate dihydrate growth by selective crystal-face binding of phosphorylated osteopontin and poly-aspartate peptide showing occlusion by sectoral (compositional) zoning. J. Biol. Chem. 284:23491-23501

Chien YC, Hincke MT and McKee MD, (2009) Ultrastructure of avian eggshell during resorption following egg fertilization. J. Struct. Biol. 168:527-538.


Addison WN, Masica DL, Gray JJ and McKee MD (2010) Phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of mineralization by osteopontin ASARM peptides is regulated by PHEX cleavage. J. Bone Mineral Res. 25:695-705.

Pedraza CE, Marelli B, Chicatun F, McKee MD and Nazhat SN (2010) An in vitro assessment of a cell-containing collagenous extracellular matrix-like scaffold for bone tissue engineering. Tissue Engineering (Part A) 16:781-793.

Schlieper G, Aretz A, Verberckmoes SC, Kruger T, Behets GJ, Ghadimi R, Weirich TE, Rohrmann D, Langer S, Tordoir JH, Amann K, Westenfeld R, Brandenburg VM, D'Haese PC, Mayer J, Ketteler M, McKee MD and Floege J (2010) Ultrastructural analysis of uremic vascular calcifications. J. Amer. Soc. Nephrol. 21:689-696.

Nakayama H, Takakuda K, Matsumoto HN, Miyata A, Baba O, Tabata MJ, Ushiki T, Oda T, McKee MD and Takano Y (2010) Effects of altered bone remodeling and retention of cement lines on bone quality in osteopetrotic aged c-Src-deficient mice. Calc. Tissue Intl. 86:172-183.

Addison WN and McKee MD (2010) Inositol hexakisphosphate inhibits mineralization of MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures. Bone 46:1100-1107.

Addison WN and McKee MD (2010) ASARM mineralization hypothesis: A bridge to progress. Letter to the Editor J. Bone Miner. Res. 25:1191-1192.

Habibovic P, Bassett DC, Doillon CJ, Gerard C, McKee MD and Barralet JE (2010) Collagen biomineralisation in vivo by sustained release of inorganic phosphate ions. Adv. Materials, 22:1858-1862

Murshed M and McKee MD (2010) Molecular determinants of extracellular matrix mineralization in bone and blood vessels. Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertension. 19:359-365.

Addison WN, Miller SJ, Ramaswamy J, Mansouri A, Kohn DH and McKee MD (2010) Phosphorylation-dependent mineral type specificity for apatite-binding peptide sequences. Biomaterials 31:9422-9430.

Morin S, Fortin M, Chauvin P, Dagenais M, Fournier C, Kauzman A, McKee MD, Ste-Marie L-G and Brown J (2010) Recommendations for optimal oral health in patients who take bisphosphonates for osteoporosis. J. Ordre Dentists Quebec 47:15-17.

Hincke MT, Gautron J, Nys Y, Rodriguez-Navarro A and McKee MD (2010) Functional insights for eggshell matrix proteins. In: Proc. 13th European Poultry Conf. pg. S35-43


Lu Y, Yuan B, Qin C, Zhengguo C, Xie Y, Dallas SL, McKee MD, Drezner MK, Bonewald LF and Feng JQ (2011) The biological function of DMP-1 in osteocyte maturation is mediated by its 57-kDa C-terminal fragment. J. Bone Miner. Res. 26:331-340.

Yadav MC, Simao AMS, Narisawa S, Huesa C, McKee MD, Farquharson C and Millan JL (2011) Loss of skeletal mineralization by the simultaneous ablation of PHOSPHO1 and alkaline phosphatase function: A unified model of the mechanisms of initiation of skeletal calcification. J. Bone Miner. Res. 26:286-297.

McKee MD, Nakano Y, Masica DL, Gray JJ, Lemire I, Heft R, Whyte MP, Crine P and Millan JL (2011) Enzyme replacement therapy prevents dental defects in a mouse model of hypophosphatasia. J. Dent. Res. 90:470-476.

McKee MD, Pedraza CE and Kaartinen MT (2011) Osteopontin and wound healing in bone. Cells Tissues Organs, 194:313-319.

Bassett DC, McKee MD and Barralet JE (2011) The role of the air-liquid interface in protein-mediated biomineralization of calcium carbonate. Crystal Growth & Design, 11:803-810.

Hincke MT, Gautron J, Nys Y, Rodriguez-Navarro AB and McKee MD (2011) The eggshell: Structure and protective function (Chapter 8), In: Improving the Safety and Quality of Eggs and Egg Products (Vol. 1, Egg Chemistry, Production and Consumption), eds. Nys Y, Bain MM and Van Immerseel F. Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Oxford, United Kingdom. pp. 151-182.

Chen H, Hoemann CD, Sun J, Chevrier A, McKee MD, Shive MS, Hurtig M and Buschmann MD (2011) Depth of subchondral perforation influences the outcome of bone marrow stimulation cartilage repair. J. Orthopaed. Res. 29:1178-1184.

Persy VP and McKee MD (2011) Prevention of vascular calcification: Is pyrophosphate therapy the solution? Kidney Int., 79:490-493. [Commentary article on O'Neill et al. Kidney Int. 2011, 79:512-517].

Bassett DC, Grover LM, McKee MD, Muller F and Barralet JE (2011)  Serum protein controlled nanoparticle synthesis.  Adv. Functional Mater., 21:2968-2977.

Khavandgar Z, Poirier C, Clarke CJ, Li J, Wang N, McKee MD, Hannun YA and Murshed M (2011) A cell-autonomous requirement for neutral sphingomyelinase 2 in bone mineralization.  J. Cell Biol., 194:277-289.

Hu JCC, Lertlam R, Richardson AS, Smith CE, McKee MD, Simmer JP (2011) Cell proliferation and apoptosis in enamelin-null mice.  Eur. J. Oral Sciences, 119:329-337.

Chicatun F, Pedraza CE, Ghezzi CE, Marelli B, Kaartinen MT, McKee MD and Nazhat SN (2011) Osteoid-mimicking dense collagen/chitosan hybrid gels. Biomacromolecules, 12:2946-2956.


McKee MD and Cole WG (2012) Bone matrix and mineralization (Chapter 2). In: Pediatric Bone (2nd Ed.), eds. Glorieux FH, Pettifor JM and Juppner H. Elsevier/Academic Press, NY. pp. 9-37.

Ferron M, McKee MD, Levine RL, Ducy P and Karsenty G (2012) Intermittent injections of osteocalcin improve glucose metabolism and prevent type 2 diabetes in mice. Bone, 50:568-575.

Hincke MT and McKee MD (2012) The eggshell: Structure, composition and mineralization. Topical journal issue: The biomineralization process: Results, problems, perspectives (ed. E. Bonucci). Front. Biosci. 1(17):1266-1280.

McKee MD, Murshed M and Kaartinen MT (2012) Extracellular matrix and mineralization of craniofacial bone. In: Mineralized Tissues in Oral and Craniofacial Science: Biological Principles and Clinical Correlates. Eds. McCauley LK and Somerman MJ. Wiley-Blackwell Pub., Ames, IA, USA. pp. 99-109.

Somogyi-Ganss E, Nakayama Y, Iwasaki K, Nakano Y, Stolf D, McKee MD and Ganss B (2012) Comparative temporo-spatial expression profiling of murine amelotin protein during amelogenesis. Cells Tissues Organs, 195:535-549.

Cote N, El Husseini D, Pepin A, Guauque-Olarte S, Ducharme V, Bouchard-Cannon P, Audet A, Fournier D, Gaudreault N, Derbali H, McKee MD, Simard C, Despres JP, Pibarot P, Bosse Y and Mathieu P (2012) ATP acts as a survival signal and prevents the mineralization of aortic valve. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol., 52:1191-1202.

Khayer Dastjerdi A, Pagano M, Kaartinen MT, McKee MD and Barthelat F (2012) The cohesive behavior of soft biological "glues": Experiments and modeling. Acta Biomaterialia. 8:3349-3359


Foster BL, Nagatomo KJ, Tso HW, Tran AB, Nociti FH, Narisawa S, Yadav MC, McKee MD, Millan JL and Somerman MJ (2013) Tooth root dentin mineralization defects in a mouse model of hypophosphatasia.  J. Bone Miner. Res. 28:271–282.

Barros NMT, Hoac B, Neves RL, Addison WN, Assis DM, Murshed M, Carmona AK and McKee MD (2013) Proteolytic processing of osteopontin by PHEX and accumulation of osteopontin fragments in Hyp mouse bone, the murine model of X-linked hypophosphatasia.  J. Bone Mineral Res. 28:688-699.

Khayer Dastjerdi A, Pagano M, Kaartinen MT, McKee MD and Barthelat F (2013) Direct measurements of the cohesive behavior of soft biological interfaces.  In: Mechanics of Biological Systems and Materials, Volume 5: Proc. 2012 Annual Conf. on Experimental and Applied Mechanics.  Eds. Prorok BC et al.  The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc., Costa Mesa, CA, USA. pp. 207-215.

Mohazab L, Koivisto L, Jiang G, Kytomaki L, Haapasalo M, Owen GR, Wiebe C, Xie Y, Heikinheimo K, Yoshida T, Smith CE, Heino J, Hakkinen L, McKee MD and Larjava H (2013)  Critical role for αvβ6 integrin in enamel biomineralization.  J. Cell Sci. 126:732-744.

Hoac B, Kiffer-Moreira T, Millan JL and McKee MD  (2013)  Polyphosphates inhibit extracellular matrix mineralization in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures.  Bone 53:478-486.

Salmon B, Bardet C, Khaddam M, Naji J, Coyac BR, Baroukh B, Letourneur F, Lesieur J, Decup F, Le-Denmat D, Nicoletti A, Poliard A, Rowe PS, Huet E, Opsahl Vital S, Linglart A, McKee MD and Chaussain C  (2013)  MEPE-derived ASARM peptide inhibits odontogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells and impairs mineralization in tooth models of X-linked hypophosphatemia. PLOS ONE 8(2):e56749

Khavandgar Z, Alebrahim S, Eimar H, Tamimi F, McKee MD and Murshed M (2013) Local regulation of tooth mineralization by sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3. J. Dent Res. 92:358-364.

Coyac BR, Chicatun F, Hoac B, Nelea V, Chaussain C, Nazhat SN and McKee MD (2013) Mineralization of dense collagen hydrogel scaffolds by human pulp cells.  J. Dent. Res. 92:648-654.

McKee MD, Hoac B, Addison WN, Barros NMT, Millan JL and Chaussain C (2013)  Extracellular matrix mineralization in periodontal tissues: Noncollagenous matrix proteins, enzymes, and relationship to hypophosphatasia and X-linked hypophosphatemia.  Perio. 2000, 63:102-122.

McKee MD, Yadav MC, Foster BL, Somerman MJ, Farquharson C and Millan JL (2013) Compounded PHOSPHO1/ALPL deficiencies reduce dentin mineralization.  J. Dent. Res. 92:721-727.

Chicatun F, Pedraza CE, Muja N, Ghezzi CE, McKee MD and Nazhat SN (2013) Effect of chitosan incorporation and scaffold geometry on chondrocyte function in dense collagen type I hydrogels.  Tissue Engineering (Part A) 19:2553-2564.


Yuan Q, Jiang Y, Zhao X, Sato T, Densmore M, Schüler C, Erben RG, McKee MD and Lanske B (2014) Increased osteopontin contributes to inhibition of bone mineralization in FGF23-deficient mice. J. Bone Miner. Res. 29:693-704.

Salmon B, Bardet C, Coyac BR, Baroukh B, Naji J, Rowe PS, Opsahl Vital S, Linglart A, McKee MD and Chaussain C (2014) Abnormal osteopontin and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein localization, and odontoblast differentiation, in X-linked hypophosphatemic teeth.  Connect. Tissue Res.  55:79-82.

Nelea V, Chien YC, Paquette J and McKee MD (2014) Effects of full-length phosphorylated osteopontin and constituent acidic peptides and amino acids on calcite dissolution.  Cryst. Growth Des.  14:979-987.

Hu J, Hu Y, Lu Y, Smith CE, Lertlam R, Wright JT, Suggs C, McKee MD, Beniash E, Kabir ME and Simmer JP (2014) Enamelin is critical for ameloblast integrity and enamel ultrastructure formation.  PLOS ONE  9(3):e89303.

Lin S, Zhang Q, Cao Z, Lu Y, Zhang H, Yan K, Liu Y, McKee MD, Qin C, Chen Z and Feng JQ (2014) Constitutive nuclear expression of dentin matrix protein 1 fails to rescue the Dmp1-null phenotype. J. Biol. Chem. 289:21533-21543.


Addison WN, Nelea V, Chicatun F, Chien YC, Tran-Khanh N, Buschmann MD, Nazhat SN, Kaartinen MT, Vali H, Tecklenburg MM, Franceschi RT and, McKee MD (2015). Extracellular matrix mineralization in murine MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cultures: An ultrastructural, compositional and comparative analysis with mouse bone. Bone. 71:244-256.

Al-Jallad H, Palomo T, Roughley P, Glorieux FH, McKee MD, Moffatt P and Rauch F (2015) The effect of SERPINF1 in-frame mutations in osteogenesis imperfecta type VI.  Bone 76:115-120.

Komarova SV, Safranek L, Gopalakrishnan J, Ou MJ, McKee MD, Murshed M, Rauch F and Zuhr E (2015)  Mathematical model for bone mineralization.  Front. Cell Dev. Biol. 3(51):1-11,


Eimar H, Tamimi F, Retrouvey JM, Rauch F, Aubin JE and McKee MD (2016) Craniofacial and dental defects in the Col1a1Jrt/+ mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta. J. Dent. Res. 95:761-768.

Abdallah MN, Eimar H, Bassett DC, Schnabel M, Nelea V, McKee MD, Cerruti M and Tamimi F (2016) Diagenesis-inspired reaction of magnesium ions with surface enamel mineral modifies properties of human teeth.  Acta Biomaterialia 37:174-183.

Jahnen-Dechent W, Brylka L, Schinke T and McKee MD (2016) Letter to the Editor re: Mattinzoli D et al. FGF23-regulated production of Fetuin-A (AHSG) in osteocytes. Bone 93:223-224.

Neves RL, Chiarantin GD, Nascimento FD, Pesquero JB, Nader HB, Tersariol IL, McKee MD, Carmona AK and Barros NMT (2016) Expression and inactivation of osteopontin-degrading PHEX enzyme in squamous cell carcinoma. Intl. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.  77:155-164.


Boukpessi T, Hoac B, Coyac BR, Leger T, Garcia C, Wicart P, Whyte MP, Glorieux FH, Linglart A, Chaussain C and McKee MD (2017) Osteopontin and the dento-osseous pathobiology of X-linked hypophosphatemia.  Bone  95:151-161. 

Lomashvilli KA, Manning KE, Weitzmann MN, Nelea V, McKee MD, O’Neill WC (2017)  Persistence of vascular calcification after reversal of uremia. Amer. J. Pathol. 187:332-338.

Chicatun F, Griffanti G, McKee MD, Nazhat S (2017) Collagen/chitosan composite scaffolds for bone and cartilage tissue engineering. In: Woodhead Publishing Series in Biomaterials, Biomedical Composites (2nd Edition). Ed. L. Ambrosio, Woodhead Publishing (Elsevier), Duxford, UK. Chapter 8 pp. 163-198.

Jiang W, Pacella MS, Athanasiadou D, Nelea V, Vali H, Hazen RM, Gray JJ and McKee MD  (2017) Chiral acidic amino acids induce chiral hierarchical structure in calcium carbonate.  Nature Commun.  8, 15066

Hoac B, Nelea V, Jiang W, Kaartinen MT and McKee MD (2017) Mineralization-inhibiting effects of transglutaminase 2-crosslinked polymer osteopontin.  Bone 101:37-48.

Marulanda J, Eimar H, McKee MD, Berkvens M, Nelea V, Roman H, Borras T, Tamimi F, Ferron M, Murshed M (2017) Matrix Gla protein deficiency impairs nasal septum growth causing midface hypoplasia.  J. Biol. Chem.  292:11400-11412.

Coyac BR, Falgayrac G, Baroukh B, Slimani L, Sadoine J, Penel G, Biosse-Duplan M, Schinke T, Linglart A, McKee MD, Chaussain C, Bardet C (2017) Tissue-specific mineralization defects in the periodontium of the Hyp mouse model of X-linked hypophosphatemia. Bone. 103:334-346.


Coyac BR, Hoac B, Chafey P, Falgayrac G, Slimani L, Rowe PS, Penel G, Linglart A, McKee MD, Chaussain C, Bardet C  (2018) Defective mineralization in X-linked hypophosphatemia dental pulp cell cultures. J. Dent. Res.  97:184-191.

Hoac B, Susan-Resiga D, Essalmani R, Marcinkiweicz E, Seidah NG, McKee MD (2018) Osteopontin as a novel substrate for the proprotein convertase 5/6 (PCSK5) in bone.  Bone 107:45-55.

Coyac BR, Falgayrac G, Penel G, Schmitt A, Schinke T, Linglart A, McKee MD, Chaussain C, Bardet C (2018) Impaired mineral quality in dentin in X-linked hypophosphatemia. Connect. Tissue Res. 58:91-96.

Athanasiadou D, Jiang W, Goldbaum D, Basu K, Pacella MS, Bohm CF, Chromik RR, Hincke MT, Rodriguez-Navarro AB, Vali H, Wolf SE, Gray JJ, Bui KH, McKee MD (2018) Nanostructure, osteopontin and mechanical properties of avian calcitic eggshell.  Science Advances 4(3):eaar3219.

Cavelier S, Dastjerdi AK, McKee MD, Barthelat F (2018)  Bone toughness at the molecular scale: A model for fracture toughness using crosslinked osteopontin on synthetic and biogenic mineral substrates.  Bone 110:304-311.

Jiang W, Pacella MS, Vali H, Gray JJ, McKee MD (2018) Chiral switching in biomineral suprastructures induced by homochiral L-amino acid.  Science Advances, 4(8):eaas9819.

Chien YC, Mansouri A, Jiang W, Khan SR, Gray JJ, McKee MD (2018) Modulation of calcium oxalate dihydrate growth by phosphorylated osteopontin peptides. J. Struct. Biol. 204:131-144.


Hincke MT, Da Silva M, Guyot N, Gautron J, McKee MD, Guabiraba-Brito R, Rehault-Godbert S (2019) Dynamics of structural barriers and innate immune components during incubation of the avian egg: Critical interplay between autonomous embryonic development and maternal anticipation. J. Innate Immunity 11:111-124.

Jiang W, Athanasiadou D, Zhang S, Demichelis R, Koziara KB, Raiteri P, Nelea V, Mi W, Ma JA, Gale JD, McKee MD (2019) Homochirality in biomineral suprastructures induced by assembly of single-enantiomer amino acids from a nonracemic mixture. Nature Communications 10, Art. No. 2318,

Jiang W, Xing Y and McKee MD (2019) Chiral biomineralized structures and their biomimetic synthesis. Materials Horizons (Royal Society of Chemistry, UK). 6:1974-1990. 6:1974-1990.

Chicatun F, Rezabieg E, Muja N, Kaartinen MT, McKee MD, Nazhat SN  (2019) A bilayered dense collagen/chitosan hydrogel to model the osteochondral interface.  Emergent Materials.  2:245-262.


Whyte MP, Amalnath SD, McAlister WH, McKee MD, Veis DJ, Huskey M, Duan S, Bijanki VN, Alur S, Mumm S (2020) Hypophosphatemic osteosclerosis, hyperostosis, and enthesopathy associated with novel homozygous mutations of DMP1 encoding dentin matrix protein 1 and SPP1 encoding osteopontin: The first digenic SIBLING protein osteopathy? Bone 132:115190.

Herrmann H, Babler A, Moshkova I, Gremse F, Kiessling F, Kusebauch U, Nelea V, Kramann R, Moritz RL, McKee MD*, Jahnen-Dechent W* (2020) Lumenal calcification and microvasculopathy in fetuin-A-deficient mice lead to multiple organ morbidity. (*co-corresponding authors). PLoS ONE, 15(2):e0228503.

Moussa H, Jiang W, Alsheghri A, Mansour A, El Hadad A, Pan H, Tang R, Song J, Vargas J, McKee MD, Tamimi F (2020) High-strength brushite bioceramics obtained by selective regulation of crystal growth with chiral biomolecules. Acta Biomaterialia 106:351-359

Athanasiadou D, Jiang W, Reznikov N, Rodriguez-Navarro AB, Kroeger R, Bilton M, Gonzalez-Segura A, Hu Y, Nelea V, McKee MD (2020) Nanostructure of mouse otoconia. J. Struct. Biol. 210:107489.

Tan M, Jiang W, Martin AT, Shtukenberg AG, McKee MD, Kahr B (2020) Polarized light through polycrystalline vaterite helicoids. Chem Commun. 56:7353-7356

Reznikov R, Hoac B, Buss DJ, Addison WN, Barros NMT, McKee MD (2020) Biological stenciling of mineralization in the skeleton: Local enzymatic removal of inhibitors in the extracellular matrix. Bone. 138:115447.

Christensen B, Schytte GN, Scavenius C, Enghild JJ, McKee MD, Sorensen ES (2020) FAM20C-mediated phosphorylation of MEPE and its acidic serine- and aspartate-rich motif. J. Bone Miner. Res. Plus. 26:4(8):e10378.

Hoac B, Boukpessi T, Buss DJ, Wittig NK, Ostergaard M, Birkedal H, Chaussain C, Murshed M, McKee MD (2020) Genetic ablation of osteopontin in osteomalacic Hyp mice partially rescues the deficient mineralization without correcting hypophosphatemia. J. Bone Miner. Res. 35:2032-2048.

Jiang W, Griffanti G, Tamimi F, McKee MD, Nazhat SN (2020) Multiscale structural evolution of citrate-triggered intrafibrillar and interfibrillar mineralization in dense collagen gels. J. Struct. Biol. 212:107592.

Reznikov R, Buss DJ, Provencher B, McKee MD, Piché N (2020) Deep learning for 3D imaging and image analysis in biomineralization research. J. Struct. Biol. 212:107598.

Buss DJ, Reznikov N, McKee MD (2020) Crossfibrillar mineral tessellation in normal and Hyp mouse bone as revealed by 3D FIB-SEM microscopy. J. Struct. Biol. 212:107603.

Bailey S, Sroga GE, Hoac B, Katsamenis OL, Wang Z, Bouropoulos N, McKee MD, Sorensen ES, Thurner PJ, Vashishth D (2020) The role of extracellular matrix phosphorylation on energy dissipation in bone. eLife. Dec 9;9:e58184.

Weiner S, Napierala D, McKee MD (2020) Preface to the Special Issue on the Chemistry and Biology of Mineralized Tissues. J. Struct. Biol. 212:107652.

Alsheghri AA, Reznikov N, Piché N, McKee MD, Tamimi F, Song J (2021) Optimization of 3D network topology for bioinspired design of stiff and lightweight bone-like structures. Materials Science & Engineering C, 123:112010.

Nelea V, Paquette J, McKee MD (2021) Mechanisms of interaction of biomolecule phosphate side chains with calcite during dissolution. Cryst. Growth Des. 21(5): 2898-2910.

McKee MD,* Buss DJ, Reznikov N* (2022) Mineral tessellation in bone and the Stenciling Principle for extracellular matrix mineralization. J. Struct. Biol. 214:107823, (*co-corresponding authors)

Buss DJ, Kroeger R, McKee MD, Reznikov N (2022) Hierarchical organization of bone in three dimensions: A twist of twists. J. Struct. Biol. 6:100057.

Reznikov N, Liang H, McKee MD, Piche N (2022) Mapping of trabecular bone anisotropy and volume fraction in 3D using µCT images of the human calcaneus. Amer. J. Biol. Anthropology 177:566-580.

Griffanti G, McKee MD, Nazhat S (2023) Mineralization of bone extracellular matrix-like scaffolds fabricated as silk sericin-functionalized dense collagen-fibrin hybrid hydrogels. Pharmaceutics, 15:1087,

Buss DJ, Rechav K, Reznikov N, McKee MD (2023) Mineral tessellation in mouse enthesis fibrocartilage, Achilles tendon, and Hyp calcifying enthesopathy: A shared 3D mineralization pattern.  Bone, 174:116818,

Buss DJ, Reznikov N, McKee MD (2023) Attaching organic fibers to mineral: The case of the avian eggshell. iScience 26(12): 108425.

Deering J, Nelea V, McKee MD (2024) Multiscale mineralization in the leopard gecko eggshell.  Advanced Functional Materials

Rodriguez-Navarro AB, Dominguez-Gasca N, Athanasiadou D, Le Roy N, Gonzalez-Segura A, Reznikov N, Hincke MT, McKee MD, Checa AG, Nys Y, Gautron J (2024) Guinea fowl eggshell structural analysis at different scales reveals how organic matrix induces microstructural shifts that enhance its mechanical properties. Acta Biomaterialia 178:244-256

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