The proposed Manual will fill the legal lacunae with respects to issues that for decades have been the source of debate and disagreement among policy makers, legal practitioners, military strategists, and other academics and experts in the field.

By assembling teams of experts specialised in international space law and public international law, the MILAMOS Project will identify and distil the lex lata with respect to the means and extent to which States can legitimately use outer space for military activities, including the conduct of hostile actions in situations posing threats to the peace, short of armed conflict. 

Specialised groups will meet and identify rules applicable to specific circumstances in the space domain. Individual experts will be tasked with drafting and discussing rules at meetings of the experts held at regular intervals. Discussions on the origins, scope and possible sources of disagreement of each rule will be detailed in the associated commentary to be included in the Manual alongside each rule.

To facilitate the transparency and openness of the MILAMOS Process, some of the rules that are under consideration in each stage are listed below.

  • Definition and Delimitation of Outer Space
  • Applicability of International Law
  • Harmful Interference
  • Responsibility for National Space Activities
  • Peaceful Purposes
  • Use of Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • Non-Appropriation
  • National Registration of Space Ojbects
  • Launching States
  • Applicability of Space Treaties during Armed Conflict
  • International Liability
  • Freedom of Use
  • Application of Domestic Laws
  • Space Objects
  • Astronauts and Space-related Persons
  • Weapons of Mass Destruction
  • Weapons other than Weapons of Mass Destruction
  • State Responsibility for Internationally Wrongful Act
  • Registration of space objects with the United Nations
  • Jurisdiction and Control
  • Cooperation, Mutual Assistance and Due Regard
  • Prior Consultation
  • Duty to Provide Information
  • Rescue of Astronauts and Return of Space Objects
  • Protection of the Environment
  • Harmful Contamination
  • Treatment of Astronauts
  • Passage or Transit through Foreign National Airspace
  • Military Manoeuvers, Military Bases and Military Installations
  • Damage
  • Ground-based Infrastructure
  • Space Resources
  • National Technical Means of Verification
  • National Space Activities
  • Applicability of International Law to International Organisations
  • Responsibility for Space Activities of International Organisations
  • Cyber Activities that Constitute Space Activities
  • Prohibition of the Threat or Use of Force
  • Right of Self-Defence
  • Non-intervention
  • Jamming and Spoofing of Communications
  • Lazer Dazzling
  • Inteference with Satellite Navigation and Timing Services
  • Interference with Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT&C)
  • Intentional Harmful Inteference with Space Activities
  • Rendezvous and Proximity Operations (RPOs)






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