The chemical reactivity of electronically excited molecules differs fundamentally from that in the ground state. This is the underlying reactivity concept of photochemistry, which has traditionally allowed the development of unique chemical transformations not achievable via conventional ground-state pathways. For example, an excited-state molecule is both a better electron-donor (i.e. a better reductant) and electron-acceptor (i.e.
Chiral organoboronic esters are versatile intermediates for chemical synthesis. Not only are these compounds stable under a variety of reaction conditions, they are generally non-toxic and can be transformed with minimal generation of hazardous waste. An important feature of aliphatic organoboronic esters is that the boron atom may be replaced with an array of different functional groups through efficient, stereospecific transformations.