Quick Links

Programs with minors, majors and honours

University calendar

Check out the McGill Programs, Courses and University Regulations for minors (in Arts or in Science), majors and complete course listings.

The B.C.L./LL.B. Integrated Program can be further enhanced by three options that students can pursue to broaden perspectives and expertise. Each of these options entails additional credits (15 or 18 credits), rounding out the basic program to a full four years.

Minor Program

The B.C.L./LL.B. with Minor program is open to all students enrolled in the Faculty of Law, and allows them to graduate with a Minor offered by McGill's Faculties of Arts or Science upon the completion of the requirements for that Minor. Students must complete 18 credits in addition to the 105 credits needed for the B.C.L./LL.B. program.

Note that some Science Minors are 24 credits. In such cases, law students will be allowed to count six credits of their 24-credit Minor Program towards their Law degree.

All Minors offered in the Faculties of Arts and Science are open to law students. Students should note that they may NOT enroll in a Minor in Management.

Students may enroll in a Minor after completion of two full time semesters in the Faculty, and must declare a Minor no later than the deadline for registration for their third year. Students must meet with an advisor from the appropriate Department to select the courses required to complete the Minor, and have the advisor sign their Application for a Minor [.doc]. Upon submission of the completed form to the Assistant Dean (Student Life & Learning) at the Faculty of Law, the Minor will be entered onto the student's transcript. Students will be registered in the selected courses by the SAO. They should, however, confirm their registration on Minerva. Students are reminded that they may not take more than six non-law credits per term.

Once a Minor has been declared, students are expected to complete it. If a student abandons or fails to complete the Minor, no credit taken toward the completion of a Minor may be transferred to count toward the BCL/LLB, except as 6 non-law credits.

Please consult the Faculty of Arts and Faculty of Science sections of the Undergraduate Programs Calendar to determine the requirements for individual Minors.

 Major Concentration Programs

The Faculty of Law offers two designated Major Concentrations:
  1. Commercial Negotiation & Dispute Resolution
  2. International Human Rights & Development

Each Major Concentration is articulated around a synthetic “skill-set” driven by a transversal theme and inspired by a trans-disciplinary approach. Law and non-law courses are combined with the practical experience acquired during a mandatory internship to allow students to test the “skill-set” in a practical setting. The required writing of an independent essay allows students to integrate the various academic and clinical strands of their chosen Major Concentration.

The Majors are broader in scope than the Minors (described above) in that they reach back into the “basic” B.C.L./LL.B. program to require students to choose, as part of their 105 credits, at least 18 credits from designated options corresponding to each specific Major Concentration. Students must complete an additional 18 credits in the Major for a total of 123 credits. At least 6 of the 36 total credits for the Major must be taken in non-law courses. Students may take more than 6 non-law credits for the Major. However, the total number of non-law credits taken by students doing a B.C.L./LL.B. with Major may not exceed 12 credits.
 
The Major Concentrations Program is open to all law students having completed two terms in the Faculty. Students must declare a Major no later than the deadline for registration for their third year. Upon the successful completion of at least 36 credits in an approved Major Concentration, 18 of which are in addition to the basic 105 total credit requirement for the B.C.L./LL.B. program, and at least 6 of which must be non-law credits, students will be granted at the time of graduation a “B.C.L./LL.B. with Major Concentration in [specific Major option]”.

To apply, fill out and sign the Application for a Major [.doc] and send it to the SAO for approval.

1. Commercial Negotiation & Dispute Resolution (36 credits)

This Major consists of 36 credits, 18 of which are in addition to the 105 total credit requirement for the BCL/LLB program, for a total of 123 credits. At graduation, students are granted a BCL/LLB with Major concentration in Commercial Negotiation and Dispute Resolution.

Required Course (6 credits)

WRIT 300D1 and WRIT 300D1 Major Internship (6)

Internship in the area of Commercial Negotiation and Dispute Resolution. The internship is normally done in the fourth year of the program. Placement must be approved by the Major Advisor.

Complementary Courses (30 credits)

3 credits from the following courses:
WRIT 491 Term Essay 1 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

WRIT 492 Term Essay 2 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

WRIT 493 Term Essay 3 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

WRIT 494 Term Essay 4 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

WRIT 495 Term Essay 5 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

WRIT 496 Term Essay 6 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

The essay must be written on a subject related to Commercial Negotiation and Dispute Resolution. The essay is to be written in the fourth year of the program, normally in the Winter term, in order to allow the student to integrate the various academic and clinical strands of the Major. Topic must be approved by Associate Dean (Academic).

27 credits from the following courses, of which at least 6 must be non-law credits:

Law courses (15-21 credits)

BUS1 432 Bankruptcy and Insolvency 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

BUS2 503 Business Organizations 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

BUS2 504 Securities Regulation 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

BUS2 505 Corporate Finance 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

CMPL 508 Research Seminar 1 2 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

CMPL 509 Research Seminar 2 2 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

CMPL 515 Intl Carriage of Goods by Sea 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

CMPL 521 Trade Regulation 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

CMPL 524 Entertainment Law 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

CMPL 533 Resolution of Int'l Disputes 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

CMPL 543 Law & Practice of Intl Trade 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

CMPL 568 Extrajudicial Dispute Resol 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

CMPL 574 Government Control Of Business 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 200 Commercial Law 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 400 Secured Transactions 4 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 500 Complex Legal Transactions 1 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 511 Specialized Topics in Law 1 1 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 512 Specialized Topics in Law 2 1 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 513 Specialized Topics in Law 3 2 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 514 Specialized Topics in Law 4 2 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 515 Specialized Topics in Law 5 2 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 516 Specialized Topics in Law 6 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 517 Specialized Topics in Law 7 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 518 Specialized Topics in Law 8 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 521 Student-Initiated Seminar 1 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 522 Student-Initiated Seminar 2 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LEEL 369 Labour Law 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

PROC 549 Lease, Enterprise, Suretyship 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

PRV4 451 Real Estate Transactions 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

PRV4 500 Restitution 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

PRV5 483 Consumer Law 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

PUB2 517 Corporate Taxation 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

*Specialized Topics in Law courses and Student-Initiated Seminars require the approval of the Assistant Dean, Student Life & Learning in order to count towards the Major in Commercial Negotiation and Dispute Resolution.

Non-Law courses (6-12 credits)

Note: Students who take 6 non-law credits as part of their Major may count an additional 6 non-law credits towards their BCL//LLB. Students who take 9 non-law credits as part of their Major may count an additional 3 credits towards their BCL/LLB. Students who take 12 non-law credits as part of their Major may not count additional non-law credits towards their BCL/LLB.

Economics:

ECON 223 Pol Economy of Trade Policy 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

ECON 305 Industrial Organization 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

ECON 310 Intro to Behavioural Economics 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

ECON 546 Game Theory 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

Management:

BUSA 395 Managing in Europe 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

BUSA 481 Managing in North America 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

BUSA 493 Global Econ. Competitiveness 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

INDR 459 Int'l Employment Relations 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

INDR 492 Globalization & Labour Policy 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

INDR 496 Collective Bargaining 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

MGCR 211 Intro to Financial Accounting 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

MGCR 293 Managerial Economics 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

MGCR 382 International Business 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

MGCR 423 Strategic Management 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

MGPO 383 International Business Policy 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

MGPO 440 Strategies for Sustainability 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

MGPO 445 Industry Anal. & Comp. Strat. 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

MGPO 450 Ethics in Management 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

MGPO 460 Managing Innovation 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

MGPO 468 Managing Org Politics 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

MGPO 469 Managing Globalization 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

MGPO 470 Strategy and Organization 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

MGPO 567 Business in Society 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

ORGB 325 Negotiations and Conflict Res. 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

ORGB 380 Cross Cultural Management 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

ORGB 420 Managing Organizational Teams 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

Political Science:

POLI 243 Intl Poltcs of Econ Relations 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

or another non-law course related to Commercial Negotiation and Dispute Resolution, approved by the Major Advisor.

2. International Human Rights & Development (36 credits)

This Major consists of 36 credits, 18 of which are in addition to the 105 total credit requirement for the BCL/LLB program, for a total of 123 credits. At graduation, students are granted a BCL/LLB with Major concentration in International Human Rights and Development.

Required Course (6 credits)

WRIT 300D1 and WRIT 300D1 Major Internship (6)

Internship in the area of International Human Rights and Development. The internship is normally done in the fourth year of the program. Placement must be approved by the Major Advisor.

Complementary Courses (30 credits)

3 credits from the following courses:

WRIT 491 Term Essay 1 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

WRIT 492 Term Essay 2 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

WRIT 493 Term Essay 3 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

WRIT 494 Term Essay 4 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

WRIT 495 Term Essay 5 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

WRIT 496 Term Essay 6 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

The essay must be written on a subject related to International Human Rights and Development. The essay is to be written in the fourth year of the program, normally in the Winter term, in order to allow the student to integrate the various academic and clinical strands of the Major. Topic must be approved by Associate Dean (Academic).

27 credits from the following courses, of which at least 6 must be non-law credits:

Law courses (15-21 credits)

CMPL 508 Research Seminar 1 2 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

CMPL 509 Research Seminar 2 2 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

CMPL 516 International Development Law 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

CMPL 521 Trade Regulation 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

CMPL 533 Resolution of Int'l Disputes 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

CMPL 543 Law & Practice of Intl Trade 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

CMPL 546 Intl Envt'l Law & Politics 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

CMPL 565 Intl. Humanitarian Law 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

CMPL 571 Intl Law of Human Rights 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 503 Inter-American Human Rights 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 511 Specialized Topics in Law 1 1 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 512 Specialized Topics in Law 2 1 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 513 Specialized Topics in Law 3 2 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 514 Specialized Topics in Law 4 2 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 515 Specialized Topics in Law 5 2 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 516 Specialized Topics in Law 6 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 517 Specialized Topics in Law 7 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 518 Specialized Topics in Law 8 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 521 Student-Initiated Seminar 1 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

LAWG 522 Student-Initiated Seminar 2 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

PUB2 105 Public International Law 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

PUB2 551 Immigration & Refugee Law 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

PUB2 502 International Criminal Law 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

PUB2 503 Comparative Federalism 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

*Specialized Topics in Law courses and Student-Initiated Seminars require the approval of the Assistant Dean, Student Life & Learning in order to count towards the Major in International Human Rights and Development.

Non-Law Courses (6-12 credits)

Note: Students who take 6 non-law credits as part of their Major may count an additional 6 non-law credits towards their BCL//LLB. Students who take 9 non-law credits as part of their Major may count an additional 3 credits towards their BCL/LLB. Students who take 12 non-law credits as part of their Major may not count additional non-law credits towards their BCL/LLB.

Anthropology:

ANTH 212 Anthropology of Development 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

ANTH 342 Gender, Inequality & the State 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

Economics:

ECON 223 Pol Economy of Trade Policy 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

ECON 306 Labour Markets and Wages 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

ECON 313 Economic Development 1 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

ECON 314 Economic Development 2 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

ECON 316 The Underground Economy 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

ECON 426 Labour Economics 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

Geography:

GEOG 200 Geo Persp:World Env Problems 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

GEOG 210 Global Places and Peoples 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

GEOG 216 Geography of the World Economy 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

GEOG 408 Geography of Development 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

GEOG 410 Geog of Underdvlpmnt:Cur Probs 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

International Development:

INTD 200 Intro to Int'l Development 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

Management:

MGPO 469 Managing Globalization 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

MGPO 475 Strategies for Devel Countries 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

ORGB 380 Cross Cultural Management 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

Political Science:

POLI 227 Developing Areas/Introduction 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

POLI 243 Intl Poltcs of Econ Relations 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

POLI 300 Developing Areas/Revolution 6 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

POLI 324 Developing Areas/Africa 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

POLI 340 Developing Areas/Middle East 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

POLI 345 International Organizations 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

POLI 351 The Causes of Major Wars 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

POLI 354 Approaches to Intl Pol Econ 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

POLI 362 Political Theory and IR 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

POLI 474 Inequality and Development 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

POLI 522 Seminar: Developing Areas 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

Sociology:

SOCI 254 Development&Underdevelopment 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

SOCI 265 War, States and Social Change 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

SOCI 370 Sociology: Gender&Development 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

SOCI 484 Emerging Democratic States 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

SOCI 519 Gender and Globalization 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

SOCI 550 Developing Societies 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer


Honours Program in Law

The Honours program aims to provide within the B.C.L./LL.B. program a space in which advanced legal research of the highest quality can be pursued. It represents a bridge to the pursuit of graduate studies in law.

Alternatively, it offers a unique opportunity for advanced research for those students who cannot proceed to graduate studies, for financial or other reasons. At its core is the research and drafting of an extended written project, the Honours Thesis, to be completed over a period of one and a half academic years.

The goal is to provide students with an opportunity to produce a substantial work of publishable quality.

The Honours program thus represents a concrete instance of including in the undergraduate program the special vocation of the McGill Faculty of Law for research and academic excellence.

Admission to Honours

There is no automatic admission to the Honours program, and space is limited due to resource constraints. Students who have completed two years of full-time studies in the Faculty of Law may apply for admission. Selection will be based on the candidate’s academic record in the Faculty, the strength of the research proposal, and the availability of supervision.

A minimum law CGPA of 3.00 is required, but it is expected that students admitted will in fact have a higher law CGPA.

Honours application form [.doc]

Research project

Students wishing to apply must develop a research project in consultation with a member of the Faculty and submit a thesis proposal of approximately 1200 words. The Honours thesis is expected to be approximately 30 000 to 35 000 words in length, and is graded on a Pass/Fail basis by the supervisor and another examiner. The standard for obtaining a Pass reflects the goal of the Honours program: to produce a substantial work of publishable quality.

Course Sequence

The sequence for students wishing to participate in the Honours program is as follows: In the Fall of the third year, interested students submit an application for admission to the Honours program based on a research project developed in the previous months with the assistance of a Faculty member.

To apply, complete and sign the Honours application form [.doc] and submit it to the SAO for approval. Students will be informed of the result of their application shortly thereafter.

Students admitted to the Honours program register for the course Honours Thesis 1 (3 credits) either in the Winter or Summer term of their third year. In their fourth year, students in the Honours program normally register for the courses Honours Thesis 2 (6 credits) in the Fall term and Honours Thesis 3 (6 credits) in the Winter term. These 15 credits are above the 105 credits required for the B.C.L/LL.B. Students who graduate with the degree of BCL/LLB (Honours) will have a total of 120 credits.

A student having successfully completed the Honours program will be awarded the degree of BCL/LLB (Honours) upon graduation.

Courses

WRIT 450 Honours Thesis 1 3 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

WRIT 451 Honours Thesis 2 6 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

WRIT 452 Honours Thesis 3 6 Credits
    Offered in the:
  • Fall
  • Winter
  • Summer

Progress reports

Progress reports are required to be submitted to the SAO by the student and supervisor at the end of each of the terms in which the student is registered for Honours Thesis 1 and Honours Thesis 2.

Honours Thesis I (WRIT 450) Report [.doc]

Honours Thesis II (WRIT 451) Report [.doc]

Thesis Submission

The thesis must be submitted by the end of the fourth academic year, by the submission deadline. Students are encouraged to submit at an earlier date in the event the thesis is sent back for further revision by the supervisor or co-examiner.