Program Requirements
This Major provides a solid basis for postgraduate study in meteorology, atmospheric physics, or related fields, as well as the necessary preparation for embarking on a professional career as a meteorologist directly after the B.Sc.
The program is jointly administered by the Department of Physics and the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences. Students should consult undergraduate advisers in both departments.
Required Courses (57 credits)

ATOC 214 Introduction: Physics of the Atmosphere (3 credits)
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : An introduction to physical meteorology designed for students in the physical sciences. Topics include: composition of the atmosphere; heat transfer; the upper atmosphere; atmospheric optics; formation of clouds and precipitation; instability; adiabatic charts.
Terms: Fall 2023
Instructors: Ioannidou, Evangelia (Fall)

ATOC 215 Oceans, Weather and Climate (3 credits)
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : Laws of motion, geostrophic wind, gradient wind. General circulation of the atmosphere and oceans, local circulation features. Airsea interaction, including hurricanes and seaice formation, extratropical weather systems and fronts, role of the atmosphere and oceans in climate.
Terms: Winter 2024
Instructors: Dufour, Carolina (Winter)

ATOC 309 Weather Radars and Satellites (3 credits)
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : Basic notions of radiative transfer and applications of satellite and radar data to mesoscale and synopticscale systems are discussed. Emphasis will be put on the contribution of remote sensing to atmospheric and oceanic sciences.
Terms: Winter 2024
Instructors: Tan, Ivy (Winter)
Winter
3 hours lecture
Prerequisite: ATOC 215

ATOC 312 Rotating Fluid Dynamics (3 credits)
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : Lagrangian and Eulerian time derivatives. Vorticity, divergence and Helmholtz decomposition. Twodimensional NavierStokes equation for nondivergent flows. Rotating coordinate systems and the shallow water equations. Linear solutions, potential vorticity, and geostrophy in the shallow water context. Shallowwater quasigeostrophic approximation, including Rossby waves and barotrophic (Rayleigh) instability.
Terms: Fall 2023
Instructors: Ioannidou, Evangelia (Fall)

ATOC 315 Thermodynamics and Convection (3 credits)
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : Buoyancy, stability, and vertical oscillations. Dry and moist adiabatic processes. Resulting dry and precipitating convective circulations from the small scale to the global scale. Mesoscale precipitation systems from the cell to convective complexes. Severe convection, downbursts, mesocyclones.
Terms: Fall 2023
Instructors: Tan, Ivy (Fall)

MATH 222 Calculus 3 (3 credits)
Overview
Mathematics & Statistics (Sci) : Taylor series, Taylor's theorem in one and several variables. Review of vector geometry. Partial differentiation, directional derivative. Extreme of functions of 2 or 3 variables. Parametric curves and arc length. Polar and spherical coordinates. Multiple integrals.
Terms: Fall 2023, Winter 2024
Instructors: Sabok, Marcin; Allen, Patrick (Fall) Trudeau, Sidney (Winter)

MATH 223 Linear Algebra (3 credits)
Overview
Mathematics & Statistics (Sci) : Review of matrix algebra, determinants and systems of linear equations. Vector spaces, linear operators and their matrix representations, orthogonality. Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization of Hermitian matrices. Applications.
Terms: Fall 2023, Winter 2024
Instructors: Kelome, Djivede; Pichot, Mikael (Fall) Pichot, Mikael (Winter)

MATH 314 Advanced Calculus (3 credits)
Overview
Mathematics & Statistics (Sci) : Derivative as a matrix. Chain rule. Implicit functions. Constrained maxima and minima. Jacobians. Multiple integration. Line and surface integrals. Theorems of Green, Stokes and Gauss. Fourier series with applications.
Terms: Fall 2023, Winter 2024
Instructors: Toth, John A (Fall) Allen, Patrick (Winter)

MATH 315 Ordinary Differential Equations (3 credits)
Overview
Mathematics & Statistics (Sci) : First order ordinary differential equations including elementary numerical methods. Linear differential equations. Laplace transforms. Series solutions.
Terms: Fall 2023, Winter 2024
Instructors: Hurtubise, Jacques Claude (Fall) BélangerRioux, Rosalie (Winter)

PHYS 230 Dynamics of Simple Systems (3 credits)
Overview
Physics : Translational motion under Newton's laws; forces, momentum, work/energy theorem. Special relativity; Lorentz transforms, relativistic mechanics, mass/energy equivalence. Topics in rotational dynamics. Noninertial frames.
Terms: Fall 2023
Instructors: Guo, Hong (Fall)

PHYS 232 Heat and Waves (3 credits)
Overview
Physics : The laws of thermodynamics and their consequences. Thermodynamics of PVT systems and simple heat engines. Free, driven, and damped harmonic oscillators. Coupled systems and normal modes. Fourier methods. Wave motion and dispersion. The wave equation.
Terms: Winter 2024
Instructors: Hilke, Michael (Winter)

PHYS 241 Signal Processing (3 credits)
Overview
Physics : Linear circuit elements, resonance, network theorems, diodes, transistors, amplifiers, feedback, integrated circuits.
Terms: Winter 2024
Instructors: Reisner, Walter (Winter)
Winter
2 hours lectures; 3 hours laboratory alternate weeks
Prerequisite: CEGEP physics or PHYS 142.

PHYS 257 Experimental Methods 1 (3 credits)
Overview
Physics : Introductory laboratory work and data analysis as related to mechanics, optics and thermodynamics. Introduction to computers as they are employed for laboratory work, for data analysis and for numerical computation. Previous experience with computers is an asset, but is not required.
Terms: Fall 2023
Instructors: Vachon, Brigitte (Fall)

PHYS 258 Experimental Methods 2 (3 credits)
Overview
Physics : Advanced laboratory work and data analysis as related to mechanics, optics and thermodynamics. Computers will be employed routinely for data analysis and for numerical computation, and, particularly, to facilitate the use of Fourier methods.
Terms: Winter 2024
Instructors: Cooke, David (Winter)
Winter
6 hours of laboratory and classroom work
Prerequisite: PHYS 257

PHYS 331 Topics in Classical Mechanics (3 credits)
Overview
Physics : Forced and damped oscillators, Newtonian mechanics in three dimensions, rotational motion, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, small vibrations, normal modes. Nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Terms: Winter 2024
Instructors: Gervais, Guillaume (Winter)

PHYS 333 Thermal and Statistical Physics (3 credits)
Overview
Physics : Introductory equilibrium statistical mechanics. Quantum states, probabilities, ensemble averages. Entropy, temperature, Boltzmann factor, chemical potential. Photons and phonons. FermiDirac and BoseEinstein distributions; applications.
Terms: Winter 2024
Instructors: Rutledge, Robert (Winter)

PHYS 340 Majors Electricity and Magnetism (3 credits)
Overview
Physics : The electrostatic field and scalar potential. Dielectric properties of matter. Energy in the electrostatic field. Methods for solving problems in electrostatics. The magnetic field. Induction and inductance. Energy in the magnetic field. Magnetic properties of matter. Maxwell's equations. The dipole approximation.
Terms: Fall 2023
Instructors: Lovejoy, Shaun MacDonald (Fall)

PHYS 342 Majors Electromagnetic Waves (3 credits)
Overview
Physics : Maxwell's equations. The wave equation. The electromagnetic wave, reflection, refraction, polarization. Guided waves. Transmission lines and wave guides. Vector potential. Radiation. The elemental dipole; the halfwave dipole; vertical dipole; folded dipoles; Yagi antennas. Accelerating charged particles.
Terms: Winter 2024
Instructors: Gervais, Guillaume (Winter)

PHYS 346 Majors Quantum Physics (3 credits)
Overview
Physics : De Broglie waves, Bohr atom. Schroedinger equation, wave functions, observables. One dimensional potentials. Schroedinger equation in three dimensions. Angular momentum, hydrogen atom. Spin, experimental consequences.
Terms: Fall 2023
Instructors: Vachon, Brigitte (Fall)
Complementary Course (12 credits)
At least 6 of the 12 complementary credits must come from ATOC courses.

ATOC 357 Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Laboratory (3 credits)
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : Students will gain handson experience in several fundamental atmospheric and oceanic science topics through practical experimentation. A diverse set of experiments will be conducted, ranging from in situ observations in Montreal, to remote sensing of clouds and radiation, to laboratory chemistry and watertank experiments. As a background for these experiments, students will receive training on sensor principles and measurement error analysis, as well as the fundamental physical processes of interest in each experiment. They will learn to operate, and physically interpret data from, various sensors for in situ and remote observation of meteorological variables. Their training will also extend to operational weather observations, analysis, and forecasting.
Terms: Winter 2024
Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 20232024 academic year.
Prerequisite(s): ATOC 214 or permission of instructor.

ATOC 404 Climate Physics (3 credits) *
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : This course covers the essentials of climate physics through the lens of onedimensional, vertical atmospheric models. This includes shortwave and longwave radiative transfer, convection, phase changes, clouds, greenhouse gases, and atmospheric escape. This is an adequate level of detail for understanding Earth's climate, paleoclimate, anthropogenic climate change, or pursuing studies of Solar System planets and extrasolar planets.
Terms: Fall 2023
Instructors: Huang, Yi (Fall)

ATOC 512 Atmospheric and Oceanic Dynamics (3 credits)
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : Introduction to the fluid dynamics of largescale flows of the atmosphere and oceans. Stratification of atmosphere and oceans. Equations of state, thermodynamics and momentum. Kinematics, circulation, and vorticity. Hydrostatic and quasigeostrophic flows. Brief introduction to wave motions, flow over topography, Ekman boundary layers, turbulence.
Terms: Fall 2023
Instructors: Straub, David N (Fall)

ATOC 513 Waves and Stability (3 credits)
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : Linear theory of waves in rotating and stratified media. Geostrophic adjustment and model initialization. Wave propagation in slowly varying media. Mountain waves; waves in shear flows. Barotropic, baroclinic, symmetric, and KelvinHelmholtz instability. Wavemean flow interaction. Equatorially trapped waves.
Terms: Winter 2024
Instructors: Straub, David N (Winter)

ATOC 515 Turbulence in Atmosphere and Oceans (3 credits)
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : Application of statistical and semiempirical methods to the study of geophysical turbulence. Reynolds' equations, dimensional analysis, and similarity. The surface and planetary boundary layers. Oceanic mixed layer. Theories of isotropic two and three dimensional turbulence: energy and enstrophy inertial ranges. Beta turbulence.
Terms: This course is not scheduled for the 20232024 academic year.
Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 20232024 academic year.

ATOC 517 Boundary Layer Meteorology
(3 credits)
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : Turbulence and turbulent fluxes, atmospheric stability, MoninObukhov similarity theory, surface roughness and surface fluxes, power law and logarithmic wind profiles including their application in wind energy and engineering sectors, convective and stably stratified boundary layers, internal boundary layer development, largeeddy simulations, fundamentals of boundarylayer parameterization in numerical models, and introduction to urban boundary layers.
Terms: Winter 2024
Instructors: Romanic, Djordje (Winter)

ATOC 521 Cloud Physics (3 credits)
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : Review of dry and moist atmospheric thermodynamics concepts. Atmospheric aerosols, nucleation of water and ice. Formation and growth of cloud droplets and ice crystals. Initiation of precipitation. Severe storms and hail. Weather modification. Numerical cloud models.
Terms: Winter 2024
Instructors: Zuend, Andreas (Winter)

ATOC 525 Atmospheric Radiation (3 credits)
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : Solar and terrestrial radiation. Interactions of molecules, aerosols, clouds, and precipitation with radiation of various wavelengths. Radiative transfer through the clear and cloudy atmosphere. Radiation budgets. Satellite and groundbased measurements. Climate implications.
Terms: Fall 2023
Instructors: Huang, Yi (Fall)

ATOC 531 Dynamics of Current Climates (3 credits)
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : The general circulation of the atmosphere and oceans. Atmospheric and oceanic general circulation models. Observations and models of the El Niño and Southern Oscillation phenomena.
Terms: Fall 2023
Instructors: Ioannidou, Evangelia (Fall)

ATOC 540 Synoptic Meteorology 1 (3 credits)
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : Analysis of current meteorological data. Description of a geostrophic, hydrostatic atmosphere. Ageostrophic circulations and hydrostatic instabilities. Kinematic and thermodynamic methods of computing vertical motions. Tropical and extratropical condensation rates. Barotropic and equivalent barotropic atmospheres.
Terms: Fall 2023
Instructors: Gyakum, John Richard (Fall)

ATOC 541 Synoptic Meteorology 2 (3 credits)
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : Analysis of current meteorological data. Quasigeostrophic theory, including the omega equation, as it relates to extratropical cyclone and anticyclone development. Frontogenesis and frontal circulations in the lower and upper troposphere. Cumulus convection and its relationship to tropical and extratropical circulations. Diagnostic case study work.
Terms: Winter 2024
Instructors: Gyakum, John Richard (Winter)

ATOC 548 Mesoscale Meteorology (3 credits)
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : Theory of meteorologically important mesoscale phenomena including mesoscale instabilities, cumulus convection and its organization (including thunderstorms, squall lines, and other forms of severe weather), internal gravity waves, and topographically forced flows. Application of theory to the physical interpretation of observations and numerical simulations.
Terms: This course is not scheduled for the 20232024 academic year.
Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 20232024 academic year.

ATOC 557 Research Methods: Atmospheric and Oceanic Science (3 credits)
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : This course is focused on the analysis of observational and modeling data, and the advantages and limitations of different data are discussed. The course covers several analysis methods (regression, principle component analysis, optimal estimation) commonly used in the atmospheric and oceanic sciences. In addition to the theory underlying these methods, there will be handson applications to observations of Earth.
Terms: Winter 2024
Instructors: Fajber, Robert (Winter)

ATOC 558 Numerical Methods and Laboratory (3 credits)
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : Numerical simulation of atmospheric and oceanic processes. Finite difference, finite element, and spectral modelling techniques. Term project including computer modelling of convection or largescale flows in the atmosphere or ocean.
Terms: This course is not scheduled for the 20232024 academic year.
Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 20232024 academic year.

ATOC 568 Ocean Physics (3 credits)
Overview
Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences : Research methods in physical oceanography including data analysis and literature review. Course will be divided into five separate modules focusing on temperaturesalinity patterns, ocean circulation, boundary layers, wave phenomena and tides.
Terms: This course is not scheduled for the 20232024 academic year.
Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 20232024 academic year.
Winter
3 hours lecture
Prerequisite (Undergraduate): ATOC 512 or permission of instructor
Restriction: Graduate students and finalyear Honours Atmospheric Science students. Others by special permission.

PHYS 339 Measurements Laboratory in General Physics (3 credits)
Overview
Physics : Introduction to modern techniques of measurement. The use of computers in performing and analysing experiments. Data reduction, statistical methods, report writing. Extensive use of computers is made in this laboratory; therefore some familiarity with computers and computing is an advantage.
Terms: Winter 2024
Instructors: Ryan, Dominic (Winter)
Winter
6 hours
Prerequisite: PHYS 241 or permission of instructor

PHYS 404 Climate Physics (3 credits) *
Overview
Physics : This course covers the essentials of climate physics through the lens of onedimensional, vertical atmospheric models. This includes shortwave and longwave radiative transfer, convection, phase changes, clouds, greenhouse gases, and atmospheric escape. This is an adequate level of detail for understanding Earth's climate, paleoclimate, anthropogenic climate change, or pursing studies of Solar System planets and extrasolar planets.
Terms: Fall 2023
Instructors: Huang, Yi (Fall)

PHYS 432 Physics of Fluids (3 credits)
Overview
Physics : The physical properties of fluids. The kinematics and dynamics of flow. The effects of viscosity and turbulence. Applications of fluid mechanics in biophysics, geophysics and engineering.
Terms: Winter 2024
Instructors: Lee, Eve J (Winter)

PHYS 434 Optics (3 credits)
Overview
Physics : Fundamental concepts of optics, including applications and modern developments. Light propagation in media; geometric optics and optical instruments; polarization and coherence properties of light; interference and interferometry; diffraction theory and applications in spectrometry and imaging; Gaussian beams, Fourier optics and photonic band structure. A laboratory component provides handson experience in optical setup design, construction and testing of concepts introduced in lectures.
Terms: Fall 2023
Instructors: Wang, Kai (Fall)

PHYS 449 Majors Research Project (3 credits)
Overview
Physics : A supervised research project.
Terms: Fall 2023, Winter 2024
Instructors: Hanna, David (Fall) Childress, Lilian (Winter)
Winter or Summer
6 hours
Restrictions: U2 or U3 students in a Physics program, or permission of the instructor.

PHYS 512 Computational Physics with Applications (3 credits)
Overview
Physics : Computational methods in Physics illustrated with realworld applications.
Terms: Fall 2023
Instructors: Cumming, Andrew (Fall)
U3 or graduate students in Physics, Chemistry, or Engineering, or permission of the instructor. Basic familiarity with computer programming highly recommended.