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All items listed here are copyrighted 2002-2024 by Caroline Palmer, her co-authors, and/or the respective journals. Usage of the following documents to make digital or hard copies for personal use is accepted as long as this notice and the full citation of the paper(s) appear on top of the copies' first page. Other usage requires specific permission and/or a fee.


Wright, S.E., & Palmer, C. (2024). Cardiac dynamics in auditory-motor synchronization: Roles of short-term training and rhythm complexity. In press, Auditory Perception & Cognition.

van Kerrebroeck, B., Wanderley, M.M., Demos, A.P., & Palmer, C. (2024). Human-machine trios show different tempo changes in musical tasks. In press, Proceedings of the Cognitive Science Society.


Wright, S.E., & Palmer, C. (2023) Auditory rhythm complexity affects cardiac dynamics in perception and synchronizationPLoS One, 18(11): e0293882.

Palmer, C., & Demos, A.P. (2023). Social timing: More than combinatorial probabilities? Physics of Life Reviews, 47, 102-103.

Demos, A.P., & Palmer, C. (2023). Musical synchrony, dynamical systems and information-processing: Merger or redundancy? Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 12, 1107-1108doi:

Demos, A.P. & Palmer, C. (2023) Social and nonlinear dynamics unite: Musical group synchronyTrends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 1008-1018.  doi:


Tranchant, P., Scholler, E., & Palmer, C. (2022)PDF icon   Endogenous rhythms influence musicians' and non-musicians' interpersonal synchrony. Scientific Reports, 12, 12973.
doi: /10.1038/s41598-022-16686-2   

Bégel, V., Demos, A.P., Wang, M., & Palmer, C. (2022). Social interaction and rate effects in models of musical synchronization.  Frontiers in Psychology, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2022.865536

Slater, J., Joober, R., Koborsy, B.L., Mitchell, S., Sahlas, E., & Palmer, C. (2022). Can electroencephalography (EEG) identify ADHD subtypes? A systematic review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 139, 104752.

Palmer, C., & Demos, A.P. (2022).PDF icon Are we in time? How predictive coding and dynamical systems explain musical synchrony. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 31, 147-153.

Wright, S.E., Bégel, V., & Palmer, C. (2022). Physiological influences of music in perception and action (Elements in Perception). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781009043359

Baa Baa Black Sheep at 5 tempi: Audio icon slow, Audio icon moderate, Audio icon lively, Audio icon fast, Audio icon faster


Wright, S.E, & Palmer, C. (2021). Does chronotype explain daily timing of music behaviors? Chronobiology International, 39:2, 186-197. doi: 10.1080/07420528.2021.1989449

Zamm, A., Palmer, C., Bauer, A.-K., Bleichner, M.G., Demos, A.P  & Debener, S. (2021). Behavioral and neural dynamics of interpersonal synchrony between performing musicians: A wireless EEG hyperscanning study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 15, 717810. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2021.717810  

Scheurich, R., Palmer, C., Kaya, B., Agostino, C., & Sheldon, S. (2021). Evidence for a visual bias when recalling complex narratives. PLoS One, 16(4): e0249950. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0249950 

Pfordresher, P., Greenspon, E., Friedman, A., & Palmer, C. (2021). Spontaneous production rates in music and speechFrontiers in Psychology, 12, 611867. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.611867

Chew, E., P. Loui, G. Leslie, C. Palmer, J. Berger, E. Large, N. F. Bernardi, S. Hanser, J. F. Thayer, M. Casey, & P. Lambiase (2021). How music can literally heal the heart. Scientific American, Sept 18.


Wright, S.E., & Palmer, C. (2020). Physiological and behavioural factors in musicians' performance tempo. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 14, 311. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2020.00311

Mathias, B., Zamm, A., Gianferrara, P.G., Ross, B., & Palmer, C. (2020). Rhythm complexity modulates behavioural and neural dynamics during auditory-motor synchronization. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 32, 1864-1880.

Scheurich, R., Pfordresher, P.Q., & Palmer, C. (2020). Musical training enhances temporal adaptation of auditory-motor synchronization . Experimental Brain Research, 238, 81-92. doi: 10.1007/s00221-019-05692-y.


Scheurich, R., Demos, A., Zamm, A., Mathias, B., & Palmer, C. (2019). PDF icon Capturing intra-and inter-brain dynamics with recurrence quantification analysis. In A.K. Goel, C.M. Seifert, & C. Freksa (Eds.), Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2748-2754). Montreal, QC: Cognitive Science Society.

Palmer, C. (2019). A postdoc is not the only career option for new Psychology PhDs. Presented at the WiCS-Canada meeting, Waterloo ON, June.

Lagrois, M.-E., Palmer, C., & Peretz, I. (2019). Poor synchronization to musical beat generalizes to speech. Brain Sciences, 9, 1-20. doi:10.3390/brainsci9070157

Demos, A.P., Layeghi, H., Wanderley, M.M., & Palmer, C. (2019). Staying together: A bidirectional delay-coupled approach to joint action. Cognitive Science, 43. doi: 10.1111/cogs.12766

Schultz, B.G., & Palmer, C. (2019). The roles of musical expertise and sensory feedback in beat keeping and joint action. Psychological Research, 83(3), 419–431. doi: 10.1007/s00426-019-01156-8

Mathias, B., Gehring, W.J., & Palmer, C. (2019). Electrical brain responses reveal sequential constraints on planning during music performance. Brain Sciences, 9, 25. doi:10.3390/brainsci9020025

Palmer, C., Spidle, F., Koopmans, E., Schubert, P. (2019). Ears, head and eyes: When singers synchronize. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72(9), 2272-2287. doi:10.1177/1747021819833968

Palmer, C., & Scheurich, R. (2019). Musicians in action: Solo and ensemble performance. In J. Rentfrow & D. Levitin (Eds), Foundations in Music Psychology: Theory and Research (pp.751-779). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


Zamm, A., Wang, Y., & Palmer, C. (2018). Musicians' natural frequencies of performance display optimal temporal stability. Journal of Biological Rhythms, 33, 432-440. doi: 10.1177/0748730418783651

Scheurich, R., Zamm, A., & Palmer, C. (2018). Tapping into rate flexibility: Musical training facilitates synchronization around spontaneous production rates. Frontiers in Psychology. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00458

Zamm, A., Debener, S., Bauer, A-K.R., Bleichner, M.G., Demos, A.P., & Palmer, C. (2018). Amplitude envelope correlations measure synchronous cortical oscillations in performing musicians. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. doi: 10.1111/nyas.13738

Caramiaux, B., Bevilacqua, F., Wanderley, M.M., & Palmer, C. (2018). Dissociable effects of practice variability on learning motor and timing skills. PLoS ONE, 13(3): e0193580. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193580


Zamm, A., Palmer, C., Bauer, A.-K. R., Bleichner, M.G., Demos, A.P., & Debener, S. (2017). Synchronizing MIDI and wireless EEG measurements during natural piano performance. Brain Research, doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2017.07.001

Palmer, C., & Zamm, A. (2017). Interactions in ensemble music performance: Empirical and mathematical accounts. In M. Lessaffre, M. Leman, P.-J. Maes (Eds), The Routledge Companion to Embodied Music Interaction (pp. 370-379). London: Routledge.

Caramiaux, B., Bevilacqua, B., Palmer, C., & Wanderley, M.M. (2017). Individuality in piano performance depends on skill learning. In Proceedings of 4th International Conference on Movement Computing, London UK (MOCO'17). doi: 10.1145/3077981.3078046

Demos, A.P., Carter, D.J., Wanderley, M.M., & Palmer, C. (2017). The unresponsive partner: Roles of social status, auditory feedback, and animacy in coordination of joint music performance. Frontiers in Psychology, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00149

Mathias, B., Gehring, W. J., & Palmer, C. (2017). Auditory N1 reveals planning and monitoring processes during music performance. Psychophysiology, 54, 235-247. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12781


Schultz, B.G., O'Brien, I., Phillips, N., McFarland, D.H., Titone, D., & Palmer, C. (2016). Speech rates converge in scripted turn-taking conversations. Applied Psycholinguistics, 37, 1201-1220. doi:10.1017/S0142716415000545

Beat-tracker algorithm (matlab scripts used in Schultz et al, 2016) and sample .wav file (not used in Schultz et al., 2016).

Mathias, B., Tillmann, B., & Palmer, C. (2016). Sensory, cognitive, and sensorimotor learning effects in recognition memory for music. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 28, 1111-1126. doi:10.1162/jocn_a_00958
In the news: Playing an instrument enhances pitch perception

Gingras, B., Palmer, C., Schubert, P.N., & McAdams, S. (2016). Influence of melodic emphasis, texture, salience, and performer individuality on performance errors. Psychology of Music, 44, 847-863. doi: 10.1177/0305735615594491

Zamm, A., Wellman, C., & Palmer, C. (2016). Endogenous rhythms influence interpersonal synchrony. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 42, 161-166. doi: 10.1037/xhp0000201
In the news: Find a partner who marches to the beat of your own drum

Livingstone, S.R., & Palmer, C. (2016). Head movements encode emotions during speech and song. Emotion, 16, 365-380. doi: 10.1037/emo0000106
In the news: Our head movements convey emotions

Mathias, B., Lidji, P., Honing, H., Palmer, C., & Peretz, I. (2016). Electrical brain responses to beat irregularities in two cases of beat deafness. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10, 40. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2016.00040


Van Hedger, S.C., Hogstrom, A., Palmer, C., & Nusbaum, H.C. (2015). Sleep consolidation of musical competence. Music Perception, 33, 163-178. Re-published in 2019 special issue of Music Perception. doi: 10.1525/mp.2015.33.2.163

Livingstone, S.R., Thompson, W.F., Wanderley, M.M., & Palmer, C. (2015). Common cues to emotion in the dynamic facial expressions of speech and song. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68, 952-970. doi: 10.1080/17470218.2014.971034

Maes, P.J., Wanderley, M.M., & Palmer, C. (2015). The role of working memory in the temporal control of discrete and continuous movements. Experimental Brain Research, 233, 263-273.

Mathias, B., Pfordresher, P.Q., & Palmer, C. (2015). Context and meter enhance long-range planning in music performance. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 1040. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.01040

Palmer, C. (2015). Listening, imagining, performing: Melody as a life cycle of musical thought. Music Perception, 33, 3-11. doi: 10.1525/mp.2015.33.1.3

Zamm, A., Pfordresher, P.Q., & Palmer, C. (2015). Temporal coordination in joint music performance: Effects of endogenous rhythms and auditory feedback. Experimental Brain Research, 233, 607-615. doi: 10.1007/s00221-014-4140-5

Mathias, B., Palmer, C., Perrin, F., & Tillmann, B. (2015). Sensorimotor learning enhances expectations during auditory perception. Cerebral Cortex, 15, 2238-2254. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhu030
In the news: How the brain recognizes familiar music.


Maes, P.-J., Leman, M., Palmer, C. & Wanderley, M.M. (2014). Action-based effects on music perception. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 1008. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.01008.
Les effets de l’action sur la perception de la musique. Publié dans Frontiers in Psychology le 03 janvier 2014. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.01008. Cette traduction est publiée avec l’autorisation de la revue et des auteurs.

Palmer, C., Lidji, P., & Peretz, I. (2014). Losing the beat: Deficits in temporal coordination. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 369, 20130405. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0405

Quinto, L.R., Thompson, W.F., Kroos, C., & Palmer, C. (2014). Singing emotionally: A study of pre-production, production, and post-production facial expressions. Frontiers in Psychology, 5. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00262

Brown, R.M., & Palmer, C. (2013). Auditory and motor imagery modulate learning in music performance. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 320. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00320

Brown, R.M., Chen, J., Hollinger, A., Penhune, V., Palmer, C., & Zatorre, R. (2013). Repetition suppression in auditory-motor regions to pitch and temporal structure in music. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25, 313-328. doi: 10.1162/jocn_a_00322

Goebl, W., & Palmer, C. (2013). Temporal control and hand movement efficiency in skilled music performance. PLoS One 8: e50901. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050901

Palmer, C., & Loehr, J.D. (2013). Meeting of two minds in duet piano performance. In L. F. Bernstein and A. Rozin (Eds.), Musical implications: Essays in honor of Eugene Narmour (pp. 323-338). Hillsdale, NY: Pendragon Press.

Palmer, C. (2013). Music performance: Movement and coordination. In D. Deutsch (Ed.), The Psychology of Music, Third Ed (pp. 405-422). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Press. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-381460-9.00010-9

Palmer, C., Spidle, F., Koopmans, E., & Schubert, P. (2013). Temporal coordination in vocal duet performances of musical rounds. In R. Bresin & A. Askenfelt (Eds), Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference (pp. 678-682), KTH Royal Institute of Technology: Stockholm.

Altenmüller, E., Demorest, S.M., Fujioka, T., Halpern, A.R., Hannon, E.E., Loui, P., Majno, M., Oechslin, M.S., Osborne, N., Overy, K., Palmer, C., Peretz, I., Pfordresher, P.Q., Särkämö, T., Wan, C.Y., & Zatorre, R.J. (2012). Introduction to The Neurosciences and music IV: learning and memory. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1252, 1-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06474.x

Brown, R.M., & Palmer, C. (2012). Auditory-motor learning influences auditory memory for music. Memory & Cognition, 40, 567-578. doi: 10.3758/s13421-011-0177-x

Livingstone, S.R., Palmer, C., & Schubert, E. (2012). Emotional response to musical repetition. Emotion, 12, 552-567. doi: 10.1037/a0023747

Palmer, C., Mathias, B., & Anderson, M. (2012). Sensorimotor mechanisms in music performance: Actions that go partially wrong. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1252, 185-191. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06427.x

Pivneva, I., Palmer, C., & Titone, D. (2012). Inhibitory control and L2 proficiency modulate bilingual language production: Evidence from spontaneous monologue and dialogue speech. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 57. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00057

Dalla Bella, S., & Palmer, C. (2011). Rate effects on timing, key velocity, and finger kinematics in piano performance. PLoS ONE, 6, e20518. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020518

Lidji, P., Palmer, C., Peretz, I., & Morningstar, M. (2011). Entrainment to speech and song. In A. Williamon, D. Edwards, & L. Bartel (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Symposium on Performance Science (pp. 123-128). EAC: Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Lidji, P., Palmer, C., Peretz, I., & Morningstar, M. (2011). Listeners feel the beat: Entrainment to English and French speech rhythms. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 1035-1041. doi: 10.3758/s13423-011-0163-0

Livingstone, S., Palmer, C., Wanderley, M.M., Thompson, W.F., & Lissemore, J. (2011). Facial expressions in vocal performance: Visual communication of emotion. In A. Williamon, D. Edwards, & L. Bartel (Eds.) , Proceedings of the International Symposium on Performance Science (pp. 545-550). EAC: Utrecht, The Netherlands. doi: 10.13140/2.1.3522.1446

Loehr, J.D., & Palmer, C. (2011). Temporal coordination between performing musicians. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 2153-2167. doi: 10.1080/17470218.2011.603427

Loehr, J.D., Large, E.W., & Palmer, C. (2011). Temporal coordination and adaptation to rate change in music performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 37, 1292-1309. doi: 10.1037/a0023102

Pfordresher, P.Q., Keller, P.E., Koch, I., Palmer, C., & Yildirim, E. (2011). Activation of learned action sequences by auditory feedback. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 544-549.

Phillips-Silver, J., Toiviainen, P., Gosselin, N., Piché, O., Nozaradan, S., Palmer, C., & Peretz, I. (2011). Born to dance but beat deaf: A new form of congenital amusia. Neuropsychologia, 49, 961-969. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.02.002

Mathias, B., Palmer, C., Pfordresher, P.Q., & Anderson, M.F. (2010). Effects of meter and serial position on memory retrieval during music performance. In A. Williamon, D. Edwards, and L. Bartel (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Symposium on Performance Science (pp, 405-410). Utrecht, The Netherlands: European Association of Conservatoires.


Goebl, W., & Palmer, C. (2009). Synchronization of timing and motion among performing musicians. Music Perception, 26, 427-438. doi: 10.1525/mp.2009.26.5.427

Goebl, W., & Palmer, C. (2009). Finger motion in piano performance: Touch and tempo. In A. Williamon, S. Pretty, & R. Buck (Eds.) , Proceedings of the International Symposium on Performance Science (pp. 65-70). EAC: Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Livingstone, S.R., Schubert, E., Loehr, J.D., & Palmer, C. (2009). Emotional arousal and the automatic detection of musical phrase. In A. Williamon, S. Pretty, & R. Buck (Eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Performance Science (pp. 445–450). Utrecht: European Association of Conservatoires (AEC).

Loehr, J.D., & Palmer, C. (2009). Sequential and biomechanical factors constrain timing and motion in tapping. Journal of Motor Behavior, 41, 128-136. doi: 10.3200/JMBR.41.2.128-136

Loehr, J.D., & Palmer, C. (2009). Subdividing the beat: Auditory and motor contributions to synchronization. Music Perception, 26, 415-425. doi: 10.1525/mp.2009.26.5.415

Palmer, C., Koopmans, E., Carter, C., Loehr, J.D., & Wanderley, M. (2009). Synchronization of motion and timing in clarinet performance. In A. Williamon, S. Pretty, & R. Buck (Eds.), Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Performance Science. Utrecht: European Association of Conservatoires (AEC).

Palmer, C., Jewett, L.R., & Steinhauer, K. (2009). Effects of context on electrophysiological responses to musical accents. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1169, 470-480. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04584.x

Palmer, C., Koopmans, E., Loehr, J.D., & Carter, C. (2009). Movement-related feedback and temporal accuracy in clarinet performance. Music Perception, 26, 439-449. doi: 10.1525/mp.2009.26.5.439

Goebl, W., & Palmer, C. (2008). Tactile feedback and timing accuracy in piano performance. Experimental Brain Research, 186, 471-479.  

Hutchins, S., & Palmer, C. (2008). Repetition priming in music. The Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 34, 693-707. doi: 10.1037/0096-1523.34.3.693

Palmer, C. (2008). Music and the pursuit of truth. Music Perception. 25, 487. doi: 10.1525/mp.2008.25.5.487

Palmer, C., Carter, C., Koopmans, E. & Loehr, J.D. (2007). Movement, planning, and music: Motion coordinates of skilled performance. In E. Schubert, K. Buckley, R. Eliott, B. Koboroff, J. Chen, C. Stevens (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Music Communication Science (pp. 119-122). Sydney, Australia: University of Western Sydney.

Pfordresher, P.Q., Palmer, C., & Jungers, M. K. (2007). Speed, accuracy, and serial order in sequence production. Cognitive Science, 26, 1-37. doi: 10.1080/03640210709336985

Loehr, J.D., & Palmer, C. (2007). Cognitive and biomechanical influences in pianists' finger tapping. Experimental Brain Research, 178, 518-528.

Schendel, Z.A., & Palmer, C. (2007). Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory. Memory & Cognition, 35, 640-650.

Dalla Bella, S., & Palmer, C. (2006). Personal identifiers in musicians' finger movement dynamics. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, Supplement, G84.

Palmer, C. (2006). The nature of memory for music performance skills. In E. Altenmüller, M. Wiesendanger, J. Kesselring (Eds.), Music, Motor Control and the Brain, pp 39-53. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199298723.003.0003

Palmer, C., & Hutchins, S. (2006). What is musical prosody?. In B. H. Ross (Ed.), Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 46, pp 245-278. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Press. doi: 10.1016/S0079-7421(06)46007-2

Pfordresher, P.Q., & Palmer, C. (2006). Effects of hearing the past, present, or future during music performance. Perception & Psychophysics, 68, 362-376.

Palmer, C. (2005a). Sequence memory in music performance. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 247-250. doi: 10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00374.x

Palmer, C. (2005b). Time course of retrieval and movement preparation in music performance. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1060, 360-367. doi: 10.1196/annals.1360.030

Earlier work

Highben, Z., & Palmer, C. (2004). Effects of auditory and motor mental practice in memorized piano performance. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 159, 58-65.

Palmer, C., & Dalla Bella, S. (2004). Movement amplitude and tempo change in piano performance. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 115, 2590. doi: 10.1121/1.4784407

Finney, S. A., & Palmer, C. (2003). Auditory feedback and memory for music performance: Sound evidence for an encoding effect. Memory & Cognition, 31, 51-64.

Meyer, R. K., & Palmer, C. (2003). Temporal and motor transfer in music performance. Music Perception, 21, 81-104. doi: 10.1525/mp.2003.21.1.81

Palmer, C., & Jungers, M.K. (2003). Music cognition. In L. Nadel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science, 3, 155-158.

Palmer, C., & Pfordresher, P.Q. (2003). Incremental planning in sequence production. Psychological Review, 110, 683-712. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.110.4.683

Jungers, M. K., Palmer, C., & Speer, S.R. (2002). Time after time: the coordinating influence of tempo in music and speech. Cognitive Processing, 1, 21-35.

Large, E.W., & Palmer, C. (2002). Perceiving temporal regularity in music. Cognitive Science, 26, 1-37. doi: 10.1207/s15516709cog2601_1

Pfordresher, P.Q., & Palmer, C. (2002). Effects of delayed auditory feedback on timing in music performance. Psychological Research, 16, 71-79.

Palmer, C., Jungers, M.K., & Jusczyk, P.W. (2001). Episodic memory for musical prosody. Journal of Memory and Language, 45, 526-545. doi: 10.1006/jmla.2000.2780

Drake, C., & Palmer, C. (2000). Skill acquisition in music performance: relations between planning and temporal control. Cognition, 74, 1-33.

Palmer, C., & Meyer, R.K. (2000). Conceptual and motor learning in music performance. Psychological Science, 11, 63-68. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00216

Palmer, C., & Pfordresher, P.Q. (2000). From my hand to your ear: the faces of meter in performance and perception. In C. Woods, G. Luck, R. Brochard, F. Seddon & J. A. Sloboda (Eds.) Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition. Keele, UK: Keele University.

Palmer, C. (1997). Music performance. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 155-138. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.48.1.115

Palmer, C., & van de Sande, C. (1993). Units of knowledge in music performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 19, 457-470. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.19.2.457

Palmer, C. (1989). Mapping musical thought to musical performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 15, 331-346. doi: 10.1037/0096-1523.15.2.331

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