Carl F. Falk

Academic title(s): 

Assistant Professor


Contact Information:


Office: 2001 McGill College, 753
Phone: 514.398.6133
Email: carl.falk[at]


Mailing Address:
Department of Psychology
2001 McGill College, 7th floor
Montreal, QC
H3A 1G1



Research Areas:

Quantitative & Modelling

Research Summary:

Professor Falk’s research focuses mainly on the development, computer programming, and testing of latent variable models and related statistical methods, spanning across item response theory, structural equation modeling, and multilevel modeling. This research is envisioned as having potential broad applications across psychology and other social science disciplines (e.g., education, sociology, health outcomes). Recent examples include: (1) models for measuring psychological constructs in the presence of response styles; (2) semi- and non-parametric item response models for when common parametric assumptions are violated; (3) appropriate ways of handling of missing and non-normal data in structural equation modeling; and (4) interval estimation techniques for functions of model parameters (e.g., indirect effect in mediation analysis models).

Selected References:

Ju, U., & Falk, C.F. (2019). Modeling response styles in cross-country self-reports: An application of a multilevel multidimensional nominal response model. Journal of Educational Measurement, 56, 169-191.

Falk, C.F., & Monroe, S. (2018). On Lagrange Multiplier tests in multidimensional item response theory: Information matrices and model misspecification. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 78, 653-678.

Falk, C.F. (2018). Are robust standard errors the best approach for interval estimation with non-normal data in structural equation modeling? Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 25, 244-266.

Falk, C.F., & Cai, L. (2016). A flexible full-information approach to the modeling of response styles. Psychological Methods, 21, 328-347.

Falk, C.F., & Cai, L. (2016). Maximum marginal likelihood estimation of a monotonic polynomial generalized partial credit model with applications to multiple group analysis. Psychometrika, 81, 434-460.

Falk, C.F., & Biesanz, J.C. (2016). Two cross-platform programs for inferences and interval estimation about indirect effects in mediational models. SAGE Open, 6.

Falk, C.F., & Biesanz, J.C. (2015). Inference and interval estimation methods for indirect effects with latent variable models. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 22, 24-38.