The forces of globalization have transformed migration in the twenty-first century into a complex, multi-layered system encompassing countries of origin, transit, and destination. Increased interconnectedness and dependence of modern nation-states and their economies have spurred a mass movement of money, goods and services, information, and people across geo-political boundaries. Wars, political instability, and natural disasters also impel people to flee their homeland in search of refuge. Indeed, one out of every 30 persons in the world is a migrant. Developing countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia are often the suppliers of cheap and flexible labor for developed and emergent economies. Though sending countries may suffer from a temporary loss of its most skilled population—a phenomenon known as “brain drain”—they gain in remittances, money that immigrants send back to their relatives. It is estimated that worldwide, roughly the equivalent of $316 billion USD are sent by migrants to developing countries. Traditional immigrant-receiving countries such as Canada and the United States continue to recruit and attract both skilled and unskilled workers. In Canada immigrants make up about 19% of the total population and are a major source of the country’s growing visible minority population. Yet, beyond the effects on sending and receiving societies, migration also affects the individuals who move and their families and communities in both origin and destination areas as well. In this axis, we will explore how migration has transformed sending and receiving countries. We will also examine the economic, political, spatial, cultural, social, and health integration of immigrants and their children in both traditional (e.g., USA, Canada, Netherlands) and new (e.g., Ireland and Portugal) immigrant-receiving countries.

Members working in this area: Vissého AdjiwanouMichael HaanSolène LardouxEran ShorMichael Smith, Thomas Soehl, and Morton Weinfeld

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