Federalism & the COVID-19 Pandemic - A compendium of (re)sources

1. Blogs or websites dedicated to the pandemic and/or federalism
2. Podcasts / videos / conferences
3. Research projects and calls for papers
4. Specific federations
5. Comparing federations

The MacKell Chair team is collecting sources on the intersection between federalism-writ-large and COVID-19.

We aim to update every other week. New materials are added to top of each section/country. Please email relevant articles, links, etc. at federalism-covid19.law [at] mcgill.ca.

Last update: 25 March 2021.

This list was prepared by Mr. Atagün Kejanlioglu, DCL candidate, and Professor Johanne Poirier, Peter MacKell Chair in Federalism, Faculty of Law, McGill University. Our thanks to the Research Group on Plurinational Societies, the Law and You Seminars Fund and the Fasken Martineau Corporate and Social Responsibility Fund for their support.

Please stay safe! 


1. Blogs or websites (partly) dedicated to the pandemic and/or federalism
Blogues et sites (partiellement) consacrés à la pandémie et/ou au fédéralisme

  • Power and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Verfassungsblog is hosting a symposium on COVID-19 pandemic that brings together experts from over 70 countries to reflect on how legal and political systems have adapted to ongoing challenges presented by the pandemic to democracy, human rights, and the rule of law, and to offer recommendations on the future of good governance. Please visit the website for posts.
  • Law School Policy Review: This webinar series cum blog symposium – organized by the student wing of the Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy, the Kautilya Society, in partnership with the Young Scholars Initiative – aims to analyse key policy decisions have already been made by the governments, over the past weeks as the country wrestled with the pandemic. Indian federalism is one of the three main themes.
  • The COVID Comparative Project: The COVID Comparative Project at the Munk School of Global Affairs & Public Policy features 16 country case studies conducted by University of Toronto undergraduate students, under the supervision of Professor Joseph Wong. It includes articles from federal systems such as, Germany, Brazil, China, Canada, India, Italy, UK, and the US.
  • The Canadian Constitution Foundation has created a COVID-19 Watch section where it regularly publishes articles on policy responses by provincial governments and the Canadian government.
  • The Centre for Constitutional Studies (University of Alberta) launched a blog on Pandemic Powers and Constitution.
  • The PEX Network is publishing a compilation of articles from political scientists analyzing the response of the executives from all over the world. The series includes articles on the analysis of multi-level governance in Germany and the United States.
  • The Coronavirus Challenge to Governance in Canada: The School of Policy Studies of Queen’s University has established a Governance Working Group that publishes op-eds in the Ottawa Citizen. Please visit the Group’s site for more information on the working group and all the published articles.
  • The AUSPUBLAW Blog has a special series exploring the public law implications of the COVID-19 pandemic. These posts are written for the blog by a range of public law scholars and practitioners from across Australia.
  • IACL-AICC Blog: The IACL blog launched a Vlog Symposium called “Constitutional Reflections on the Pandemic.”
  • COVID Response – Birmingham University (SUNY): The lab’s website offers a focus on the role of democratic institutions generally, and among democracies – of the institutions of federalism in particular, in effecting policy responses during crises.
  • The Regulatory Review: This publication’s website includes a section dedicated to essays that discuss the administrative law and regulatory dimensions to the global response to COVID-19.
  • Canadian Journal of Political Science: The Journal regularly publishes accepted manuscripts and research notes on its website.
  • Centre for Civil and Political Rights: The Centre created a compilation based on the data on measures taken by States in response to the global COVID-19 pandemic that may influence the state's ability to ensure the rights and obligations protected by the ICCPR.
  • Institute for Government: The Institute’s website includes a page on UK Devolution and COVID-19.
  • La Chaire de recherche en fiscalité et en finances publiques à l’Université de Sherbrooke: Ce site web fait un suivi des mesures économiques gouvernementales découlant de la crise de la COVID-19 au Québec, au Canada et ailleurs dans le monde.
  • Hunton Andrews Kurth Complaint Tracker: The firm is offering a tracker that allows to see civil complaints in the US and its topic state by state.
  • Daniel Turp: Sur son site web, le prof. Turp publie régulièrement un recueil des décrets et arrêtés [.doc, version: 10 mai 2020] visant à protéger la santé de la population du Québec dans la situation de pandémie de la COVID-19.
  • Forum of Federations : two collections of articles on Pandemic responses in different federations: Federalism and COVID, and Devolution and COVID.
  • Cambridge Core Blog: blog series by Health Economics, Policy and Law on country responses to COVID-19. Includes blog posts on many countries including federal systems, but also about several constituent units within federal/quasi-federal systems, i.e. British Columbia (Canada), Kerala (India), Bergamo (Italy), Minnesota, New Jersey, Wisconsin (US).
  • Policy Options / Options politiques: publishes articles on COVID-19 crisis regularly.
  • La COVID dans les Amériques : Série de billets dirigée par l’Institut des Amériques et « Interdisciplinary Global Environmental Studies » sur la COVID-19 aux Amériques.
  • Verfassungsblog: A special debate section dedicated to blog posts regarding the states of emergency and democracy around the world with some discussions of federalism.
  • Covid-Dem: An info hub maintained by Tom Gerald Daly on democracy and COVID-19 crisis.
  • (Re-)Imagining Territorial Politics in Times of Crisis: UACES-JMCT Research Network launched a new blog exploring the drivers and consequences of territorial conflicts in multi-level and pluri-national societies during these turbulent times including COVID-19 crisis.
  • iPolitics: The website now has a policy portal for COVID-19 related articles.
  • CRIDAQ: Le centre a créé une rubrique pour accéder plus facilement aux articles de ses membres sur la COVID-19.

2. Podcasts / videos / conferences
Balados / vidéos / conférences

  • Australia (Australie): Julian Morrow hosts this radio show on Australian federalism in which the guests, Geoff Gallop, Robert Carling, Karen Middleton, try to answer if the pandemic permanently changed Australians’ notion of federalism.
  • Canada: In this episode of the Sunday Magazine, Johanne Poirier and Jennifer Wallner join Piya Chattopadhyay to talk about how the pandemic has tested Canadian federalism, what it has revealed to us about how well we work together, how we stack up against other federations - and what we can improve, moving forward.
  • Germany (Allemagne): This webinar on Germany, Federalism and COVID-19 with StM Dr. Florian Heremann focus on the Covid-19 crisis from the perspective of the German Land Bavaria (Bayern).
  • Union Européenne (European Union): Dans cette émission, Laurent Warlouzet, historien spécialiste de l’Europe à l’Université Paris Sorbonne, Alan Hervé, juriste et professeur à Sciences Po Rennes et Jacques Le Cacheux, économiste et professeur à l’Université de Pau s’interrogent si la Covid accélère le fédéralisme européen.
  • United States (États-Unis): 26 January 2021, 12:00 EST, The National Constitution Center and the National Association of Attorneys General will host a bipartisan conversation of state attorneys general to discuss key issues regarding federalism and states’ rights, from the COVID-19 pandemic to law enforcement, elections, and more. Jeffrey Rosen, president and CEO of the National Constitution Center, will moderate.
  • GOVTRUST Centre of Excellence (Belgium): The centre is organising a symposium on 29 January 2021, 14:00 - 17:00 CET. The theme of the symposium is “Trust and the COVID-19 Crisis: Regulation and Compliance in Multi-level Governance”. During this symposium, members of the GOVTRUST consortium and guest speakers will present recent work on the topic of trust and the coronavirus crisis, identify key learning points, and raise some crucial questions and issues for discussion.
  • Québec: Dans ce balado, Louis-Philippe Lampron explique pourquoi le couvre-feu du Québec peut être considéré compatible avec la Charte des droits et libertés de la personne.
  • Belgique & Suisse (Belgium & Switzerland): Dans leur épisode du 1er novembre, les chroniqueurs du programme « Les Beaux Parleurs » se demandent si le fédéralisme constitue un défi dans la lutte contre la pandémie.
  • Canada: IPAC- IAPC organised an online panel on COVID-19 and federalism featuring Charles Breton, Mireille Paquet, Robert Schertzeer, and Roxanna Benoit. The panel is available on YouTube.
  • United States (Etats-Unis): National Assocation of Counties is organizing an online event on “Examining Federalism and the Intergovernmental Partnership”. The event was held on October 21, 2020.
  • United States (Etats-Unis): Federalism Index Project is organizing a two-day virtual event entitled “Federalism on Trial: Lessons from COVID-19”. The event was on October 21-22, 2020. For detailed information, please visit the website.
  • International Association of Centres for Federal Studies (IACFS) is organizing a conference whose theme is “Combating the COVID-19 pandemic: Federalism a boon or bane?” The aim is to reflect on how, since the first outbreak of the virus in a country, the federal system functioned and responded over the crucial period ending in October 2020. The conference is taking place online on October 15-16, 2020. To obtain the link and the program, please contact the association.
  • Asia & the Pacific: The 5th Melbourne Forum on Constitution Building in Asia and the Pacific at Melbourne Law School was hosted by the Constitution Transformation Network and by International IDEA. The third webinar of the forum was dedicated to Multi-level governments and COVID-19. Participants were Anne Twomey (Australia), Budhi Karki (Nepal), Ramdas Menon (India), and Yasser KureshiIt (Pakistan). The panel was moderated by William Partlett. The recording of the webinar can be viewed here.
  • Canada: Runnymede Society’s McGill branch plans an online discussion with Dr. Ryan Alford on government emergency powers in a pandemic on 14 October 2020.
  • Latin America & Carribeans: Forum of Federation’s webinar, “Subnational Governments in the COVID-19 Scenario in the Americas”, explores the dynamics and practices of subnational and local governments in responding to the challenges facing Latin America and the Caribbean as a result of the COVID-19 crisis.
  • United States (États-Unis): The Solomon Center for Health Law & Policy at Yale Law School is organizing a virtual COVID-19 workshop on COVID, federalism, and localism  on Wednesday, October 14, 2020 at 5:00PM - 6:30PM.
  • Latin America (Amérique Latine): The David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies at Harvard University is organizing a webinar entitled “Federalism and COVID Responses” on 17 November 2020. Please visit the website for more information.
  • India (Inde): In August, the Institute of Law at Nirma University organized a webinar featuring Abhishek Singhvi as speaker. The webinar is entitled Federalism: Origin, Evolution and Post Covid Times.
  • United States (États-Unis): In this virtual panel from Harvard Kennedy School, Matthew Baum, Erica Chenoweth, and Archon Fung discuss the effects of the COVID-19 crisis on democracies across the world. Fung’s talk particularly focuses on federalism.
  • United States (États-Unis): In this webinar, Donald Verilli, Elizabeth (Bessie) N. Dewar, and Michelle Mello discuss the opportunities and challenges of the US federalism during this pandemic.
  • Forum of Federations launched a podcast series that examines the principles and practice of federal and multi-level governance systems with a comparative international perspective. Each episode addresses a key governance issue with world-leading practitioners and scholars from the Forum’s global expert network.
  • Hoover Institution is organizing a webinar on "Federalism and COVID-19" with Governor Lawrence J. Hogan Jr. and Lanhee J. Chen on Wednesday, August 12, 2020.
  • Argentina (Argentine): In this edition of the IACL-AIDC Vlog Series, Pablo Riberi talks about Argentina.
  • Mexico (Mexique): In this edition to IACL-AIDC Vlog Series, Eugenio Velasco Ibarra explains how Mexico handled the crisis.
  • United States (États-Unis): In this video, J. Wesley Leckrone explores how federalism has affected the United States' response to COVID-19.
  • United States (États-Unis): In this podcast, former Florida Governor Jeb Bush talks about the US federalism and challenges that the States are facing during this crisis.
  • On 30 June 2020, American Institute for Contemporary German Studies at Johns Hopkins University is organizing a webinar on how states’ responses to COVID-19 shaped the national response with a focus on US and Germany. The webinar will feature leaders of two of the largest and most densely populated states in Germany and the US, New Jersey Governor Phil Murphy and North-Rhine Westphalia Minister-President Armin Laschet.
  • On 29 June 2020, the Institute of Federalism is organizing a webinar on the role and impact of federalism on effective crisis management.
  • EURAC’s Institute for Minority Rights organized a series of webinars on Minority Rights and COVID-19.
  • Australia (Australie): In this IACL-AICC vlog episode, Cheryl Saunders talks about Australia’s response to COVID-19.
  • Ethiopia (Ethiopie): In this IACL-AICC vlog episode, Berihun Adugna talks about Ethiopia’s response to COVID-19.
  • Nigeria (Nigéria): In this IACL-AICC vlog episode, Fola Adeleke talks about Nigeria’s response to COVID-19.
  • United Kingdom (Royaume-Uni): On 23 June, the Institute for Government will publish a pre-recorded for the IfG LIVE podcast in which the First Minister of Wales, the Rt Hon Mark Drakeford MS will join Bronwen Maddox, Director of the Institute for Government, to discuss the relationship between Westminster and Cardiff, how the Welsh government has forged its path and the rebuilding of the UK’s economy.
  • India (Inde): Gulati Institute of Finance and Taxation (GIFT) shared the recording of their webinar on COVID-19 Pandemic and Fiscal Federalism in India.
  • United States (États-Unis): The Federalist Society published the recording of the panel on Federalism and COVID-19 from their virtual conference on “COVID-19 & the Law”.
  • India (Inde): In this video from the first episode of Political Pulse, Dinesh Trivedi, Neerja Chowdhury, Bhavna Vij-Aurora, Puneet Nicholas Yadav and moderator Mirza Arif Beg discuss if Indian federalism took a blow during the pandemic.
  • USA (États-Unis): In this short video, Professor Keith Whittington of Princeton University discusses how states have traditionally exerted their authority as they see fit, particularly in a time of a health crisis, and how federal courts can monitor whether a state has unduly violated individual rights or interstate commerce.
  • USA (États-Unis): The Federalist Society is organizing a virtual conference on “COVID-19 & Law” on 11-12 June 2020. The conference will includes a panel dedicated to federalism and COVID-19. See registration information and program.
  • Canada & Hungary / Canada & Hongrie: This webinar on COVID-19: Emergency Powers and Legal Principle: addresses and explains the concept of a ‘state of emergency’ in both the Canadian and Hungarian contexts. Professors David Dyzenhaus and Paul Daly explore what a state of emergency means, examine Canada’s federal and provincial responses to the current public health crisis, and suggest strategies on how to ensure that government power is not abused.
  • Mexico, USA & Brazil / Mexique, Etats-Unis, Brésil: In this webinar, Alberto Diyaz-Cayeros discusses how federalism impacted the Mexican response to the pandemic. He also comments on US and Brazilian federalism.
  • USA / États-Unis: In this virtual policy briefing, John Yoo discusses COVID-19 and US federalism.
  • USA / États-Unis: Aziz Huq, Miriam Seifter, and Debra Perlin discuss the division of decision-making authority in a public health crisis between the federal and state governments in the US Constitution. They try to determine if federal system an advantage or disadvantage in the fight against COVID-19 in this recording of their webinar entitled Federalism: Friend or Foe? Federal & State Authority to Fight COVID-19.
  • USA / États-Unis: In this video entitled “COVID-19 vs. the Constitution: How Far Can Governors Go to Fight the Virus?”, Meryl Chertoff (moderator), Esha Bhandari, Lawrence O. Gostin, Juliette Kayyem, and Jeffrey Locke review the scanty relevant case law in the US. They discuss the federal public health laws governing quarantine and travel limits; consider what powers governors have to limit individual rights and to keep nonresidents out; and explore how constitutional principles on the right to travel; privileges and immunities; and due process could be invoked.
  • USA / États-Unis: At a “teleforum” event organized by the Federalist Society, John Malcolm and John Yoo discuss the balance of powers in the US between the President, Congress, and state governors over lockdown and re-opening policy, testing, and medical expertise.
  • USA / États-Unis: This Lawfare Blog podcast includes a case study of how pandemic control measures intersect with federalism issues and supply chain continuity & security, focusing on what is happening in Illinois. Jen Patja Howell moderates this discussion with David Priess and Mark Denzler.
  • Canada: McGill Institute for the Study of Canada video titled A Critical Juncture in Fiscal Federalism? Canada & COVID-19, where Profs Daniel Béland (McGill U.), Mireille Paquet (Concordia U.), André Lecours (U. Ottawa), and Trevor Tombe (U. Calgary) present their Canadian Journal of Political Science research note, which combines insights from historical institutionalism with recent economic and fiscal projections to explore avenues for reform in response to the COVID-19 crisis.
  • United Kingdom / Royaume Uni: Test, trace and trust: digital technologies & the COVID-19 response across the UK’s devolved nations: Ada Lovelace Institute organized a webinar where panelists discuss the governance and implementation of emerging technologies and how joined-up approaches to COVID-19 across England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales could help to contain the virus and encourage public trust. Speakers are Dr Angela Daly (Strathclyde U.), Professor Maurice Mulvenna (Ulster U.), and Professor Pete Burnap (Cardiff U.). You can also read a written summary of the webinar.
  • Canada: Alain-G. Gagnon parle du partage des risques entre les institutions régissant la fédération canadienne en temps de crise dans ce balado.
  • Australia / Australie: Cheryl Saunders explains the “National Cabinet”, an ad hoc Australian intergovernmental institution set up for responding to COVID-19 in this video.
  • Germany / Allemagne: Centre Interdisciplinaire d’Études et de Recherche sur l’Allemagne (CIERA, Paris) présente des capsules vidéos appelées « Instantanés » sur la lutte contre la COVID. Dans la première vidéo, Karim Fertikh propose des pistes de réflexions sur le modèle allemand, y compris une réflexion sur les effets du fédéralisme allemand dans cette lutte. Dans la deuxième vidéo, Christophe Duhamelle interroge le fédéralisme allemand à la lumière d’autres épidémies de l’histoire allemande.
  • USA / États-Unis: In this podcast from Legal Talk Network, Professors Robert Tsai and Glenn Cohen discuss federalism in the US and states’ powers in the context of the COVID-19 crisis.
  • Germany, EU & international / Allemagne, UE et international: Verfassungsblog is organizing three online discussions on COVID-19 crisis regarding with German, European and international perspectives.

3. Existing research projects and calls for papers
Projets de recherche en cours et appels à contribution

  • Hosted by the Verfassungsblog and supported by Democracy Reporting International, RECONNECT, and the Bingham Centre for the Rule of Law, Power and the COVID-19 Pandemic Symposium beginning on 22 February 2021 brings together experts from over 70 countries to reflect on how legal and political systems have adapted to ongoing challenges presented by the pandemic to democracy, human rights, and the rule of law, and to offer recommendations on the future of good governance. Please visit the website for more information.
  • The UACES-JMCT Research Network ‘Territorial Politics in Times of Crisis’: The research network invites submissions for its first workshop under the theme ‘Conceptualizing Crises in Territorial Politics’, to be held online 29-30 April 2021. The goal is to explore how crises of territorial orders (that is, the institutional organization of territorial diversity, ranging from federations to federacies, devolved states to regionalized unitary states) can be conceptualized. See the call for papers.
  • Canada: In this podcast, Charles Breton moderates a discussion between Mireille Paquet, Robert Schertzer, and Roxanna Benoit. Mireille and Robert, who are associate professors of political science at Concordia University and the University of Toronto respectively, share findings from their recently released study with the Centre of Excellence, Irregular Border Crossings and Asylum Seekers in Canada: A Complex Intergovernmental Problem. Meanwhile, Roxanna brings insights on intergovernmental collaboration, drawing on her experience in the public service, including as Alberta’s former deputy minister of International and Intergovernmental Relations.
  • Covid-19, internal boundaries and regional governance: The Foreign Languages Department at Université Grenoble Alpes is organizing a series of seminars that aims to take stock of the short- and medium-term impact of the crisis on relations between central and regional governments. Submissions will consist in a 300-word summary and a short bibliography, and should be sent in English or in French before 27 November 2020. For more information, see the call for papers.
  • Canadian Journal of Political Science: The Canadian Journal of Political Science is now accepting short research notes (2,000 words or less) devoted to the coronavirus pandemic for rapid peer review and publication. They will accept submissions for the COVID-19 rapid review series until 31 May 2020. After that date, they will continue to accept submissions related to COVID-19 as part of their regular research note and article manuscript submissions. Please see the call for more details.
  • The Review of Constitutional Studies: The Journal is now accepting submissions of manuscripts in English or French for its next two issues. For Issue 25.2, papers focusing on the constitutional implications of emergency powers in response to the recent health and environmental crises are particularly welcome. The deadline for submitting a manuscript for this issue is 30 September 2020. Please see the call for papers more information.
  • Colloque étudiant virtuel sur le rôle des sciences sociales et humaines dans la redéfinition du vivre-ensemble : regards transdisciplinaires sur les sorties de crise: L’UOF et l’Acfas invitent les étudiantes et les étudiants au 2e et au 3e cycles ainsi que les jeunes chercheurs de toutes les disciplines à soumettre des projets de communication qui portent sur les différentes dimensions du vivre-ensemble impliquées par la crise de COVID-19. Les propositions doivent contenir un maximum de 500 mots incluant le titre, la question de recherche, les principales conclusions ainsi qu’un lien avec le thème du colloque. Elles doivent être rédigées en format Times New Roman avec une police de taille 12 et une interligne de 1,5. Le nom du fichier de la proposition doit suivre la forme suivante : prénom_nom_titre de la proposition. Elles doivent être soumises par courriel avant le 15 juin 2020. Toutes les propositions doivent être envoyées à l’adresse suivante : jade.boivin [at] uontario.ca
  • CRIDAQ : Le Centre de recherche fait un appel à projet spécial COVID-19 pour ses membres.
  • Public Law: The Public Law journal welcomes submissions to journal’s analysis section dealing with issues relating to the public law dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic. Editors would keen to receive pieces with varied perspectives including (but not limited to) territorial relations and policy variation between the UK’s governments and comparative reflections on “emergency” responses in other jurisdictions. See here for more information.
  • Centre for Constitutional Studies at University of Alberta welcomes posts for their ‘Pandemic Powers and the Constitution Blog’. Please see the call for posts.
  • The National Journal of Constitutional Law is calling for submissions of papers for possible publication in late 2020 and 2021 on the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the federalism/ human rights and civil liberties in Canada, and the constitutional and administrative law aspects of the use of emergency legislation and the role of judicial review of emergency measures in Canada. The Journal welcomes comparative analysis of these issues in other liberal democratic or federal countries. The suggested deadline is September 30, 2020. Usual paper length is between 8,000 to 10,000 words. Due to the short time frame, shorter papers will also be considered. Papers can be submitted to Professor Errol Mendes at emendes [at] uottawa.ca (.)
  • Writing Competition on Federalism: The theme for the third edition of the Baxter Family Competition on Federalism is 'Federalism, Identity and Public Policy in Challenging Times', which allows for, without being limited to, reflections on the impact of federalism on the coronavirus pandemic and vice versa. Restricted to students in law or in political science, and to jurists and political scientists having graduated less than five years before the Competition's deadline of February 1, 2021. Maximum word count is 8,000 words in English and 8,800 in French. Prizes ranging from 1,000 to 5,000 CAD$ will be awarded to winners, who will have the chance to present their work at a symposium in Montreal, if circumstances permit. Details will follow here, but mark your calendars!

4. Articles on specific federations
Articles portant sur des fédérations spécifiques

Canada

Argentina / Argentine

Australia / Australie

Austria / Autriche

  • Anna Gamper, “Austrian Federalism and the Corona Pandemic”, Institut für Federalismus Blog, 5 June 2020: Gamper explains the challenges that Austrian federalism faced during the pandemic, especially the centralizing effect and Tyrol’s unique situation during the crisis.
  • Peter Bußjäger, COVID-19 crisis challenging Austria’s cooperative federalism”, Institut für Föderalismus Blog, 28 April 2020: The author focuses on some of the mistakes made in handling of the crisis and underlines the importance of intergovernmental cooperation.

Belgium / Belgique

Bosnia and Herzegovina / Bosnie-Herzégovine

Brazil / Brésil

China / Chine

Colombia / Colombie

  • Juan Carlos Covilla Martínez, “Coordinating Colombia’s Pandemic Response”, The Regulatory Review, 3 June 2020: In this article, Martínez argues that Colombia lacks procedures for ensuring coordination among different levels of government.

European Union / Union européenne

Council of Europe/ Conseil d’Europe

Ethiopia / Éthiopie

Germany / Allemagne

India / Inde

Italy / Italie

Kenya / Kenya

  • Rosa B. Osoro, “Devolution And Covid-19 Crisis: A Kenyan Perspective”, Forum of Federations Blog, May 2020: Osoro explains how the national government has strictly centralized the overall response process. She argues that there is need for concerted and deliberate intergovernmental approaches.

Malaysia / Malaysie

Mexico / Mexique

Nepal / Népal

Nigeria / Nigéria

Pakistan

The Philippines / Les Philippines

Russia / Russie

South Africa / Afrique du Sud

Spain / Espagne

  • Alicia Cebada Romero, Elvira Dominguez Redondo, “Spain: One Pandemic and Two Versions of the State of Alarm”, Verfassungsblog, 26 February 2021: This post focuses on the two different approaches that the central Spanish government adopted in the two waves of the pandemic.
  • Patricia García Majado, “The Covid-19 Measures in Madrid, and why they Suffered Defeat in Court”, Verfassungsblog, 11 October 2020: Majado explains the legal issues regarding the Court’s refusal to ratify a perimeter closure issued by the Community of Madrid.
  • Sandra León, Amuitz Garmendia Madariaga, “Popular Reactions To External Threats in Federations”, SocArXiv Papers, 1 June 2020: Authors argue that in search of a more effective response against the threat, citizens coordinate their preferences around the centralization of authority boundaries in the federation. They test this argument using an on-line survey experiment in Spain, a country where the threat caused by COVID-19 has operated on top of non-negligible internal threats.
  • Mireia Grau-Creus, Marc Sanjaume-Calvet,” ‘Loyalty does not mean submission’: On the COVID-19 measures and the apparently surprising features of the Spanish territorial modelUACES Territorial Politics Blog, 26 May 2020: Authors argue that this crisis has revealed the structurally centralized features of the Spanish intergovernmental system and, in extension, of the whole territorial institutional system.
  • Susana de la Sierra, “Old Norms and New Challenges in Spain’s Response to COVID-19”, The Regulatory Review, 20 May 2020: Author explains the challenges surfaced due to COVID-19 and mentions the centralizing effect of the measures taken by the Spanish government.
  • Alba Nogueira López, Gabriel Doménech Pascual, “Fighting COVID 19 – Legal Powers and Risks: Spain”, Verfassungsblog, 30 March 2020: Authors look at major legal issues related to COVID-19, including the question of whether the central government should have powers devolved to better manage the crisis power grab of the central government.
  • Ayoze Corujo, Acaymo Viera, “Canary Islands, Spain and Covid-19”, UACES Territorial Politics, 19 May 2020: Authors focus specifically on the relationship between the Canary Islands and Spain while explaining how and why the central government is adopting territorially different responses for the exit strategy.
  • Fernando Jiménez Sánchez est, “The Political Management of the Covid-19 Crisis in Spain” [.pdf], Fondation Robert Schuman, April 2020: Author provides a limited and provisional analysis of the impact of COVID-19 related measures on the system of government and highlights the lack of coordination between regions.
  • Miguel Ángel Presno Linera, “Beyond the State of Alarm: COVID-19 in Spain”, Verfassungsblog, 13 May 2020: Linera outlines the legal foundations of the State of Alarm declared by the Spanish government and explains how Spain’s decentralized structure fits into this frame.
  • Mario Kölling, “Federalism and the COVID-19 crisis: A perspective from Spain”, Forum of Federations Blog, April 2020: Kölling describes Spain’s healthcare system and the rapid federal response to the pandemic.

    Switzerland / Suisse

    United Kingdom / Royaume-Uni

    United States / États-Unis

    5. Comparing federations
    Les fédérations comparées

    • Arvind Ashta, “It is time to seriously consider the advantages of a world federal government”, LSE EUROPP Blog, 18 March 2021: Ashta lists seven reasons why we should now consider moving toward a world federal government.
    • Multiple Countries: Sean Molloy, Christine Bell, Asanga Welikala, Erin Houlihan, Kimana Zulueta-Fülscher, “Emergency Law Responses and Conflict-Affected States in Transition”, Verfassungsblog, 13 March 2021: This post looks at emergency law responses to the Covid-19 pandemic in conflict-affected states in transition and it underlines the impact on relationships between the central state and divided groups in sub-state regions as a main area of concern.
    • Allemagne, Italie & Espagne (Germany, Italy & Spain): Ludovic Piedtenu, Marie-Hélène Ballestero, Olivier Tosseri, « Covid-19 : comment sont prises les décisions dans les pays décentralisés, comme l'Allemagne, l'Italie ou l'Espagne ? », France Info, 3 mars 2021 : Les auteurs expliquent les procédures de décisions dans ces trois pays décentralisés.
    • Australia & Canada (Australie & Canada) : Steven Lewis, “What Canada can learn from Australia’s COVID response”, Policy Options, 10 February 2021: The article briefly explains how Australia’s strong and coordinated response to the pandemic could be a lesson for Canada.
    • Australia & Canada (Australie & Canada): Stephen Van Dine, “A tale of two federations and their (mis)handling of the pandemic”, iPolitics, 5 February 2021: The article offers another comparison of two federal systems.
    • France & Allemagne (France & Germany): Vincent Glad, « Covid-19 : le fédéralisme allemand n'est guère plus efficace que le centralisme français », L’Express, 5 février 2021 : L’article compare la France et l’Allemagne pour songer s’il existe un argument à faire pour soutenir le fédéralisme dans la guerre contre COVID-19.
    • Austria, Germany & Switzerland (Autriche, Allemagne & Suisse) : Yvonne Hegele, Johanna Schnabel, “Federalism and the management of the COVID-19 crisis: centralisation, decentralisation and (non-)coordination”, West European Politics, 2 February 2021: To shed light on how Austria, Germany, and Switzerland managed COVID-19, this paper distinguishes two dimensions of federal decision making: centralised/decentralised and unilateral/coordinated decision making. Drawing on official government documents and press reports, it examines decisions on the introduction of containment measures and their subsequent easing during the first wave.
    • United States & Germany (États-Unis & Allemagne): Brandon Bohrn, “Federalism in Crisis: U.S and German Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic”, Bertelsmann Foundation, February 2021: This report is devoted to exploring the most pressing challenges facing the United States and Germany and presenting analysis to policymakers, professors, teachers, and students on both sides of the Atlantic. It provides readers with a better understanding of how the U.S. and Germany, through their different forms of federalism, have navigated this once-in-a-century public health crisis.
    • Bangladesh, India & Pakistan (Bangladesh, Inde & Pakistan): Jean N.Lee, Mahreen Mahmud, Jonathan Morduch, Saravana Ravindran, Abu S. Shonchoy,Migration, externalities, and the diffusion of COVID-19 in South Asia, Journal of Public Economies, Vol. 193, January 2021: The article shows how migration data can be used to predict coronavirus hotspots.
    • France & Allemagne (France & Germany): Ludovic Piedtenu, « Covid-19 et restrictions : et en Allemagne, comment annonce-t-on les mauvaises nouvelles ? », France Inter, 24 janvier 2021 : L’article compare la France et l’Allemagne en terme de communications des mesures contre COVID-19.
    • Indonesia & Malaysia (Indonésie & Malaisie): Raine Sroge Johnson, A comparison of Indonesia and Malaysia's COVID-19 public health policy response”, Birmingham Working Paper Series, 18 January 2021: This paper identifies and analyzes Indonesia and Malaysia’s public health policies from March to May of 2020. It argues that Indonesia’s political elites’ denial of the pandemic threat and incumbents’ economic and religious anxieties as well as the nation’s federal institutional design dictated its lackluster policy response. Comparatively, after the resolution of Malaysia’s political turmoil, the new incumbent was enabled by the country’s federal institutional design to create effective policies that prioritized health and safety over the short-term political concerns.
    • United States & New Zealand ( États-Unis & Nouvelle Zélande): Richard W. Parker, “Why America’s Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic Failed: Lessons from New Zealand’s Success”, Administrative Law Review, Vol 73, No.1, 2021: The article offers an insight into NZ’s success and compares this response to the US.
    • Countries of European Union (Pays de l’Union Européenne): Linda Hantrais, Marie-Thérèse Letablier, “Comparing and Contrasting the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic in the European Union” (New York: Routledge, 2021): This book offers a template for analyzing policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and for using evidence-based comparisons to inform and support policy development.
    • OECD Countries: Pietrangelo de Biase and Sean Dougherty, “Federalism and public health decentralisation in the time of COVID-19”, OECD Working Papers on Fiscal Federalism, January 2021: The paper focuses on how countries made changes to the configuration of federalism during the first wave of the pandemic. The strengths, weaknesses and implementation risks of various approaches are analysed using country examples.
    • Multiple Countries: Sheila Jasanof, Stephen Hilgartner, J. Benjamin Hurlbut, Onur Özgöde, Margarita Rayzberg et al., Comparative Covid Response: Crisis, Knowledge, Politics (Interim Report), 12 January 2021: This report provides a preliminary distillation of Comparative Covid Response: Crisis, Knowledge, Politics (CompCoRe) – a cross-national study of the policy responses of 16 countries across five continents. Led by a team based at Harvard, Cornell and Arizona State Universities, CompCoRe is a collaborative undertaking involving more than 60 researchers from around the world. The participating countries are Australia, Austria, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Additionally, teams from Indonesia and Peru, as well as an Africa Group, are included as CompCoRe affiliates. Since the list contains federal countries, it also analyzes the effects of federal system where it is relevant.
    • Canada, United States, Mexico (Canada, États-Unis, Méxique): Daniel Béland, Gregory P. Marchildon, Anahely Medrano, Philip Rocco, “COVID-19, Federalism, and Health Care Financing in Canada, the United States, and Mexico”, Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis: Research and Practice, 2021: This paper argues that federal health financing regimes differ in ways that are shaping the agenda for post-pandemic reforms. The analysis, which focuses on health care financing in three federal countries (Canada, the United States, and Mexico), explores the current and potential future impact of COVID-19 on existing policy legacies.
    • Germany & European Union (Allemagne & Union Européenne): Lucie Coatleven, François Hublet, Théophile Rospars, Covid-19 et gestion de crise subsidiaire : Perspectives transfrontalières à la lumière du fédéralisme allemande, Groupe d’études géopolitiques, Décembre 2020 : Ce rapport propose de s’inspirer de la réponse institutionnelle allemande, suisse ou belge pour imaginer une « gestion de crise subsidiaire » au service des citoyens et des territoires européens.
    • Belgium & the Netherlands (Belgique & Pays-Bas): Toon Van Overbeke, Diederik Stadig, “High politics in the Low Countries: COVID19 and the politics of strained multilevel policy cooperation in Belgium and the Netherlands”, European Policy Analysis, November 2020: We argue that efficient multi‐level policy cooperation in both countries has run up against the limits of existing institutions, leading to significant political grievances.
    • Brazil, United States, India, Belgium, Germany and Australia: José Ma. Serna de la Garza (coordinatior), Covid-19 and Constitutional Law (Mexico: Instituto De Investigaciones Jurídicas, October 2020): This book is a collection of articles on how different constitutional orders responded to the pandemic and it includes many articles on federal systems such as Brazil, United States, India, Belgium, Germany and Australia.
    • Canada & United States (Canada & États-Unis): Abdul Basit Adeel et al., “COVID-19 Policy Response and the Rise of the Sub-National Governments”, Canadian Public Policy, Vol. 46, No. 4, 2020: The article examines the roles of sub-national and national governments in Canada and the United States vis-à-vis the protective public health response in the onset phase of the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The article’s finding is that the sub-national contribution to policy is more important for both the United States and Canada than are their national-level policies, and that the institutional origin of the policies as evidenced by the COVID-19 response differs greatly between the two countries and has implications for the evolution of federalism in each.
    • Latin America & Caribbean (Amérique Latine, & Les Caraïbes): OAS & Forum of Federations & University of Kent, Practical Guide for an Effective Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic at the Subnational Level, 2020: The Organization of American States, the Forum of Federations and the University of Kent organized a webinar on the occasion of the International Day of Peace (September 21) addressing the growing pivotal role of subnational governments in the current Latin American and Caribbean COVID-19 scenario. The information was reviewed and summarized to produce this practical guide as an important contribution to the hemispheric efforts underway to strengthen local democratic governance, and more specifically to respond effectively to the COVID-19 pandemic at the subnational levels.
    • Nyasha Weinberg, Joelle Grogan, “Effective Pandemic Management Requires the Rule of Law and Good Governance”, Verfassungsblog, 4 November 2020: In this post, authors argue that the most effective action in response to global health emergency is guided by principles of the rule of law and good governance. They also focus on the benefits of collaboration for multi-level governance.
    • Olga Shvetsova, Andrei Zhirnov, Julie VanDusky-Allen, Abdul Basit Adeel et al., “Institutional Origins of Protective COVID-19 Public Health Policy Responses: Informational and Authority Redundancies and Policy Stringency”, October 2020: This essay argues that institutional systems that allow redundancies in information channels and in policy-making (i.e. democracies and decentralized policies) are more likely to generate a rapid policy response to crises such as the onset of COVID-19 pandemic than more streamlined systems.
    • EU & ASEAN: Maria Papageorgiou, Daniella Silva Nogueira Melo, “Regional responses to COVID-19: A comparative analysis of EU and ASEAN policies to counter the pandemic”, Perspectives on Federalism, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2020: This article aims to examine the initial responses to COVID-19 and the development of regional policies of the two most successful examples of regional organisations; EU and ASEAN and it accounts for the different forms of integration and the varying COVID-19 spread levels between them.
    • Canada, France & Belgium / Canada, France & Belgique: Zachary Desson, Emmi Weller, Peter McMeekin, Mehdi Ammi, “An analysis of the policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in France, Belgium, and Canada”, Health Policy and Technology, September 2020: This paper presents an overview and comparative analysis of the epidemiological situation and the policy responses in France, Belgium, and Canada during the early stages of the 2020 Covid-19 pandemic. The decentralized structures in Canada and Belgium are compared with France’s centralized response.
    • Australia, Canada, Germany & United States / Australie, Canada, Allemagne & États-Unis: Mark J. Rozell, Clyde Wilcox, “Federalism in a Time of Plague: How Federal Systems Cope With Pandemic”, The American Review of Public Administration, Vol. 50, No. 5-6, July 2020: This article compares and contrasts the responses of Australia, Canada, Germany, and the United States to the COVID-19 outbreak and spread.
    • Canada & USA: Abdul Basit Adeel, Michael Catalano, Olivia Catalano, Grant Gibson, Ezgi Muftuoglu, Tara Riggs, Mehmet Halit Sezgin, Olga Shvetsova, Naveed Tahir, Julie VanDusky-Allen, Tianyi Zhao, Andrei Zhirnov, “COVID-19 Policy Response and the Rise of the Sub-National Governments”, Canadian Public Policy, September 2020: Authors examine the roles of subnational and national governments in Canada and the USA vis-à-vis protective public health response in the onset phase of the global COVID-19 pandemic. The study shows that the institutional origin of the policies as evidenced by COVID-19 response differs greatly between the two countries and has implications for the evolution of federalism in each.
    • Germany, Switzerland, France and Italy: Tim Buthe, Joan Barceló, Cindy Cheng, Paula Ganga, Luca Messerschmidt, Allison Spencer Hartnett, and Robert Kubinec, “Patterns of Policy Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic in Federal vs. Unitary European Democracies”, SSRN, 14 September 2020: Authors argue that the extent to which federalist countries reap the benefits or suffer the costs of giving sub-national units greater autonomy depends on whether a given policy is itself more optimally implemented homogenously or heterogeneously across different regions. They analyze national and sub-national policy responses to COVID-19 in 2 federal (Germany and Switzerland) and 2 unitary countries (France and Italy).
    • Germany, Austria, and Switzerland: Zachary Desson, Lisa Lambertz, Jan Willem Peters, Michelle Falkenbach, Lukas Kauer, “Europe’s Covid-19 outliers: German, Austrian and Swiss policy responses during the early stages of the 2020 pandemic”, Health Policy and Technology, September 2020: This paper presents an overview of the policy responses in Germany, Austria and Switzerland (all federal states) during the early stages of the 2020 Covid-19 pandemic.
    • OECD Countries: OECD, “Building resilience to the Covid-19 pandemic: the role of centres of government”, OECD Policy Responses to Coronavirus (COVID-19), 2 September 2020: This paper discusses the high-level institutional arrangements put in place by governments with a special focus on center of governments role in three main dimensions: co-ordination and strategic planning, the use of evidence to inform decision-making, and communicating decisions to the public. Even though the paper is not solely focused on federal systems, it also provides insights to how central governments coordinate subnational responses.
    • France, Italy, United States (France, Italie, États-Unis): Isabel Perera, Sidney Tarrow, “What America Got Wrong About COVID-19–and What We Can Learn from France and Italy”, Public Seminar, 26 August 2020: This essay argues that institutional fragmentation and a lack of national solidarity have derailed the pandemic response in the US by comparing it to France and Italy.
    • Various systems (Systèmes divers): Klaus Dodds, Vanesa Castan Broto, Klaus Detterbeck, Martin Jones, Virginie Mamadouh, Maano Ramutsindela, Monica Varsanyi, David Wachsmuth & Chih Yuan Woon, “The COVID-19 pandemic: territorial, political and governance dimensions of the crisis”, Territory, Politics, Governance, Vol. 8, No. 3, June 2020: This editorial briefly explains how territorial politics played a key role in the pandemic.
    • Australia, India, and the United States: Niranjan Sahoo, “India and Australia’s federal systems have responded fairly well to COVID-19. But the US system hasn’t”, Melbourne Asia Review Blog, 14 July 2020: The article explains how the pandemic is exposing the strengths and weaknesses of different forms of federal systems by giving examples from these three federations.
    • Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico: Julie VanDusky-Allen, Olga Shvestova, and Andrei Zhirnov, “COVID-19 Policy Response in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico: Three Different National-Subnational Approaches”, Duck of Minerva, 2 July 2020: The authors compare the responses of these three countries by taking into account both the national and subnational levels.
    • United States, Brazil, Germany, European Union, Italy, Spain: Gian Luca Gardini (ed.), The World Before and After COVID-19: Intellectual Reflections on Politics, Diplomacy and International Relations, European of International Studies Press, 2020: The e-book includes articles on national and regional perspectives about COVID-19 crisis and deals with several federal/ quasi-federal systems.
    • United States and European Union: Carlo Maria Palermo, “COVID-19: US and EU, Why the Outbreak Could Induce an Institutional Evolution”, CESPI, 22 March 2020: This policy brief tries to explain the situation for both Europe and the United States in the early days of the pandemic and discusses how to create more efficient, accountable institutions for the citizens.
    • Several states. Olga Shvetsova, Andrey Zhirnov, Abdul Basit Adeel, Michael Catalano, Olivia Catalano, Hyoungrohk Chu, Garrett K. Dumond, Georgian-Marius Ghincea, Jason Means, Ezgi Muftuoglu, Tara Riggs, Almira Sadykova, Mehmet Halit Sezgin, Julie Vandusky Allen, and Tianyi Zhao, “Constitutional and Institutional Structural Determinants of Policy Responsiveness to Protect Citizens from Existential Threats: COVID-19 and Beyond”, Citizenship, Rights, and Cultural Belonging Working Paper Series, 12 May 2020: The article analyzes the contrast in the speed of policy response between more centralized and autocratic states versus democratic federations.
    • USA & United Kingdom (États-Unis & Royaume Uni): Olga Shvetsova, Michael Catalano, Hyoungrohk Chu, Garrett K. Dumond, Ezgi Muftuoglu, Hasan Ozutemiz, Almira Sadykova, and Tara Riggs, “Policy Error and Policy Rescue in COVID-19 Responses in the United States and United Kingdom”, Citizenship, Rights, and Cultural Belonging Working Paper Series, 15 April 2020: This piece explains how democratic institutions, in particular federalism, can impact the speed and degree of policy responses protecting citizens, even when national leaders share similar public rhetoric that is non-conducive to speedy policy response through a comparison of the policies of United States and United Kingdom.
    • Australia & USA / Australie & États-Unis: Julian R. Murphy, “Divided We Fall? – Division and Coordination in Federal Systems During A Time Of Crisis”, BACL Blog, 25 May 2020: Murphy compares the responses of the federal systems of Australia and the United States and suggests that it is as much the attitude of the actors within the federal system, as it is the system itself, which determines the success of a national response in a time of crisis.
    • USA, India & EU / États-Unis, Inde & UE: Mihir Sharma, “Coronavirus Is Straining the Concept of Federalism”, Bloomberg News, 02 May 2020: Sharma explains how COVID-19 widen the fault lines existing within these federal systems.
    • Davide Vampa, “The territorial politics of coronavirus: is this the hour of central government?”, Democratic Audit, 15 April 2020: In this piece, Vamps compares the territorial arrangements of countries facing the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic and argues that centralising power in federal systems would be misguided, and instead we should look to examples of successful coordination within multi-level forms of governance.
    • Luiz de Mello, João Tovar Jalles, “Intergovernmental relations: How the global crisis led to further decentralisation”, VOX CEPR Policy Portal, 8 April 2020: Authors describe how, in particular, the crisis was associated with an increase in the subnational shares of general government spending and revenue, which are conventional quantitative gauges of fiscal decentralisation.
    • France, Allemagne & Belgique: Gérald Papy, « Avantage à l’Etat fédéral », Le Vif, Numéro 19, 7 Mai 2020.
    • Francesco Palermo, “Is there a space for federalism in times of emergency?”, Verfassungblog, 13 May 2020: Palermo compares responses to the crisis in many different federal systems as well as reactions to those responses, and argues for the importance of federalism during this turbulent period to protect another principle related to federalism: pluralism.
    • Canada & US: James McCarten, “Compared to U.S., Canada's COVID-19 response a case study in political civility”, National Post, 14 April 2020.
    • Brazil & US: Wayne Madsen, “The Pandemic’s Toll on Federalism”, Strategic Culture Foundation, 28 March 2020.
    • Argentina, Brazil & Mexico: Agustina Giraudy, Sara Niedzwiecki, and Jennifer Pribble “How Political Science Explains Countries’ Reactions to COVID-19”, Americas Quarterly, 30 April 2020.
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