SKILLS21 and its streams are research-based. Discover references for this research below.

Learning frameworks

Bloom's taxonomy

Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., & Bloom, B. S. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. Allyn & Bacon.

Baartman, L. K., & de Bruijn, E. (2011). Integrating knowledge, skills and attitudes: Conceptualising learning processes towards vocational competence. Educational Research Review, 6(2), 125-134.

Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Longman.

Krathwohl, D. R. (2002). A revision of Bloom's taxonomy: An overview. Theory Into Practice, 41(4), 212-218. 

Epistemological reflection

Baxter Magolda, M. B. (1992). Knowing and reasoning in college: Gender-related patterns in students' intellectual development. Jossey-Bass.

Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2004). Evolution of a constructivist conceptualization of epistemological reflection. Educational Psychologist, 39(1), 31-42.

Baxter Magolda, M. B. (2009). The activity of meaning making: A holistic perspective on college student development. Journal of College Student Development, 50(6), 621-639.

Meaning learning and supportive environments

Bain, K. (2011). What the best college teachers do. Harvard University Press.

Bain, K., & Zimmerman, J. (2009). Understanding great teaching. Peer Review, 11(2), 9-12.

Feldman, J. (1986). On the difficulty of learning from experience. Jossey-Bass

Garvin, D. A. (2003). Learning in action: A guide to putting the learning organization to work. Harvard Business Review Press.

Garvin, D. A., Edmondson, A. C., & Gino, F. (2008). Is yours a learning organization? Harvard Business Review, 86(3), 109.

Gilbert, J. (2007). " Catching the Knowledge Wave": Redefining Knowledge for the Post-Industrial Age. Canada Education, 47(3), 4.

Karim, A. U. (2003). A developmental progression model for intercultural consciousness: A leadership imperative. Journal of Education for Business, 79(1), 34-39. 

21st century skills

Partnership for 21st Century Learning. (2015). Framework for 21st century learning. Retrieved from

Allen Consulting Group & Australian Industry Group. (1999). Training to compete: The training needs of industry: Report to the Australian Industry Group: Australian Industry Group. 

Arnett, J. J. (2014). Adolescence and emerging adulthood. Pearson Education Limited.

Australia. Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs. Evaluations and Investigations Programme., & ACNielsen Research Services. (2000). Employer satisfaction with graduate skills: Research report: Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory.

Bell, P., Bricker, L., Reeve, S., Zimmerman, H. T., & Tzou, C. (2013). Discovering and supporting successful learning pathways of youth in and out of school: Accounting for the development of everyday expertise across settings. LOST Opportunities (pp. 119-140). Springer.

Benson, P. L., Scales, P. C., Hawkins, J., Oesterle, S., & Hill, K. (2004). Successful young adult development. A Report Submitted to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Conference Board of Canada. (2016). Employability skills 2000+. Retrieved from

Cornelis, F. (1994). Education for Europeans: Towards the learning society. A Report from the European Round Table of Industrialists.

Cornélis, F., Cochinaux, P., Garady, D., Ferrant, C., & Webb, M. (1997). Investing in knowledge: the integration of technology in European education. European Round Table of Industrialists.

Curtis, D., & McKenzie, P. (2001). Employability skills for Australian industry: Literature review and framework development: Department of Education, Science and Training, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory.

Davies, A., Fidler, D., & Gorbis, M. (2011). Future work skills 2020. Institute for the Future for University of Phoenix Research Institute, 540.

Del Bueno, D. J. (1978). Competency based education. Nurse Educator, 3(3), 10-14.

Fernández-Santander, A., García-García, M. J., Sáez-Pizarro, B., & López-Terrón, M. J. (2012). Development and assessment of key skills in undergraduate students: An action-research experience. Higher Learning Research Experience, 2(1), 32-49.

Government of Canada. (2009). What are essential skills. Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. Retrieved from

Haste, H. (1999). Competencies: Psychological realities: A psychological perspective: Deseco Expert Report. Swiss Federal Statistical Office.

Kuh, G. D. (2009). The national survey of student engagement: Conceptual and empirical foundations. New Directions for Institutional Research, 2009(141), 5-20.

LeRychen, D. S., & Salganik, L. H. (2000). Definition and selection of key competencies. THE INES COMPENDIUM (Fourth General Assembly of the OCDE Education Indicators programme). Paris: OCDE, 61-73.

Levy, F. (1999). Are there key competencies critical to economic success? Deseco Expert Report. Swiss Federal Statistical Office.

Mayer, E. (1992). Key competencies: Report of the Committee to advise the Australian Education Council and Ministers of Vocational Education, Employment and Training on employment-related key competencies for postcompulsory education and training. Australian Education Council and Ministers of Vocational Education, Employment and Training.

McGill University. (2005). McGill factbook. Retrieved from

McGill University. (2013). Destination survey results: Undergraduate class of 2013. Retrieved from

McGill University. (2015). The McGill Commitment. Retrieved from

Overtoom, C. (2000). Employability skills: An update. ERIC Digest, 220.

Soares, L. (2012). A ‘disruptive’ look at competency-based education: How the innovative use of technology will transform the college experience. Center for American Progress.

Werner, M. C. (1995). Australian key competencies in an international perspective:.ERIC.


Ackoff, R. L. (1989). From data to wisdom. Journal of Applied Systems Analysis, 16(1), 3-9.

Ackoff, R.L. (1999). Ackoff’s best: His classic writings on management. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Stream-specific references


Association of American Colleges and Universities (2009). Civic engagement VALUE rubric. Retrieved from

Association of College and Research Libraries. (2015). Framework for information literacy for higher education. Association of College and Research Libraries. Available at

Badke, W. B. (2015). Expertise and authority in an age of crowdsourcing. In Swanson, T. & Jagman, H. (Eds.) Not just where to click: Teaching students how to think about information (pp. 191-215). Association of College and Research Libraries.

Dabbagh, N., & Kitsantas, A. (2012). Personal learning environments, social media, and self-regulated learning: A natural formula for connecting formal and informal learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 15(1), 3-8.

Davies, L., & Pike, G. (2009). Global citizenship education. In Lewin, R. (ed.) Handbook of practice and research in study abroad: Higher education and the quest for global citizenship (pp. 61-78). Routledge.

Evans, M., Ingram, L. A., MacDonald, A., & Weber, N. (2009). Mapping the “global dimension” of citizenship education in Canada: The complex interplay of theory, practice and context. Citizenship Teaching and Learning, 5(2), 17-34.

Gilster, P. (1997). Digital literacy. Wiley.

Ibrahim, T. (2005). Global citizenship education: Mainstreaming the curriculum?. Cambridge Journal of Education, 35(2), 177-194.

Long Beach City College Department of Communication Studies and Sign Language. (2017). Student learning outcomes. Retrieved from

Mackey, T. P., & Jacobson, T. E. (2014). Metaliteracy: Reinventing information literacy to empower learners. American Library Association.

Savolainen, R. (1995). Everyday life information seeking: Approaching information seeking in the context of “way of life”. Library & Information Science Research, 17(3), 259-294.

Su, F., Bullivant, A., & Holt, V. (2013). Global citizenship education. In Curtis, W., Ward, S., Sharp, J., & Hankin, L. (Eds.) Education studies: An issues based approach (pp. 231-244). Sage/Learning Matters.

UNESCO (2013). Media and information literacy policy and strategy guidelines. Retrieved from 

UNESCO (2015). Global citizenship education: Topics and learning objectives. Retrieved from       view/news/global_citizenship_education_topics_and_learning_objectives/

UNESCO. (n.d.) Media and information literacy as a composite concept. Retrieved from 


Association of American Colleges and Universities (2009). Teamwork VALUE rubric. Retrieved from

Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (2008). CAS Learning and Development Outcomes: CAS Contextual Statement. Retrieved from

Strayhorn, T. L., Creamer, D. G., Miller, T. K., & Arminio, J. L. (2006). Frameworks for assessing learning and development outcomes. Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education.

Wang, L., MacCann, C., Zhuang, X., Liu, O. L., & Roberts, R. D. (2009). Assessing teamwork and collaboration in high school students: A multimethod approach. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 24(2), 108-124.

Xiao, Y., Parker, S. H., & Manser, T. (2013). Teamwork and collaboration. Reviews of Human Factors and Ergonomics, 8(1), 55-102.


Allen, M. (2017). Dealing with ambiguity and developing resilience. Melanie Allen Life Coaching and Career Development. Retrieved from 

Association of American Colleges and Universities (2009). Creative thinking VALUE rubric. Retrieved from

Breslow, L., Drew, L., Healey, M., Matthew, R., & Norton, L. (2004). Intellectual curiosity: A catalyst for the scholarship of teaching and learning and education. Explaining academic development in higher education: Issues of engagement (pp. 83-96). Jill Rogers Associates.

Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (2008). CAS Learning and Development Outcomes: CAS Contextual Statement. Retrieved from

Kashdan, T. B., Rose, P., & Finchman, F. D. (2010). Curiosity and exploration: Facilitating positive subjective experiences and personal growth opportunities. Journal of Personality Assessment, 82(3), 291-305.

Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86.

Lombardo, M. M., & Eichinger, R. W. (2010). Dealing with ambiguity. Retrieved from  

Litman, J. (2010). Curiosity and the pleasure of learning: Wanting and liking new information. Cognition and Emotion, 19(6), 793-814.

Qualifications and Curriculum Authority. (2007). PSHE: Economic wellbeing and financial capability: Programme of study (non-statutory) for key stage 4. Retrieved from

Rolfe, H. (2010). Learning to take risks, learning to succeed. Retrieved from            succeed.pdf 

Shaw, C. (2013, August 13). Dealing with ambiguity: The New business imperative (weblog). Retrieved from

Spiro, R. J. (1988). Cognitive flexibility theory: Advanced knowledge acquisition in ill-structured domains. Center for the Study of Reading, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Technical Report No. 441.

Strayhorn, T. L., Creamer, D. G., Miller, T. K., & Arminio, J. L. (2006). Frameworks for assessing learning and development outcomes. Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education.

University of St. Thomas Division of Student Affairs. (2016). Learning Outcomes. Retrieved from 


Astin, A. W. (1993). What matters in college?: Four critical years revisited (Vol. 1). Jossey-Bass.

Astin, A.W., & Astin, H.S. (2000). Leadership reconsidered: Engaging higher education in social change. W.K. Kellogg Foundation.

Bass, B. M., & Riggio, R. E. (2006). Transformational leadership. Psychology Press.

Bolden, R. (2004). What is leadership?. Centre for Leadership Studies, University of Exeter.

Brown, M. E., & Treviño, L. K. (2006). Ethical leadership: A review and future directions. The Leadership Quarterly, 17(6), 595-616.

Dugan, J. P. (2017). Leadership theory: Cultivating critical perspectives. Jossey- Bass.

Dugan, J. P., & Komives, S. R. (2007). Developing leadership capacity in college students. National Clearinghouse for Leadership Programs.

Jones, T. B., Guthrie, K. L., & Osteen, L. (2016). Critical domains of culturally relevant leadership learning: A call to transform leadership programs. New Directions for Student Leadership, 2016(152), 9-21.

Lord, R. G., & Hall, R. J. (2005). Identity, deep structure and the development of leadership skill. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(4), 591-615.

Komives, S. R., Dugan, J. P., Owen, J. E., Slack, C., & Wagner, W. (2011). The handbook for student leadership development. John Wiley & Sons.

Komives, S.R., & Wagner, W. (Eds.). (2009). Leadership for a better world: Understanding the social change model of leadership development. Jossey-Bass.

Northouse, P. G. (2012). Leadership: Theory and practice. Sage.

Roberts, D., & Ullom, C. (1989). Student leadership program model. NASPA Journal, 27, 67-74.

Roberts, D.C. (2007). Deeper learning in leadership: Helping college students find the potential within. John Wiley & Sons.

Rost, J. C. (1993). Leadership for the twenty-first century. Greenwood Publishing Group. 


Bandura, A. (2005). The primacy of self‐regulation in health promotion. Applied Psychology, 54(2), 245-254.

Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (2008). CAS Learning and Development Outcomes: CAS Contextual Statement. Retrieved from

Caring. (n.d.). In Retrieved from

Caring. (n.d.) In Merriam-Webster. Retrieved from

Gantz, S. B. (1990). Self-care: Perspectives from six disciplines. Holistic Nursing Practice, 4(2), 1-12.

Hettler, B. (1980). Wellness promotion on a university campus. Family & Community Health, 3(1), 77-95.

Lorig, K. R., & Holman, H. R. (2003). Self-management education: History, definition, outcomes, and mechanisms. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 26(1), 1-7.

Palombi, B. J. (1992). Psychometric properties of wellness instruments. Journal of Counselling and Development, 71, 221-225.

Strayhorn, T. L., Creamer, D. G., Miller, T. K., & Arminio, J. L. (2006). Frameworks for assessing learning and development outcomes. Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education.


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