A timeline detailing ventures and milestones, excerpts and tales, groundbreaking innovation
that molded what we see today as the Ingram School of Nursing.
Mabel Hersey and Grace Fairley, both Nursing Superintendents, led a small group of nurses to form the Graduate Nurses’ Association of Montreal. With their high standards of nursing education in an academic setting, they proposed the establishment of a department for graduate nurses.
Hersey and Fairley proposed a plan for a nursing school to the board of McGill’s Medical Faculty and the Corporation of McGill University.
They indicated that “A Graduate Nurses Training Course is advisable because the demand for nurses exceeds the supply. […] The centennial of the birth of Florence Nightingale could not be celebrated more fittingly than by the establishment of such a course.” (Source: May 1920 archival document).
The proposal for the establishment of a ‘Nursing Course’ required an Advisory Committee. Members included:
· Miss Helen R. Y. Reid (member of the Dominion Council of Public Health)
· Dr. Finley and Dr. Bazin (Medical Faculty)
· Dr. Lamb (School of Physical Education)
· Miss Hersey (Lady Superintendent R.V.H.)
· Miss Delaney (Lady Superintendent V.O.N.), Head of Department of Education
On June 28, 1920, The Corporation of McGill University approved the establishment of a ‘nursing course’ offering advanced training for nurses who had already earned their RN degrees and the School for Graduate Nurses because “it was thought a matter of wisdom and foresight to establish a Department this year at McGill for the training of Graduate Nurses for teaching, administration work, public and social Nursing. (June 28, 1920 secretariat archives – Final Report To Corporation - Course for Graduate Nurses).
The first cadre of teaching faculty in the School for Graduate Nurses was made up of:
· Madeline Shaw (Director of the School)
· Dr. Maude Abbott (History of Nursing)
· Dr. Tait (Psychology, School of Physical Education)
· Dr. Harvey (Physical Diagnosis, School of Physical Education)
· Dr. Styles (Child Health, Social Service Department)
· Dr. MacLean (Chemistry, School of Physical Education) and others.
The School for Graduate Nurses offered two ‘courses’ – Public Health Certificate Course and Teaching and Supervision in Schools of Nursing Course. These ‘courses’ were 8 – 9 months in length with ‘fourteen periods weekly in each half year’ – these periods consisted of 14 lectures a week with field work.
In addition, a ‘Short Course’ (4 months) on Public Health Nursing was offered ‘not so much for teaching or administrative functions as the one year certificate course’.
“The School opened the beginning of October with 15 students: nine of them registered for the course for Instructors and Supervisors; and six for the course in Public Health Nursing”
May 28, 1921 - First ‘graduation exercise’ with the granting of certificates in ‘Public Health Nursing’ and ‘Teaching and Supervision in Schools of Nursing’.
“The school opened with fifteen students…two dropped out…Thirteen, however, proved for once a lucky number, and all passed their examinations successfully. […] And so the year passed quickly, and on the 28’th of May the Department of Physical Education, the Department of Social Service, and the School for Graduate Nurses held joint graduation exercises, and the thirteen student received their certificates.”
Funding of School of Graduate Nurses was provided by the Québec Provincial Red Cross Society as a gesture of appreciation to nurses who had served in World War I.
“On 1920 the Quebec Red Cross Society agreed to finance the School for Graduate Nurses at McGill University for a period of three years. At the end of this time the University, satisfied that the School was doing work of value to the community, became responsible for its maintenance.”
Director Flora Madeline Shaw suddenly passes overseas.
Anne Slattery is appointed Acting Director.
“An important development was the establishment of a fellowship providing for an intensive study of nursing in a selected ward in one of the affiliated hospital schools with a view of developing the clinical content of nursing and the best methods of clinical teaching.”
“The School was transferred from the Arts Building to the building formerly occupied by the Theological College, 3480 University Street, where increased accommodation and improved facilities for students and staff were available.”
Marion Lindeburgh appointed as Acting Director in 1934, and eventually Director in 1939.
“The School offers a field of nursing experience which is not surpassed in Canada, and this year’s enrolment, the largest in the history of the School, in which every province in the Dominion was represented, is evidence of the growing realization that preparation beyond the hospital course is essential for leadership in nursing.”
“The University could no longer ‘bear the financial burden’ of the School of Graduate Nurses so the Alumnae & concerned citizens supported it until it was placed under the direction of the Faculty of Medicine.”
“The facilities of the School should be made available for educational purposes in connection with the preparation of nurses enrolled for war service.”
Nursing is placed under the administration of the Faculty of Medecine.
The School is moved from 3480 University to a temporary quarters in the Medical Building, known today as the Strathcona Anatomy Building.
“The School was moved to 3466 University Street, and the staff and Alumnae Association are deeply appreciative of the adequate and suitable accommodation.”
In connection with the war service programme of the University a course in First Aid was conducted by the staff of the School for Graduate Nurses. Twenty-one graduates of the School have already been called up for active service.
“The demand for service overseas has created an increasing shortage of specially prepared nurses for leading positions in hospitals, public health organizations and industry on the home front. …the numbers enrolled in the School have not been nearly sufficient to meet them…at least thirty-five graduates of the School have been called up for active service overseas.”
On September 29, 1941, the School of Graduate Nurses, McGill University, hosted the Canadian Nurses Association to discuss executive means of meeting emergency wartime needs and ‘to seize the present opportunity to bring about some long-desired developments (in Nursing).’
McGill University Nursing becomes founding member of The Canadian Association of University Schools of Nursing ('The CAUSN' becomes 'CAUSN').
The School for Graduate Nurses creates four month courses ‘as a wartime measure’; “full year certificate course telescoped into four months…to help meet practical problems of maintaining essential services in spite of wartime adjustments, rapid turn-over of personnel and an increasing proportion of inadequately prepared staff.”
· Establishment of the Bachelor of Nursing (BN), a two-year post-RN program;
· Introduction of the Certificate in Psychiatry;
· New course: ‘The Veteran Comes Home’ to support nurses in their care of war veterans.
· 9 for the first graduates with a Bachelor of Nursing (BN) degree;
· 3 for the first graduates with a the Certificate in Psychiatry.
· Debut of the Certificate in Obstetrical Nursing
· Conclusion of the ‘four month course’
“The residence of the late Sir Edward Beatty is partly occupied by the School for Graduate Nurses...it is spacious and attractive and meets adequately the needs of a greatly increased enrolment of students.”
“The school is now well established under the administration of the Faculty of Medicine. The expansion of its programme through the establishment of the two year courses leading to a Bachelor of Nursing (B. N.) and the development of clinical courses on a post-graduate level have greatly enhanced the status of the school.”
New certificate is approved: Certificate in Pediatrics.
· 1951 – Marion Lindeburgh goes on leave of absence, ending term as director;
· 1951 – Ann Peverley appointed as Acting Director (couple months);
· 1951 – Elva Honey appointed as Director in June, then resigns a year later to be married;
· 1952 – Edith J. Green appointed as Acting Director;
· 1953 – Rae Chittick appointed as Director, School for Graduate Nurses.
“No opportunity is offered to the student who wishes to engage in nursing research or to the agencies which might wish to participate in such research projects, and which look to the university school for guidance…there is no provision in any Canadian university for advanced study in nursing.”
The facility struggles to meet the needs of the School with respect to location, crowding, lack of space and a need for a nursing arts laboratory.
“Nurses [will now] receive a broader preparation and a more comprehensive understanding of the patient as a person and as a member of a family and a citizen in a community; [a] more profound understanding of human behaviour and the significance of the interpersonal relationship of the patient and the nurse.”
“A basic nursing [programme] for qualified high-school graduates: this is a five-year course from McGill Junior Matriculation, leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science (Nursing) – B.Sc.(N) – in which students are prepared for first level positions in hospitals and public health agencies.”
“There are many reasons for the lack of research in nursing. In the past, the profession has been governed by emotion and tradition, which are particularly destructive of the research attitude. The apprenticeship-type of hospital training with its closely-defined programme does not foster curiosity, reflection and speculation so essential to developing the spirit of research.”
The Board of Governors of McGill University implemented the Flora Madeline Shaw Professor of Nursing Chair; the chair of nursing to the McGill School for Graduate Nurses. Rae Chittick is named as the First Chair.
“We are grateful to the W.K. Kellogg Foundation for the generous grant which enabled the University to establish this much-needed programme [Master of Science (Applied)] in graduate study…11 students enrolled”
The Schools sees its first five students graduate with a Bachelor of Science (Nursing).
“The 1961-62 enrollment is the biggest in the history of the School, far surpassing the post-war bulge. 223 students registered last September in the various programmes. […] Foot-gear cannot be worn in class because of the carpets and polished floors and there is not sufficient space to store overshoes once they are detached from the owners’ feet. It is surprising how much space 200 pairs of overshoes can occupy if they are to be in any kind of orderly arrangement for the blitz between nursing classes and campus courses…we have high hopes of moving to Wilson Hall down on University Street.”
The School for Graduate Nurses moves to Wilson Hall.
Elizabeth Calhoun Logan, B.Sc.(Biol) (Acadia), M.Sc. Nursing (Yale) is appointed as Acting Director in 1963; then Director in 1964.
Led by McGill’s Moyra Allen and Joan Gilchrist, the Quebec Nurses Union was formed between 1967 and 1969.
Now offering multiple streams:
· Maternal and Child Health;
· Medical Surgical;
· Mental Health and Psychiatric;
· Public Health;
· Teaching of Nursing;
· Supervision of Nursing Service in Hospitals;
· Supervision in Public Health Nursing.
With financial assistance from the Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing and the Alumnae Association of the School, the first ever nursing research journal in Canada was founded. Nursing Papers was the only refereed nursing journal at that time and articles were published in English and/or French according to the wishes of the author. McGill’s Dr. Moyra Allen was the Editor of Nursing Papers.
· In 1985 it was renamed the Canadian Journal of Nursing Research/Revue canadienne de recherche en sciences infirimières;
· In 1992 the name of the journal was shortened to CJNR/RCRSI;
· In 2003 it was renamed CJNR.
“With the establishment of a nursing option in CEGEP. It is anticipated that within the next five years, there may be no further need for the Bachelor of Nursing program.”
B.Sc.(N) is reduced from a five-year program to a three-year program, subsequent to the establishment of the new CEGEP educational system. Biological sciences preparations would be completed during a ‘DEC in Health Sciences’ in college prior to entering university.
All hospital schools of nursing close their doors across Quebec.
Joan Muriel Gilchrist B.N. (Toronto), M.Sc. (McGill), DSc (Manitoba) is appointed Director.
“An important question raised by the Faculty Committee was whether the assumption of nursing training by the CEGEP has not rendered the University role in nursing superfluous. […] Everyone concluded, without reservation, that the university’s role in nursing education was beyond question and that McGill should recommit itself to sustain and strengthen the School. [...] The largest number of students in the School has always been registered nurses working towards a degree. Until recently these students were nurses who had distinguished themselves in nursing practice, those who sought to extend the boundaries of nursing, those who felt educational deficiencies…as the student population has become younger and therefore less experienced their needs seem to be similar to students in the B.Sc.(N) program….the time has come to discontinue the program for registered nurses and we suggest that no candidates be admitted after 1975.”
“In September 1973, the name of the School for Graduate Nurses was changed to the School of Nursing, a title which more appropriately reflects our present programs in nursing education.” […] This change reflects the focus from that of the ‘nurse’ to the actual practice of ‘nursing’.
The original idea of such a unique program in Canada came from then Director Elizabeth Logan who herself was a ‘direct entry’ graduate from Yale University. Along with the leadership of Carolyn Attridge, the Generic Masters Program inaugurated. The program would eventually be renamed to ‘Direct Entry Masters Program’.
“During 1973-74 we had only three francophone students. […] There are now seventeen students whose mother tongue is French.”
With the upcoming arrival of the cohort of CEGEP students, the Bachelor of Nursing Program phases out in order to commence the revised Bachelor of Science (Nursing) program (from 5 years to 3 years).
A Research Unit at the School forms, with a staff of 11. Members include F. Moyra Allan, Laurie Gottlieb, and Mona Kravitz.
Bachelor of Science in Nursing Program for Registered Nurses (CEGEP graduates) makes it debut.
A joint appointment system was initiated between the University and teaching hospitals.
“Each of the major teaching hospitals had their own school of nursing and a vested interest in their own operations… there existed the potential for a conflict of interest between the university programs and those existing within the hospitals.”
The first joint appointments became effective June 1, 1978. The appointees were directors of nursing of the McGill University teaching hospitals and four nurses from four different Family Medicine units.
Joint PhD committee of six members was formed: three faculty members from McGill and three from Université de Montreal “to study and develop a doctoral program in Nursing’.
Bachelor of Science in Nursing Program for Registered Nurses not attracting applicants; only two people signed up and both withdrew.
“On January 19, 1979, a new type of community health service for the residents of Arundel – Huberdeau (Quebec) area was opened. The Health Workshop provides a setting for rural families to meet, discuss and try out new ideas, and develop group programs and projects with the support and professional knowledge of a nurse.”
The School of Nursing celebrates 60 years.
Dr. F. Moyra Allen appointed as Acting Director.
Dr. Mary Ellen Jeans, BN (McGill), MSc(A) (McGill), PhD (McGill), OC appointed Director.
McGill Master’s of Science in Nursing Colleagueship (MMSNC) was founded by the students in the Graduate Program.
· Mary Grossman-Shultz enters as first ever ad hoc PhD candidate;
· McGill University celebrates 100 years of women.
· M.Sc. Thesis program established;
· Ad-hoc PhD in Nursing program approved, but only takes into effect in 1993.
"By the year 2000, all nurses in Quebec must have a baccalaureate degree to practice in this province.”
Nursing Papers named Canadian Journal of Nursing Research – Revue canadienne de recherché en sciences infirmières.
B.Sc.(N) program voluntarily undergoes its first accreditation visit by the Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing.
“We received accreditation for 7 years and high ratings on all of the criteria…they [the Board of Accreditation] was dismayed at the state of our equipment and lack of support and technical resources.”
Awarded to Francine Ducharme, whose thesis was entitled Conjugal Support, Family Coping behaviours and Well-Being of the Elderly Couple.
“This event was particularly significant because she (Francine Ducharme) was the first person to receive a Ph.D. in Nursing from a Canadian University.”
McGill University formally approves the proposal for a Joint PhD Program in Nursing with Université de Montreal.
“The space in the School of Nursing that is functional is extremely limited, and much of it is in such disrepair that it is antithetical to a learning environment….It is clear to all of us that the space available is simply not adequate.”
Daniel Savoie, MSc(A) becomes the first paraplegic student to complete a baccalaureate nursing program in Canada.
Dr. Kathleen Rowat, B.Sc. N (Toronto), M.Sc. (Toronto), PhD (Illinois) appointed as Acting Director.
Funding approved by Quebec for a joint PhD Program in Nursing with Université de Montreal. Formally established in 1993. (Annual Report)
Sr. Barbara Ann Gooding appointed as Acting Director.
Awarded to Helen Glass by McGill University on June 10, 1994.
Dr. Laurie N. Gottlieb, RN (JGH), BN (McGill), M.Sc.(A) (McGill), PhD (McGill) appointed as Director.
The School of Nursing celebrates 75 years.
Nursing Explorations name changed to ‘The Joan Gilchrist Nursing Explorations Series’ under leadership of Dr. Laurie Gottlieb.
“Throughout the summer of 1996, we renovated the basement of Wilson Hall. It now houses a beautiful student lounge, a new nursing arts lab, a computer/learning room, student offices, and a family interviewing room…”
Quebec Ministers of Education and Health announce that there would be one route into nursing – through the CEGEP system. The Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing and nursing across the country rallied in support of university nursing education in Quebec and the decision was revoked.
“The reaction to the government’s pronouncement was disbelief and outrage. Reactions came from all sectors of the nursing and non-nursing community, from across the province, and from across the country. The government was overwhelmed by the response and at the end of the day, reversed the decision.”
The BN program was suspended in the mid-1970s with the introduction of the CEGEP nursing programs. It is reopened in the fall of 1998.
· 8 credit courses split into theory and clinical;
· Pharmacology courses added;
· Courses framed within context of the McGill Model of Nursing (stress and coping, development across the lifespan, families and health development, learning and health education, therapeutic relationships, legal and ethical issues)
· Dr. Carolyn Pepler appointed Acting Director;
· Dr. Susan E. French, BN (McGill), MSN (Boston), PhD (Toronto), OC, appointed Director and takes over from Dr. Pepler.
The McGill-Anglophone CEGEP Consortium (MACCC) was established with membership made up of Nursing leaders from various CEGEPS and Universities. The Consortia were mandated and funded by the Ordre des Infirmières et Infirmiers du Quebec to support the development of a five-year continuous integrated curriculum, leading to a baccalaureate degree in nursing. The completion of a DEC would grant the right to access the nursing profession after the first three years.
Certificate Program in Emergency Room Nursing created to address the shortage of adequately prepared nurses in Emergency Departments.
Groupe de recherche interuniversitaire en sciences infirmières de Montréal (GRISIM) was founded as a joint nursing research unit between McGill University and the Université de Montreal.
The National Canadian Nursing Student Association conference is held at McGill University.
“The first cohort of students entering the integrated DEC 180.A and Baccalaureate stream in the BN program started in September 2004. The target of 40 for the initial year of the program was achieved and there are strong indications that the target of 70 will be exceeded in 05-06.”
Clinically-based masters projects based on submissions by Nursing Departments of the McGill University Health Centre, Jewish General Hospital, and Douglas Mental Health University Institute commenced.
The Program was established to provide undergraduate nursing students with an opportunity to study clinically outside the usual McGill Teaching Hospital and Agency Network in other agencies throughout Canada or internationally.
Dr. Helene Ezer appointed as Director.
Awarded to Helen K. Mussallem, BN 1947 by McGill University.
Established in the M.Sc.(A) program, this concentration was developed to provide an enriched educational stream for globally conscious graduate nursing students and to prepare nurses for the challenges of working with diverse populations in limited resource environments.
The School of Nursing sees its first two students to complete the Neonatal Nurse Practitioner Program.
A joint review by the Ordre des infirmiers et infirmières du Quebec and the Collee des Medecins du Quebec. The program becomes the first in Quebec, the first in Canada to be accredited.
The School opens The Learning Lab, located in the Theological College, funding for this new lab was from a generous donation by Abbott Laboratories and monies received for implementation of the nurse practitioner program.
HSPnet is implemented; a Canada-wide digitized method of managing clinical placements.
The School of Nursing is renamed to the Ingram School of Nursing. Richard and Satoko Ingram established the Newton Foundation in Montreal and decided that its resources would be directed to nursing. They made this decision because they believe that nurses are at the heart of the healthcare system and are under-celebrated despite their fundamental importance.
McGill Nursing Collaborative for Education and Innovation in Patient and Family-Centered Care is founded, now known as The McGill Nursing Collaborative, the collaborative is an alliance between McGill University Ingram School of Nursing and the nursing departments of the Jewish General Hospital and McGill University Health Centre to facilitate cooperation on projects and initiatives aimed at advancing nursing education, research and practice.
Publication of Dr. Gottlieb’s seminal book entitled Strengths-Based Nursing Care – Health and Healing for Person and Family.
The NPMP encourages liaisons between junior and senior students within the Ingram School of Nursing. It provides a platform for them to meet, with a goal of helping new students feel welcomed and incorporated in the School and help students transition to a university-based professional program.
The CNE Office provides accreditation for nursing educational activities or programs organized by health institutions, nursing associations, and educational institutions. Over the years, the evolving needs of the nursing community have led the CNE Office to expand its mandate further, to include the development and delivery of new continuing nursing education courses.
Its initial mandate was in response to the policy issued by l’Ordre des infirmières et infirmiers du Québec (OIIQ) regarding the obligation for all nurses to engage in continuing nursing education; the new policy requires nurses in Quebec obtain 20 hours of professional development per year (7 hours of which must be accredited).
Dr. Anita Gagnon, RN, MPH, PhD appointed as Acting Director, then Director in 2016.
The mandate of GAIHN is to promote a critical understanding of health and the practice of nursing from a global (health) perspective within the Ingram School of Nursing, including the health of marginalized populations within and outside Canada.
The Ingram School of Nursing holds its first-ever Pinning and Professionalism Ceremony.
Med e-News Article
Mental Health and Pediatrics programs are established.
The Ingram School of Nursing relocates to its new home in 680 Sherbrooke.
A new project is launched, allowing professional nurses to mentor graduating McGill students transitioning into clinical practice.
The unveiling of newly-installed and long-awaited donor recognition signage displaying the official renaming of the ISoN Learning Laboratories to the Satoko Shibata Clinical Nursing Laboratories.
Quebec’s first online and bilingual Bachelor of Nursing Program is launched by the Ingram School of Nursing, after to a generous donation from the Doggone Foundation.
Med e-News article
The Ingram School of Nursing celebrates 100 years.