What is Epidemiology? Epidemiology is the study of how often diseases occur in different groups of people and why. Epidemiological information is used to plan and evaluate strategies to prevent illness and as a guide to the management of patients in whom disease has already developed. Like the clinical findings and pathology, the epidemiology of a disease is an integral part of its basic description. The subject has specific techniques of data collection and interpretation that translate into procedure with a solid foundation as a basic science for public health.