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radiation safety manual

7. Use of sealed sources

7.1 TYPES OF SEALED SOURCES

A sealed radioactive source is a radioisotope that is fully encapsulated in metal or other container such that there is no contact between the radioactive material and the equipment. Sources commonly used in teaching and research are of the following types:

8. Use of unsealed sources

8.1 General Principles

The use of unsealed radioisotopes regularly gives rise to radioactive waste, which has to be disposed of in a responsible and safe manner. The waste may include residual amounts of the original radionuclide, disposable containers (vials, pipette tips, etc.), partially decayed or surplus sealed sources, contaminated solids and radioactive animals. The disposal procedures are based on the following principles:

4. Licensing authorisation

4.1 CNSC LICENCES

The acquisition, possession and use of most radiation sources are subject to licensing by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC). The University is issued a consolidated radioisotope license by the CNSC that is renewed every 5 years. In turn, the University issues "Internal Permits" to individual users, and this permit is renewed annually by Environmental Health & Safety.

11. Use of radiation sources in teaching: special requirements

11.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

This section applies in those instances where students in the university (usually undergraduate) may have occasion to handle radioactive materials as part of classroom or laboratory exercises connected with the courses in which they are enrolled. Such activities must be undertaken with the utmost concern for the safety of the students involved and the following conditions must be observed:

6. Use of unsealed radioisotopes in teaching & research

6.1 GENERAL

The Internal Permit Holder must ensure that only persons properly trained and informed of the hazards involved are allowed to handle radioisotopes. In the case of undergraduate students, handling should be limited to sources of a type and activity commensurate with the knowledge and training of the students at a any given stage of their academic careers. A copy of the Internal Permit shall be prominently displayed in each laboratory in which unsealed radioisotopes are stored and/or used.

5. Monitoring

5.1 General Principles

Monitoring is an essential component of any radiation safety program. It involves the regular and routine measurement and/or assessment of factors relevant to radiation safety and takes the following forms:

3. Radiation dose limit

3.1 RATIONALE AND LEGAL BASIS OF DOSE-EQUIVALENT LIMITS

The purpose of a system of dose limits* is to ensure that the radiation dose received by any person (other than an accidental exposure, or a deliberate exposure as in medical diagnosis) is such that:

9. Types & characteristics of radiation-emitting devices

9.1 BASIC PRINCIPLES

A radiation-emitting device is any device that is capable of emitting ionizing radiation when activated. This definition applies both to devices such as X-ray machines, whose sole function is the generation of ionizing radiation, and to devices such as electron microscopes and some types of cathode-ray tube, which generate ionizing radiation as a by-product of some other function.

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