Recent publications from TDC authors

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NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=(Yansouni C[Author]) OR (Iqbal A[Author] parasitology) OR (Ndao M[Author]) OR (Ward BJ[Author]) OR (Semret M[Author]) OR (Libman M[Author]) OR (Greenaway C[author]) OR (Barkati S[Author])
Updated: 13 hours 55 min ago

First Human Case of Metacestode Infection Caused by Versteria sp. in a Kidney Transplant Recipient.

Sat, 09/15/2018 - 00:10
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First Human Case of Metacestode Infection Caused by Versteria sp. in a Kidney Transplant Recipient.

Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Sep 13;:

Authors: Barkati S, Gottstein B, Mu Ller N, Sheitoyan-Pesant C, Metrakos P, Chen T, Garceau R, Libman MD, Ndao M, Yansouni CP

Abstract
Cestodes are emerging agents of severe opportunistic infections among immunocompromised patients. We describe the first case of human infection, with the recently-proposed genus Versteria causing an invasive, tumor-like hepatic infection with regional and distant extension in a 53-year-old female kidney transplant recipient from Atlantic Canada.

PMID: 30212859 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Morphological characterization of a plant-made virus-like particle vaccine bearing influenza virus hemagglutinins by electron microscopy.

Thu, 09/13/2018 - 01:08
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Morphological characterization of a plant-made virus-like particle vaccine bearing influenza virus hemagglutinins by electron microscopy.

Vaccine. 2018 04 12;36(16):2147-2154

Authors: Lindsay BJ, Bonar MM, Costas-Cancelas IN, Hunt K, Makarkov AI, Chierzi S, Krawczyk CM, Landry N, Ward BJ, Rouiller I

Abstract
Plant-made virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines that display wild-type influenza hemagglutinin (HA) are rapidly advancing through clinical trials. Produced by transient transfection of Nicotiana benthamiana, these novel vaccines are unusually immunogenic, eliciting both humoral and cellular responses. Here, we directly visualized VLPs bearing either HA trimers derived from strains A/California/7/2009 or A/Indonesia/5/05 using cryo-electron microscopy and determined the 3D organization of the VLPs using cryo-electron tomography. More than 99.9% of the HA trimers in the vaccine preparations were found on discoid and ovoid-shaped particles. The discoid-shaped VLPs presented HA trimers on their outer diameter. The ovoid-shaped VLPs contained HA trimers evenly distributed at their surface. The VLPs were stable for 12 months at 4 °C. Early interactions of the VLPs with mouse dendritic and human monocytoid (U-937) cells were visualized by electron microscopy after resin-embedding and sectioning. The VLP particles were observed bound to plasma membranes as well as inside vesicles. Mouse dendritic cells exposed to VLPs displayed classic morphological changes associated with activation including the extensive formation of dendrites. Our findings demonstrate that plant-made VLPs bearing influenza HA trimers are morphologically stable over time and raise the possibility that these VLPs may interact with and activate antigen-presenting cells in a manner similar to the intact virus.

PMID: 29550194 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Influenza vaccine effectiveness to prevent influenza-related hospitalizations and serious outcomes in Canadian adults over the 2011/12 through 2013/14 influenza seasons: A pooled analysis from the Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN) Serious...

Thu, 09/13/2018 - 01:08
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Influenza vaccine effectiveness to prevent influenza-related hospitalizations and serious outcomes in Canadian adults over the 2011/12 through 2013/14 influenza seasons: A pooled analysis from the Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN) Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS Network).

Vaccine. 2018 04 12;36(16):2166-2175

Authors: Nichols MK, Andrew MK, Hatchette TF, Ambrose A, Boivin G, Bowie W, Chit A, Dos Santos G, ElSherif M, Green K, Haguinet F, Halperin SA, Ibarguchi B, Johnstone J, Katz K, Lagacé-Wiens P, Langley JM, LeBlanc J, Loeb M, MacKinnon-Cameron D, McCarthy A, McElhaney JE, McGeer A, Poirier A, Powis J, Richardson D, Schuind A, Semret M, Shinde V, Smith S, Smyth D, Stiver G, Taylor G, Trottier S, Valiquette L, Webster D, Ye L, McNeil SA, Serious Outcomes Surveillance Network of the Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN), the Toronto Invasive Bacterial Diseases Network (TIBDN)

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Ongoing assessment of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is critical to inform public health policy. This study aimed to determine the VE of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) for preventing influenza-related hospitalizations and other serious outcomes over three consecutive influenza seasons.
METHODS: The Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS) Network of the Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN) conducted active surveillance for influenza in adults ≥16 years (y) of age during the 2011/2012, 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons in hospitals across Canada. A test-negative design was employed: cases were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for influenza; controls were PCR-negative for influenza and were matched to cases by date, admission site, and age (≥65 y or <65 y). All cases and controls had demographic and clinical characteristics (including influenza immunization status) obtained from the medical record. VE was estimated as 1-OR (odds ratio) in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated patients × 100%. The primary outcome was VE of TIV for preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalization; secondary outcomes included VE of TIV for preventing influenza-related intensive care unit (ICU) admission/mechanical ventilation, and influenza-related death.
RESULTS: Overall, 3394 cases and 4560 controls were enrolled; 2078 (61.2%) cases and 2939 (64.5%) controls were ≥65 y. Overall matched, adjusted VE was 41.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 34.4-48.3%); corresponding VE in adults ≥65 y was 39.3% (95% CI: 29.4-47.8%) and 48.0% (95% CI: 37.5-56.7%) in adults <65 y, respectively. VE for preventing influenza-related ICU admission/mechanical ventilation in all ages was 54.1% (95% CI: 39.8-65.0%); in adults ≥65 y, VE for preventing influenza-related death was 74.5% (95% CI: 44.0-88.4%).
CONCLUSIONS: While effectiveness of TIV to prevent serious outcomes varies year to year, we demonstrate a statistically significant and clinically important TIV VE for preventing hospitalization and other serious outcomes over three seasons. Public health messaging should highlight the overall benefit of influenza vaccines over time while acknowledging year to year variability. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01517191.

PMID: 29548608 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Low levels of detectable pertussis antibody among a large cohort of pregnant women in Canada.

Fri, 09/07/2018 - 00:26
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Low levels of detectable pertussis antibody among a large cohort of pregnant women in Canada.

Vaccine. 2018 Sep 01;:

Authors: Brooks JI, Bell CA, Rotondo J, Gilbert NL, Tunis M, Ward BJ, Desai S

Abstract
Newborns and infants less than 6 months of age continue to be at highest risk of severe outcomes from pertussis infection. Pertussis vaccination during the last trimester of pregnancy can confer protection to newborns as a result of trans-placental transfer of pertussis antibodies. In several countries, pertussis vaccination in pregnancy is recommended routinely and Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunization issued similar routine recommendations in February 2018. Using second trimester biobanked plasma samples (n = 1752) collected between 2008 and 2011, we measured the pre-existing anti-pertussis toxin (PT) levels in a large cohort of second-trimester pregnant women using a commercial ELISA test. We found that 97.5% of these women had anti-PT IgG titres below 35 IU/mL. Women with higher incomes had slightly higher anti-PT levels but 96% still had titres <35 IU/ml. In conclusion, almost all of the pregnant women in this large cohort had anti-PT levels low enough to suggest susceptibility to pertussis infection in both the mothers and their newborn infants.

PMID: 30181046 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Evolutionary genetics of immunological supertypes reveals two faces of the Red Queen.

Thu, 09/06/2018 - 00:55
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Evolutionary genetics of immunological supertypes reveals two faces of the Red Queen.

Nat Commun. 2017 11 03;8(1):1294

Authors: Lighten J, Papadopulos AST, Mohammed RS, Ward BJ, G Paterson I, Baillie L, Bradbury IR, Hendry AP, Bentzen P, van Oosterhout C

Abstract
Red Queen host-parasite co-evolution can drive adaptations of immune genes by positive selection that erodes genetic variation (Red Queen arms race) or results in a balanced polymorphism (Red Queen dynamics) and long-term preservation of genetic variation (trans-species polymorphism). These two Red Queen processes are opposite extremes of the co-evolutionary spectrum. Here we show that both Red Queen processes can operate simultaneously by analysing the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in guppies (Poecilia reticulata and P. obscura) and swamp guppies (Micropoecilia picta). Sub-functionalisation of MHC alleles into 'supertypes' explains how polymorphisms persist during rapid host-parasite co-evolution. Simulations show the maintenance of supertypes as balanced polymorphisms, consistent with Red Queen dynamics, whereas alleles within supertypes are subject to positive selection in a Red Queen arms race. Building on the divergent allele advantage hypothesis, we show that functional aspects of allelic diversity help to elucidate the evolution of polymorphic genes involved in Red Queen co-evolution.

PMID: 29101318 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Cysteine proteases in protozoan parasites.

Sat, 08/25/2018 - 00:21
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Cysteine proteases in protozoan parasites.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Aug;12(8):e0006512

Authors: Siqueira-Neto JL, Debnath A, McCall LI, Bernatchez JA, Ndao M, Reed SL, Rosenthal PJ

Abstract
Cysteine proteases (CPs) play key roles in the pathogenesis of protozoan parasites, including cell/tissue penetration, hydrolysis of host or parasite proteins, autophagy, and evasion or modulation of the host immune response, making them attractive chemotherapeutic and vaccine targets. This review highlights current knowledge on clan CA cysteine proteases, the best-characterized group of cysteine proteases, from 7 protozoan organisms causing human diseases with significant impact: Entamoeba histolytica, Leishmania species (sp.), Trypanosoma brucei, T. cruzi, Cryptosporidium sp., Plasmodium sp., and Toxoplasma gondii. Clan CA proteases from three organisms (T. brucei, T. cruzi, and Plasmodium sp.) are well characterized as druggable targets based on in vitro and in vivo models. A number of candidate inhibitors are under development. CPs from these organisms and from other protozoan parasites should be further characterized to improve our understanding of their biological functions and identify novel targets for chemotherapy.

PMID: 30138453 [PubMed - in process]

Infectious diseases acquired by international travellers visiting the USA.

Wed, 08/22/2018 - 01:38
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Infectious diseases acquired by international travellers visiting the USA.

J Travel Med. 2018 Aug 01;25(1):

Authors: Stoney RJ, Esposito DH, Kozarsky P, Hamer DH, Grobusch MP, Gkrania-Klotsas E, Libman M, Gautret P, Lim PL, Leder K, Schwartz E, Sotir MJ, Licitra C, GeoSentinel Surveillance Network

Abstract
Background: Estimates of travel-related illness have focused predominantly on populations from highly developed countries visiting low- or middle-income countries, yet travel to and within high-income countries is very frequent. Despite being a top international tourist destination, few sources describe the spectrum of infectious diseases acquired among travellers to the USA.
Methods: We performed a descriptive analysis summarizing demographic and travel characteristics, and clinical diagnoses among non-US-resident international travellers seen during or after travel to the USA at a GeoSentinel clinic from 1 January 1997 through 31 December 2016.
Results: There were 1222 ill non-US-resident travellers with 1393 diagnoses recorded during the 20-year analysis period. Median age was 40 (range 0-86 years); 52% were female. Patients visited from 63 countries and territories, most commonly Canada (31%), Germany (14%), France (9%) and Japan (7%). Travellers presented with a range of illnesses; skin and soft tissue infections of unspecified aetiology were the most frequently reported during travel (29 diagnoses, 14% of during-travel diagnoses); arthropod bite/sting was the most frequently reported after travel (173 diagnoses, 15% after-travel diagnoses). Lyme disease was the most frequently reported arthropod-borne disease after travel (42, 4%). Nonspecific respiratory, gastrointestinal and systemic infections were also among the most frequently reported diagnoses overall. Low-frequency illnesses (<2% of cases) made up over half of diagnoses during travel and 41% of diagnoses after travel, including 13 cases of coccidioidomycosis and mosquito-borne infections like West Nile, dengue and Zika virus diseases.
Conclusions: International travellers to the USA acquired a diverse array of mostly cosmopolitan infectious diseases, including nonspecific respiratory, gastrointestinal, dermatologic and systemic infections comparable to what has been reported among travellers to low- and middle-income countries. Clinicians should consider the specific health risks when preparing visitors to the USA and when evaluating and treating those who become ill.

PMID: 30124885 [PubMed - in process]

Where there is no brain imaging: Safety and diagnostic value of lumbar puncture in patients with neurological disorders in a rural hospital of Central Africa.

Tue, 08/21/2018 - 00:44
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Where there is no brain imaging: Safety and diagnostic value of lumbar puncture in patients with neurological disorders in a rural hospital of Central Africa.

J Neurol Sci. 2018 Aug 09;393:72-79

Authors: Mukendi D, Kalo JL, Kayembe T, Lutumba P, Barbé B, Gillet P, Jacobs J, Yansouni CP, Chappuis F, Verdonck K, Boelaert M, Winkler AS, Bottieau E

Abstract
Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained by lumbar puncture (LP) is an essential step for the diagnostic approach of neurological disorders, in particular neuro-infections. In low-resource settings, it is even often the only available diagnostic method. Despite its key contribution, little is known on the risks and benefits of LP in the large tropical areas where hospital-based neuroimaging is not available. The objectives of this study were to assess the safety and diagnostic yield of LP in a rural hospital of central Africa and to identify predictors of CSF pleocytosis (white blood cell count >5/μL) as surrogate marker of neuro-infections. From 2012 to 2015, 351 patients admitted for neurological disorders in the rural hospital of Mosango, Kwilu province, Democratic Republic of Congo, were evaluated using a systematic clinical and laboratory workup and a standard operating procedure for LP. An LP was successfully performed in 307 patients (87.5%). Serious post-LP adverse events (headache, backache or transient confusion) were observed in 23 (7.5%) of them but were self-limiting, and no death or long-term sequelae were attributable to LP. CSF pleocytosis was present in 54 participants (17.6%), almost always associated with neuro-infections. Presenting features strongly and independently associated with CSF pleocytosis were fever, altered consciousness, HIV infection and positive screening serology for human African trypanosomiasis. In conclusion, the established procedure for LP was safe in this hospital setting with no neuroimaging and CSF analysis brought a substantial diagnostic contribution. A set of presenting features may help accurately selecting the patients for whom LP would be most beneficial.

PMID: 30121441 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

AN INSIGHT INTO THE ECOBIOLOGY, VECTOR SIGNIFICANCE AND CONTROL OF HYALOMMA TICKS (ACARI: IXODIDAE): A REVIEW.

Sun, 08/19/2018 - 01:34
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AN INSIGHT INTO THE ECOBIOLOGY, VECTOR SIGNIFICANCE AND CONTROL OF HYALOMMA TICKS (ACARI: IXODIDAE): A REVIEW.

Acta Trop. 2018 Aug 14;:

Authors: Sajid MS, Kausar A, Iqbal A, Abbas H, Iqbal Z, Jones MK

Abstract
Ticks (Acari:Ixodoidea) are important ectoparasites infesting livestock and human populations around the globe. Ticks can cause damage directly by affecting the site of infestation, or indirectly as vectors of a wide range of protozoa, bacteria and viruses which ultimately lead to lowered productivity of livestock populations. Hyalomma is a genus of hard ticks, having more than 30 species well-adapted to hot, humid and cold climates. Habitat diversity, vector ability, and emerging problem of acaricidal resistance in enzootic regions typify this genus in various countries around the world. This paper reviews the epidemiology, associated risk factors (temperature, climate, age, sex, breed etc.), vector role, vector-pathogen association, and reported control strategies of genus Hyalomma. The various proteins in saliva of Hyalomma secreted into the blood stream of host and the prolonged attachment are responsible for the successful engorgement of female ticks in spite of host immune defense system. The various immunological approaches that have been tried by researchers in order to cause tick rejection are also discussed. In addition, the novel biological control approaches involving the use of entomo-pathogenic nematodes and Bacillus thuringiensis (B. thuringiensis) serovar thuringiensis H14; an endotoxin, for their acaricidal effect on different species and life cycle stages of Hyalomma are also presented.

PMID: 30118698 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A Phase III Diagnostic Accuracy Study of a Rapid Diagnostic Test for Diagnosis of Second-Stage Human African Trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Wed, 08/15/2018 - 00:59
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A Phase III Diagnostic Accuracy Study of a Rapid Diagnostic Test for Diagnosis of Second-Stage Human African Trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

EBioMedicine. 2018 Jan;27:11-17

Authors: Boelaert M, Mukendi D, Bottieau E, Kalo Lilo JR, Verdonck K, Minikulu L, Barbé B, Gillet P, Yansouni CP, Chappuis F, Lutumba P

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the diagnostic accuracy of HAT Sero K-SeT for the field diagnosis of second-stage human African trypanosomiasis (HAT).
DESIGN: A phase III diagnostic accuracy design. Consecutive patients with symptoms clinically suggestive of HAT were prospectively enrolled. We compared results of the index test HAT Sero K-SeT with those of a composite reference standard: demonstration of trypanosomes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or trypanosomes detected in any other body fluid AND white blood cell count in CSF >5/μl.
SETTING: Rural hospital in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
PARTICIPANTS: All patients above five years old presenting at Mosango hospital with a neurological problem of recent onset at the exclusion of trauma.
INTERVENTIONS: n.a.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensitivity and specificity of HAT Sero K-SeT test.
RESULTS: The sensitivity of the HAT Sero K-SeT was 8/8 or 100.0% (95% confidence interval: 67.6 to 100.0%) and the specificity was 258/266 or 97.0% (94.2% to 98.5%).
CONCLUSION: The high sensitivity of the HAT Sero K-SeT is in line with previously published estimates, though the sample of HAT cases in this study was small. The specificity estimate was very high and precise. This test, when negative, allows the clinician to rule out HAT in a clinical suspect in a hospital setting in this endemic region.

PMID: 29246478 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Immune Mechanisms Involved in Schistosoma mansoni-Cathepsin B Vaccine Induced Protection in Mice.

Sat, 08/11/2018 - 00:04
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Immune Mechanisms Involved in Schistosoma mansoni-Cathepsin B Vaccine Induced Protection in Mice.

Front Immunol. 2018;9:1710

Authors: Ricciardi A, Zelt NH, Visitsunthorn K, Dalton JP, Ndao M

Abstract
A vaccine against schistosomiasis would contribute to a long-lasting decrease in disease spectrum and transmission. Our previous protection studies in mice using Schistosoma mansoni Cathepsin B (Sm-Cathepsin B) resulted in 59 and 60% worm burden reduction with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides and Montanide ISA720 VG as adjuvants, respectively. While both formulations resulted in significant protection in a mouse model of schistosomiasis, the elicited immune responses differed. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to decipher the mechanisms involved in Sm-Cathepsin B vaccine-mediated protection. We performed in vitro killing assays using schistosomula stage parasites as targets for lung-derived leukocytes and serum obtained from mice immunized with Sm-Cathepsin B adjuvanted with either Montanide ISA 720 VG or CpG and from non-vaccinated controls. Lung cells and immune sera from the Sm-Cathepsin B + Montanide group induced the highest killing (63%) suggesting the importance of antibodies in cell-mediated parasite killing. By contrast, incubation with lung cells from Sm-Cathepsin B + CpG immunized animals induced significant parasite killing (53%) independent of the addition of immune serum. Significant parasite killing was also observed in the animals immunized with Sm-Cathepsin B alone (41%). For the Sm-Cathepsin B + Montanide group, the high level killing effect was lost after the depletion of CD4+ T cells or natural killer (NK) cells from the lung cell preparation. For the Sm-Cathepsin B + CpG group, high parasite killing was lost after CD8+ T cell depletion, and a reduction to 39% was observed upon depletion of NK cells. Finally, the parasite killing in the Sm-Cathepsin B alone group was lost after the depletion of CD4+ T cells. Our results demonstrate how the different Sm-Cathepsin B formulations influence the immune mechanisms involved in parasite killing and protection against schistosomiasis.

PMID: 30090103 [PubMed]

Epidemiological aspects of travel-related systemic endemic mycoses: a GeoSentinel analysis, 1997-2017.

Sat, 08/11/2018 - 00:04
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Epidemiological aspects of travel-related systemic endemic mycoses: a GeoSentinel analysis, 1997-2017.

J Travel Med. 2018 Aug 01;25(1):

Authors: Salzer HJF, Stoney RJ, Angelo KM, Rolling T, Grobusch MP, Libman M, López-Vélez R, Duvignaud A, Ásgeirsson H, Crespillo-Andújar C, Schwartz E, Gautret P, Bottieau E, Jordan S, Lange C, Hamer DH, GeoSentinel Surveillance Network

Abstract
Background: International travel has increased in the past few decades, placing more travellers at risk of acquiring systemic endemic mycoses. There are limited published data on systemic endemic mycoses among international travellers. We report epidemiological characteristics of non-migrant, international travellers who acquired systemic endemic mycoses during travel.
Methods: We analysed records of non-migrant international travellers with a confirmed diagnosis of histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis or talaromycosis reported from 1997 through 2017 to GeoSentinel, a global surveillance network now consisting of 70 travel or tropical medicine centres in 31 countries.
Results: Sixty-nine records met the inclusion criteria. Histoplasmosis was most frequently reported; the 51 travellers with histoplasmosis had the lowest median age (30 years; range: 8-85) and shortest median duration of travel (12 days; range: 5-154). Coccidioidomycosis was reported in 14 travellers; travellers with coccidioidomycosis were older (median 62 years; range: 22-78) and had the longest median number of days between return from travel and presentation to a GeoSentinel site (55 days; range: 17-273). Almost all travellers with coccidioidomycosis were exposed in the USA. Other systemic endemic mycoses were less frequently reported, including blastomycosis (three travellers) and talaromycosis (one traveller).
Conclusions: Although relatively rare, systemic endemic mycoses should be considered as potential travel-related infections in non-migrant international travellers. Epidemiological exposures should be used to guide diagnostic evaluations and treatment.

PMID: 30085265 [PubMed - in process]

Congenitally transmitted Chagas disease in Canada: a family cluster.

Wed, 08/08/2018 - 00:04
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Congenitally transmitted Chagas disease in Canada: a family cluster.

CMAJ. 2017 Dec 04;189(48):E1489-E1492

Authors: Plourde PJ, Kadkhoda K, Ndao M

PMID: 29203618 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A - A novel biomarker of multi-episodic (recurrent) ocular toxoplasmosis.

Thu, 08/02/2018 - 00:52
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Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A - A novel biomarker of multi-episodic (recurrent) ocular toxoplasmosis.

Exp Eye Res. 2018 Jul 28;:

Authors: Isenberg J, Golizeh M, Belfort RN, da Silva AJ, Burnier MN, Ndao M

Abstract
Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is the most common etiology of posterior uveitis. The high incidence of macular scarring associated with OT is a leading cause of visual morbidity. Serum biomarkers of the disease would aid in its diagnosis. This study sought, for the first time, to elucidate serum biomarkers for OT by mass spectrometry. Blood samples were collected from four groups of nine patients each; toxoplasmosis IgG-with no history of uveitis, non-toxoplasmosis uveitis, first episode OT, and symptomatic recurrent OT. Serum was isolated and subjected to proteomics analysis using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) and surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (SELDI- MS). Selected proteins were further separated by SDS-PAGE and sequenced using tandem MS. Results were cross-validated with a T. gondii outbreak biomarker database that occurred in Brazil. Fifty markers of OT and 46 markers of recurrent disease were discovered by SELDI-MS of which 30 and 15, respectively, were cross-validated. 2D-GE analysis yielded 57 bands, selected based on the intensity of the bands, leading to the identification of 20 proteins. Eleven of those identified candidates were also found by SELDI-MS. Four candidates were chosen for immunoblotting. One serum protein, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A (PPIA), was confirmed as a biomarker of multi-episodic OT by immunoblotting in patients. PPIA can identify the patient with active recurrent OT from acute OT, other forms of uveitis and other parasitic infections. A validated PPIA assay may have a role in the diagnosis of the atypical OT patient before more invasive anterior chamber or vitreous tap is performed for PCR analysis or for Goldmann-Witner coefficient calculations. Base-line PPIA levels need to be studied to understand its possible use when deciding for prophylactic antibiotic use in the immunosuppressed sero-positive patient.

PMID: 30063883 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Promoting the health of migrants; what is the role of the travel medicine community?

Thu, 08/02/2018 - 00:52
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Promoting the health of migrants; what is the role of the travel medicine community?

J Travel Med. 2018 Jul 30;:

Authors: Greenaway C

PMID: 30060128 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Methods to reliably estimate faecal sludge quantities and qualities for the design of treatment technologies and management solutions.

Sun, 07/15/2018 - 00:04
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Methods to reliably estimate faecal sludge quantities and qualities for the design of treatment technologies and management solutions.

J Environ Manage. 2018 Jul 09;223:898-907

Authors: Strande L, Schoebitz L, Bischoff F, Ddiba D, Okello F, Englund M, Ward BJ, Niwagaba CB

Abstract
Sanitation access in urban areas of low-income countries is provided through unstandardized onsite technologies containing accumulated faecal sludge. The demand for infrastructure to manage faecal sludge is increasing, however, no reliable method exists to estimate total accumulated quantities and qualities (Q&Q) This proposed approach averages out complexities to estimate conditions at a centralized to semi-centralized scale required for management and treatment technology solutions, as opposed to previous approaches evaluating what happens in individual containments. Empirical data, demographic data, and questionnaires were used in Kampala, Uganda to estimate total faecal sludge accumulation in the city, resulting in 270 L/cap∙year for pit latrines and 280 L/cap∙year for septic tanks. Septic tank sludge was more dilute than pit latrine sludge, however, public toilet was not a distinguishing factor. Non-household sources of sludge represent a significant fraction of the total and have different characteristics than household-level sludge. Income level, water connection, black water only, solid waste, number of users, containment volume, emptying frequency, and truck size were predictors of sludge quality. Empirical relationships such as a COD:TS of 1.09 ± 0.56 could be used for more resource efficient sampling campaigns. Based on this approach, spatially available demographic, technical and environmental (SPA-DET) data and statistical relationships between parameters could be used to predict Q&Q of faecal sludge.

PMID: 30005415 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A Single Intramuscular Dose of a Plant-Made Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Elicits a Balanced Humoral and Cellular Response and Protects Young and Aged Mice from Influenza H1N1 Virus Challenge despite a Modest/Absent Humoral Response.

Wed, 07/11/2018 - 00:04
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A Single Intramuscular Dose of a Plant-Made Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Elicits a Balanced Humoral and Cellular Response and Protects Young and Aged Mice from Influenza H1N1 Virus Challenge despite a Modest/Absent Humoral Response.

Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2017 Dec;24(12):

Authors: Hodgins B, Yam KK, Winter K, Pillet S, Landry N, Ward BJ

Abstract
Virus-like-particle (VLP) influenza vaccines can be given intramuscularly (i.m.) or intranasally (i.n.) and may have advantages over split-virion formulations in the elderly. We tested a plant-made VLP vaccine candidate bearing the viral hemagglutinin (HA) delivered either i.m. or i.n. in young and aged mice. Young adult (5- to 8-week-old) and aged (16- to 20-month-old) female BALB/c mice received a single 3-μg dose based on the HA (A/California/07/2009 H1N1) content of a plant-made H1-VLP (i.m. or i.n.) split-virion vaccine (i.m.) or were left naive. After vaccination, humoral and splenocyte responses were assessed, and some mice were challenged. Both VLP and split vaccines given i.m. protected 100% of the young animals, but the VLP group lost the least weight and had stronger humoral and cellular responses. Compared to split-vaccine recipients, aged animals vaccinated i.m. with VLP were more likely to survive challenge (80% versus 60%). The lung viral load postchallenge was lowest in the VLP i.m. groups. Mice vaccinated with VLP i.n. had little detectable immune response, but survival was significantly increased. In both age groups, i.m. administration of the H1-VLP vaccine elicited more balanced humoral and cellular responses and provided better protection from homologous challenge than the split-virion vaccine.

PMID: 29021303 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hepatic cytolysis and bicytopenia after 15 days of four-drug tuberculosis treatment in Senegal.

Sun, 07/01/2018 - 00:12
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Hepatic cytolysis and bicytopenia after 15 days of four-drug tuberculosis treatment in Senegal.

Med Sante Trop. 2017 Aug 01;27(3):233-234

Authors: Thiam K, Sagne JMAN, Ndiaye EHM, Cissé MF, Mbaye FBR, Touré NO, Dia Kane Y, Diatta A, Niang S, Kombila UD, Dia S, Ndao M, Ka W

Abstract
We report the case of a 31-year-old immunocompetent woman residing in Senegal, with localized microscopy-proved pulmonary tuberculosis, complicated by macrophage activation syndrome and associated with viral hepatitis B, identified due to hepatic cytolysis and a bicytopenia.

PMID: 28947398 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Diagnosis and Management of Systemic Endemic Mycoses Causing Pulmonary Disease.

Sat, 06/30/2018 - 00:58
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Diagnosis and Management of Systemic Endemic Mycoses Causing Pulmonary Disease.

Respiration. 2018 Jun 28;:1-19

Authors: Salzer HJF, Burchard G, Cornely OA, Lange C, Rolling T, Schmiedel S, Libman M, Capone D, Le T, Dalcolmo MP, Heyckendorf J

Abstract
Systemic endemic mycoses cause high rates of morbidity and mortality in certain regions of the world and the real impact on global health is not well understood. Diagnosis and management remain challenging, especially in low-prevalence settings, where disease awareness is lacking. The main challenges include the variability of clinical presentation, the fastidious and slow-growing nature of the fungal pathogens, the paucity of diagnostic tests, and the lack of options and toxicity of antifungal drugs. Coccidioidomycosis and paracoccidioidomycosis are restricted to the Americas only, and while histoplasmosis and blastomycosis also occur predominantly in the Americas, these mycoses have also been reported on other continents, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Talaromycosis is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions in South-East Asia and southern China. Systemic endemic mycoses causing pulmonary disease are usually acquired via the airborne route by inhalation of fungal spores. Infections can range from asymptomatic or mild with flu-like illnesses to severe pulmonary or disseminated diseases. Skin involvement is frequent in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis, sporotrichosis, and talaromycosis and manifests as localized lesions or diffuse nodules in disseminated disease, but can also occur with other endemic mycoses. Culture and/or characteristic histopathology from clinical samples is the diagnostic standard for endemic mycoses. Immunological assays are often not available for the diagnosis of most endemic mycoses and molecular amplification methods for the detection of fungal nucleic acids are not standardized at present. The first-line treatment for mild to moderate histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis, sporotrichosis, and talaromycosis is itraconazole. Severe illness is treated with amphotericin B. Patients with severe coccidioidomycosis should receive fluconazole. Treatment duration depends on the specific endemic mycosis, the severity of disease, and the immune status of the patient, ranging between 6 weeks and lifelong treatment.

PMID: 29953992 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Fever in the tropics: the ultimate clinical challenge ?

Thu, 06/28/2018 - 00:44
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