Recent publications from TDC/Clinical Epidemiology authors

Protection against omicron (B.1.1.529) BA.2 reinfection conferred by primary omicron BA.1 or pre-omicron SARS-CoV-2 infection among health-care workers with and without mRNA vaccination: a test-negative case-control study

Sat, 09/24/2022 - 06:00
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data on vaccine-induced or infection-induced (hybrid or natural) immunity against omicron (B.1.1.529) subvariant BA.2, particularly in comparing the effects of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection with the same or different genetic lineage. We aimed to estimate the protection against omicron BA.2 associated with previous primary infection with omicron BA.1 or pre-omicron SARS-CoV-2, among health-care workers with and without mRNA vaccination.

High Frequency of COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy among Canadians Immunized for Influenza: A Cross-Sectional Survey

Fri, 09/23/2022 - 06:00
We assessed the frequency and correlates of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy before Canada's vaccine rollout. A cross-sectional vaccine hesitancy survey was completed by consecutive patients/family members/staff who received the influenza vaccine at McGill University affiliated hospitals. Based on the self-reported likelihood of receiving a future vaccine (scale 0-10), the following three groups were defined: non-hesitant (score 10), mildly hesitant (7.1-9.9), and significantly hesitant (0-7). Factors...

Stopping syphilis transmission in Arctic communities through rapid diagnostic testing: The STAR study protocol

Mon, 09/12/2022 - 06:00
BACKGROUND: Intense transmission of syphilis has emerged in some Canadian Arctic communities despite screening and prevention efforts. The remoteness of most communities and limited diagnostic infrastructure yield long delays (≥14 days) between screening and treatment of cases. These hamper syphilis control efforts and may contribute to sustained transmission. Syphilis rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have been developed to make screening more accessible and to inform clinical decision-making...

Accuracy of C-reactive Protein and Procalcitonin for Diagnosing Bacterial Infections Among Subjects With Persistent Fever in the Tropics

Mon, 09/12/2022 - 06:00
CONCLUSIONS: In patients with persistent fever, CRP and PCT showed higher sensitivity for bacterial infections than WBC count, applying commonly used cutoffs for normal values. A normal CRP value excluded the vast majority of severe infections and could therefore assist in deciding whether to withhold empiric antibiotics after cautious clinical assessment.

Multiple Indicators of Undernutrition, Infection, and Inflammation in Lactating Women Are Associated with Maternal Iron Status and Infant Anthropometry in Panama: The MINDI Cohort

Fri, 09/09/2022 - 06:00
Maternal infections, nutrient deficiencies, and inflammation (MINDI) co-exist in lactating indigenous women in Panama, but their impact on maternal iron status and infant growth is unknown. For this secondary analysis of cross-sectional data of lactating mothers from our MINDI cohort, we investigated associations of MINDI variables with maternal anemia, elevated serum transferrin receptor (sTfR), low serum iron, hepcidin, ferritin, and infant weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and...

<em>Dirofilaria immitis</em>: Genotyping Randomly Selected European Clinical Samples and USA Laboratory Isolates with Molecular Markers Associated with Macrocyclic Lactone Susceptibility and Resistance

Fri, 08/26/2022 - 06:00
Dirofilaria immitis is a parasitic nematode and causes dirofilariosis, a potentially fatal pulmonary infection which primarily infects canids. Dirofilariosis infections are controlled via prophylactic macrocyclic lactone (ML) regimens. Recent evidence has confirmed the development of ML-resistant isolates in the USA, which are genetically distinct from wildtype populations. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with ML-resistant phenotypes were clinically validated in USA populations....

In-hospital outcomes of SARS-CoV-2-infected health care workers in the COVID-19 pandemic first wave, Quebec, Canada

Wed, 08/24/2022 - 06:00
CONCLUSION: Immigrant HCW were particularly exposed to COVID-19 infection in the first wave of the pandemic in Quebec. Despite being young and healthy, one third of all HCW required ICU admission, highlighting the importance of preventing workplace transmission through strong infection prevention and control measures, including high COVID-19 vaccination coverage.

SARS-CoV-2 infection in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of standardised seroprevalence studies, from January 2020 to December 2021

Tue, 08/23/2022 - 06:00
CONCLUSION: We report high seroprevalence in Africa suggesting greater population exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and potential protection against COVID-19 severe disease than indicated by surveillance data. As seroprevalence was heterogeneous, targeted PHSM and vaccination strategies need to be tailored to local epidemiological situations.

Hepatic Transcriptomic Responses to Ethinylestradiol in Two Life Stages of Japanese Quail

Wed, 08/17/2022 - 06:00
Chemical risk assessment for avian species typically depends on information from toxicity tests performed in adult birds. Early-life stage (ELS) toxicity tests have been proposed as an alternative, but incorporation of these data into existing frameworks will require knowledge about the similarities/differences between ELS and adult responses. The present study uses transcriptomics to assess hepatic gene expression in ELS and adult Japanese quail following exposure to ethinylestradiol (EE2). ELS...

<em>Strongyloides stercoralis</em> prevalence in solid-organ and haematopoietic stem cell transplant candidates and recipients: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

Mon, 08/01/2022 - 06:00
INTRODUCTION: Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal helminth ubiquitous in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. It persists in the human host for a lifetime as a result of autoinfection and if undetected and untreated, can lead to increased morbidity and high mortality in immunocompromised individuals such as the transplant population. Transplant patients, including solid-organ and haematopoietic stem cell transplants (SOT and HSCT, respectively), are at a high risk of hyperinfection...

Travel associated extensively drug resistant typhoid fever: a case series to inform management in non-endemic regions

Fri, 07/29/2022 - 06:00
CONCLUSIONS: XDR typhoid fever is a particular risk for travelers to Pakistan, and empiric use of a carbapenem or azithromycin should be considered. Pre-travel typhoid vaccination and counseling are necessary and urgent interventions, especially for VFR travelers. Ongoing sentinel surveillance of XDR typhoid fever is needed to understand changing epidemiology.

Evaluation of Strongyloides Awareness and Knowledge among Canadian Physicians Caring for Patients At Risk for Severe Strongyloidiasis: A National Cross-sectional Survey

Wed, 07/27/2022 - 06:00
In Canada, a substantial proportion of migrants come from strongyloidiasis-endemic regions. Systematic screening for Strongyloides is not performed in immunocompromised patients in whom this infection could be potentially fatal. We aim to assess the level of Strongyloides awareness and knowledge among Canadian physicians caring for immunocompromised patients and identify factors currently associated with screening. Using an online survey distributed through Canadian medical associations, we...

Monkeypox Virus Infection in Humans across 16 Countries - April-June 2022

Fri, 07/22/2022 - 06:00
CONCLUSIONS: In this case series, monkeypox manifested with a variety of dermatologic and systemic clinical findings. The simultaneous identification of cases outside areas where monkeypox has traditionally been endemic highlights the need for rapid identification and diagnosis of cases to contain further community spread.

Remote Follow-up of Self-isolating COVID-19 Patients with a Patient Portal: Protocol for a Mixed-method Pilot Study (The Opal-COVID Study)

Tue, 07/12/2022 - 06:00
CONCLUSIONS: This protocol is designed to generate multidisciplinary knowledge on the implementation of a patient portal-based COVID-19 care intervention and will lead to a comprehensive understanding of feasibility, stakeholder experience, and influences on implementation that may prove useful for scaling up similar interventions.

A Hemagglutinin 1 Carrying Plant-Based Virus-like Particle Vaccine Generates an Efficacious Cellular Response by Exploiting IL-1 Signaling in Both Adult and Aged Mice

Fri, 06/24/2022 - 06:00
Inactivated influenza vaccines have struggled to provide consistent protection in older individuals. Circumventing immune senescence, an aging of the immune response characterized by weak humoral responses to vaccines, and unchecked inflammation during infection require novel immunization strategies. Plant-based virus-like particles (VLPs) bearing recombinant hemagglutinin proteins have been shown to provide protection in older animals in preclinical challenge studies, despite eliciting...

mGWAS-Explorer: Linking SNPs, Genes, Metabolites, and Diseases for Functional Insights

Thu, 06/23/2022 - 06:00
Tens of thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified to be significantly associated with metabolite abundance in over 65 genome-wide association studies with metabolomics (mGWAS) to date. Obtaining mechanistic or functional insights from these associations for translational applications has become a key research area in the mGWAS community. Here, we introduce mGWAS-Explorer, a user-friendly web-based platform to help connect SNPs, metabolites, genes, and their known...

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in travellers and migrants: a 10-year case series in a Canadian reference centre for tropical diseases

Tue, 06/21/2022 - 06:00
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is increasingly encountered in returned travellers and migrants to nonendemic countries. We sought to describe the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosed at our reference centre over a 10-year period.

Using MetaboAnalyst 5.0 for LC-HRMS spectra processing, multi-omics integration and covariate adjustment of global metabolomics data

Fri, 06/17/2022 - 06:00
Liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) has become a workhorse in global metabolomics studies with growing applications across biomedical and environmental sciences. However, outstanding bioinformatics challenges in terms of data processing, statistical analysis and functional interpretation remain critical barriers to the wider adoption of this technology. To help the user community overcome these barriers, we have made major updates to the...

Maternal gastrointestinal nematode infection enhances spatial memory of uninfected juvenile mouse pups

Mon, 06/13/2022 - 06:00
The developing brain is particularly vulnerable to factors including maternal infection during pregnancy. Establishment of neural networks critical for memory and cognition begins during the perinatal period, when Heligmosomoides bakeri, a gastrointestinal (GI) nematode restricted to the maternal mouse intestine, has been shown to upregulate expression of long-term potentiation genes in the young rodent pup brain. We explored the impact of maternal infection during pregnancy and early lactation...
Back to top