A good story can sell a product especially when it comes to dietary supplements. Talk about some legendary use by natives, throw in terms like increased stamina, improved mood, natural and aphrodisiac, and you are off and running to the marketplace. Maca root powder, here we come! Maca is grown mostly in Peru and its cooked root, with a composition much like wheat or rice, has a long history as a dietary staple. But it is stories about the enhanced virility of Inca warriors who supposedly downed maca root before going into battle that captured the imaginnation of supplement manufacturers. Although there is no evidence that the Inca fighters actually did this, legends are often based on kernels of truth.
Couple this with anecdotes of Peruvians eating maca root for energy and improved sexual function, and you have a basis for carrying out studies that may potentially lay the groundwork for marketing. After all, plants are fascinating chemical factories and it is conceivable that maca may have some biologically active compounds. None have been detected so far, but that is not surprising. It takes a monumental effort to isolate, separate and identify the hundreds of compounds found in plants, and that is only the beginning. Then comes the even greater challenge of testing candidate compounds for biological activity. That’s why when it comes to herbal products, the simplest process is to test crude mixtures.
There have been studies of various maca root preparations, and although not compelling, they are suggestive of some potential benefit. In one small study, men taking 1500 or 3000 mg per day of powdered root claimed increased sexual desire compared with a placebo. There was no measurable change in sex hormones and curiously the effect was not dose dependent. Another study in young men showed a slight but significant improvement in erectile dysfunction, and one in postmenopausal women resulted in decreased anxiety and depression and some improvement in sexual function compared with placebo. Again, there were no changes noted in any hormone levels.
As usual with such dietary supplements, the consumer is at the mercy of the manufacturer in terms of product quality. There is no systematic checking by regulators that the product actually contains what it is supposed to contain or whether it harbours lead, cadmium or arsenic, all of which are possible soil contaminants and capable of ending up in the marketed product. Given that maca is widely consumed as a food, it is unlikely that any of the root powders pose a significant health risk, although headaches, stomach problems, sweating and sleep disruption have been reported in rare cases. It seems that for people looking for a little boost in stamina and sexual function, a daily dose in the range of 1500-3000 mgs of “Peruvian ginseng,” as maca is sometimes called, is an option. It may actually do something, especially if you think it will.