History

The Maude Abbott Medical Museum is a repository for material that documents the study and practice of Medicine at McGill University, its associated teaching hospitals and the province of Quebec. Its history dates from the early 19th century.

The Museum’s collection originates around the time of the founding of the Montreal General Hospital (c1821) and the Montreal Medical Institute (the forerunner of the McGill University Medical Faculty in 1823/24). One of its first acquisitions is the Holmes heart, a specimen procured at autopsy in 1822 by Dr. Andrew Holmes, McGill’s first Dean of Medicine.

McGill’s four physician founders ⎼ Andrew Holmes, William Caldwell, John Stephenson and William Robertson ⎼ incorporate Edinburgh University’s teaching practices in the Montreal Medical Institute. The use of Museum specimens – such as a human skeleton mounted by Stephenson in 1826 – is one example of this.

Rev. Dr. William Wright, the first recorded black medical graduate in North America, is appointed Demonstrator in Anatomy and the first official Curator of the Medical Museum.

William Osler is appointed Lecturer of the Institutes of Medicine at McGill and soon becomes pathologist at the Montreal General Hospital. Between 1876 and 1884, he performs approximately 800 post-mortem examinations and donates many specimens from them to the Pathology Museum collection.

Francis Shepherd is appointed demonstrator in Anatomy in 1876 and expands the Anatomy Museum collection. In 1883 he becomes Professor and later Chair of the Department, a position he holds until 1913.

Maude Abbott is appointed Curator of the Pathology Museum. She expands its collection, begins a new archival system and develops its use in the medical school curriculum.

Fire destroys much of the Medical Building, including the Museums. Abbott asks members of the International Association of Medical Museums (which she cofounded in 1906) to donate material to replenish both anatomy and pathology collections. Approximately 3000 specimens are given by various institutions and individuals over the next three years.

 

The Strathcona Medical Building opens and includes three stories of display/study space for the Museum collections. The space is partly separated from the main building and is in the shape of a cross with a central octagonal atrium.

From 1909 to 1923 the Pathology Museum expands under Abbott’s curatorship to become one of the best known such institutions in North America. In 1918, it has about 6000 teaching specimens available for use in the museum and by clinicians in nearby McGill associated hospitals.

Pathology teaching and museum activity move from Strathcona Building to the newly constructed Pathological Institute, which includes space for a museum. Abbott leaves McGill for Philadelphia. She returns in 1925 to become Curator of a Medical Historical Museum in the Strathcona.

Following Abbott’s death in 1940, the specimens in her personal cardiovascular collection and the Osler collection are transferred to the Pathological Institute.

The Pathological Institute Museum is renovated to create laboratory space; its specimens are moved to basement storage and teaching rooms.

The Anatomy Department converts its museum area into offices and laboratories. In the process, the open-space architecture of the octagon is sacrificed, with the removal of the original glass display cases and the addition of partitioning walls.

The last pathology museum teaching specimens are moved from teaching cubicles to a large storage room in the Pathological Institute basement.

Renewed interest in the Medical Museum is stimulated by the 100th Anniversary Congress of the International Academy of Pathology held in Montreal in 2006. Because of the close association between the Academy (initially the International Association of Medical Museums) and the McGill Medical Museum, the Congress had a prominent historical emphasis, including a replica of a Medical Museum.

The Maude Abbott Medical Museum – MAMM – is officially constituted by the University.

The pathology collection is moved from the Pathological Institute to the Strathcona Building and is combined with the anatomical collection in the original third floor Museum area.

The MAMM broadens its scope to include preservation of material derived from Departments and Schools of the Medical Faculty other than Pathology and Anatomy. One of the first such acquisitions is therapeutic equipment from the School of Physical and Occupational Therapy.

Funding by generous donors allows renovation of a large display room, with the addition of modern cabinets, lighting and electronic apparatus.

A commemorative plaque dedicated to Maude Abbott – the 100th such plaque in the Strathcona Building and the only one commemorating a woman – is mounted next to the third floor Museum area.

The McGill Medical Museum originated in the early 1820s as a collection of specimens derived from autopsies performed by physicians associated with the McGill Medical School. Its early facilities were modest. For example, between 1841 and 1845, the Faculty occupied a warehouse-like building which contained only “a small bit of a room for pathological preparations, of which there were very few, preserved in weak pyrolignous acid in square colored bottles closed by cork bungs...”.

A much-improved area was included in a new medical building erected on the Campus in 1872. This became the repository for many pathology specimens gathered by William Osler between 1876 and 1884, during which time he performed approximately 800 autopsies at the Montreal General Hospital.

The Faculty of Medicine established a Department of Pathology in 1892. Among the responsibilities of its first Chair, Dr. George Adami, was the museum. He hired Maude Abbott to be its curator in 1898. That year during a trip to the Army Medical Museum in Washington to learn about the system of classification at that museum, she met Osler, who told her:

“That McGill Museum is a great place. As soon as you go home, look up the British Medical Journal for 1893 and read the article by Mr. Jonathan Hutchison on “A Clinical Museum”. That is what he calls his museum in London and it is the greatest place I know for teaching students in. Pictures of life and death together. Wonderful – you read it and see what you can do.”

Abbott took these words to heart and enthusiastically began developing the museum. One of her first projects was to increase the use of museum specimens in student teaching. At first, this was done on an ad hoc basis. However, in 1904, museum demonstrations became a compulsory part of the medical curriculum, and in fact became so popular that some students would return every morning at 8 A.M. to review the material of the previous day.

During this same period, Francis Shepherd was developing the anatomy museum. He had become Professor of Anatomy and Director of the museum in 1883. The Anatomy Museum was located in a different area from the pathology collection and consisted mostly of skeletal specimens, both human and animal (for the study of comparative anatomy).

The two museums suffered a serious setback in 1907 when a fire destroyed much of the medical building, including all the anatomy collection and two-thirds of the pathology one. Abbott sent an appeal to various museums in the Newsletter of the recently established International Association of Medical Museums, and between April 1907 and July 1910 approximately 3,000 specimens were donated. At the same time, Shepherd began actively purchasing both skeletal specimens and non-biological models, made of a material such as wax or plaster, to replace the lost anatomical collection. All this material was placed in a beautiful three-story display area in the newly built Strathcona Medical building in 1909.

Abbott’s museum continued to play an important part in the education of medical students for the next 10 years, following which conceptual differences arose between the new Pathology Chairman, Dr. Horst Oërtel, and Abbott about the nature of pathology and the manner in which it should be taught. Over her objections, Oërtel reorganized the Pathology Department and its Museum in time to coincide with their transfer from the Strathcona Medical Building to the newly constructed Pathological Institute in 1924. The day-to-day management of the new Pathology Museum, including the accessioning and preparation of specimens and their use in teaching, was taken over by Oërtel, leaving Abbott effectively isolated in the Strathcona Building as Curator of the newly named “Central” Medical Museum.

Following Abbott’s death in 1940, the specimens of pathologic interest which remained in her Museum—including the Osler collection and Abbott’s own cardiovascular specimens—were transferred to the Pathological Institute. Specimens continued to be accessioned, preserved, and mounted in its basement museum workshop until 1972. The Pathological Institute museum was converted into a research laboratory in the 1940s and its specimens were moved to storage or to a basement teaching space. In 1996, the last teaching specimens were again moved, this time to storage in the now unused Museum workshop where they languished, some leaking fluid and drying, and all gathering dust.

Under the leadership of Charles Leblond and Yves Clermont after 1950, the Anatomy department developed both teaching and research in cell biology. Although classical anatomical teaching was still a prominent feature of the medical school curriculum, its importance in the department thus decreased. Despite this, many large preparations for student teaching were created in the dissecting room in the 1970s. Eventually, however, much of display space for this and historical material was converted to offices or research labs and the material came to the same fate as its pathology counterpart.

Renewed interest in the Medical Museum was stimulated by the 100th Anniversary Congress of the International Academy of Pathology held in Montreal in 2006. Because of the close association between the Academy (initially called the International Association of Medical Museums and cofounded by Abbott) and the McGill Medical Museum, the Congress had a prominent historical emphasis, including a replica of the Museum in the Congress exhibit hall. The work involved in mounting the display led to an increased appreciation of the value of the Museum’s collections and the University officially establishing the Maude Abbott Medical Museum in 2012. During the summer of 2013, the entire pathology collection was transferred back to the Strathcona Anatomy and Dentistry Building, where it was reunited with the remaining anatomical material.

Since then, the museum has acquired and preserved non-biological material of historical teaching and research interest from both McGill medical faculty departments and Schools (such as Physiology and Physical and Occupational Therapy) and from outside donors. Its entire collection now includes over 7000 items. These are being used to teach not only principles of pathology and anatomy for which they were initially acquired but also the history of medicine.

Links

About McGill History

History of the Faculty of Medicine

References

Abbott ME. McGill's Heroic Past 1821-1921. Montreal: McGill University.

Abbott ME. History of medicine in the province of Quebec. Montreal: McGill University; 1931.

Hanaway J. and Cruess R. McGill Medicine: The First Half Century: 1829-1885. Montreal, McGill-Queens Press, 1996

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