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You Asked: Does taking a supplement of maca root have any merit?

Our OSS Blog - Sat, 07/04/2015 - 20:20

A good story can sell a product especially when it comes to dietary supplements. Talk about some legendary use by natives, throw in terms like increased stamina, improved mood, natural and aphrodisiac, and you are off and running to the marketplace. Maca root powder, here we come! Maca is grown mostly in Peru and its cooked root, with a composition much like wheat or rice, has a long history as a dietary staple. But it is stories about the enhanced virility of Inca warriors who supposedly downed maca root before going into battle that captured the imaginnation of supplement manufacturers. Although there is no evidence that the Inca fighters actually did this, legends are often based on kernels of truth.

Couple this with anecdotes of Peruvians eating maca root for energy and improved sexual function, and you have a basis for carrying out studies that may potentially lay the groundwork for marketing. After all, plants are fascinating chemical factories and it is conceivable that maca may have some biologically active compounds. None have been detected so far, but that is not surprising. It takes a monumental effort to isolate, separate and identify the hundreds of compounds found in plants, and that is only the beginning. Then comes the even greater challenge of testing candidate compounds for biological activity. That’s why when it comes to herbal products, the simplest process is to test crude mixtures.

There have been studies of various maca root preparations, and although not compelling, they are suggestive of some potential benefit. In one small study, men taking 1500 or 3000 mg per day of powdered root claimed increased sexual desire compared with a placebo. There was no measurable change in sex hormones and curiously the effect was not dose dependent. Another study in young men showed a slight but significant improvement in erectile dysfunction, and one in postmenopausal women resulted in decreased anxiety and depression and some improvement in sexual function compared with placebo. Again, there were no changes noted in any hormone levels.

As usual with such dietary supplements, the consumer is at the mercy of the manufacturer in terms of product quality. There is no systematic checking by regulators that the product actually contains what it is supposed to contain or whether it harbours lead, cadmium or arsenic, all of which are possible soil contaminants and capable of ending up in the marketed product. Given that maca is widely consumed as a food, it is unlikely that any of the root powders pose a significant health risk, although headaches, stomach problems, sweating and sleep disruption have been reported in rare cases. It seems that for people looking for a little boost in stamina and sexual function, a daily dose in the range of 1500-3000 mgs of “Peruvian ginseng,” as maca is sometimes called, is an option. It may actually do something, especially if you think it will.

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Unexpected consequences are part and parcel of science

Our OSS Blog - Sat, 07/04/2015 - 20:17
 Science is as a quest for knowledge. Sometimes it ends with a clear-cut result, often not. The Earth goes around the sun. Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen. The speed of light is 299,792,458 meters per second. These are facts and will never change. But knowledge is often fluid, conforming to new information as it comes to light. We no longer think maggots spontaneously arise from decaying flesh or that heart attack patients have to be kept on six weeks bed rest. These beliefs, though, were reasonable based on the knowledge available at the time.

Scientists are sometimes accused of being slipshod, too profit-motivated, or even incompetent for having made a decision that eventually turned sour. The prescribing of thalidomide, the introduction of DDT and the routine use of hormone replacement therapy at menopause are commonly cited as scientific errors, yet these were all backed by appropriate peer-reviewed studies. It often takes years for problems to emerge, and not having foreseen them does not mean that researchers erred or were motivated by interests other than the honest pursuit of science. Of course, when unexpected consequences do occur, it is important to recognize them. Making a change is not an admission of failure, indeed it is one of the hallmarks of science.

When back in the middle of the last century research revealed that cholesterol levels in the blood were associated with a risk for heart disease, it made sense to suggest that eggs, because of their significant cholesterol content, should be consumed in a limited fashion. That, though, was just an educated guess. Science dictates that such a guess be followed up and be properly evaluated. But it can take years of studies to determine if a hypothesis is correct, and such studies, particularly in the are of nutrition, are not easy to carry out. Food frequency questionnaires are notoriously unreliable, and there are all sorts of confounding factors such as genetics, age, weight and other dietary components that have to be taken into account.

Furthermore, no decision can be made based on any single study; a preponderance of evidence is required to arrive at a conclusion. With eggs, sufficient data has now been collected to indicate that their consumption does not have a significant effect on blood cholesterol levels. Indeed, the expert panel in the US that every five years makes dietary guideline recommendations has concluded that “cholesterol is not a nutrient of concern because cholesterol from foods doesn’t cause higher blood cholesterol levels.”

As far as scientific questions go, the effect of eggs on blood cholesterol was a relatively easy one to answer. But this is not always the case. Consider the question of chemicals that are suspected of causing cancer. Obviously people cannot be given suspected carcinogens and in any case, such trials would take decades to reveal an effect. Therefore, “knowledge” emerges from human epidemiological evidence along with studies in animals and cell cultures.

Various organizations classify carcinogens into different categories, with the most widely referenced one being the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Its Group 1 substances are definitely known to cause cancer based on human evidence and include tobacco, the combustion product benzopyrene, asbestos, benzene, formaldehyde, dioxin and ultraviolet light. Aflatoxins from molds, infection by helicobacter pylori bacteria, herbal remedies containing Aristolochia species, x-rays, occupation as a painter and alcoholic beverages are also on this list.

Group 2A is a compilation of “probable” carcinogens as determined by strong evidence from animal studies but limited human evidence. Lead compounds, acrylamide in baked goods, emissions from frying foods, hairdressing as an occupation, shift work, the herbicide glyphosate and insecticides such as diazinon and malathion are in this category. “Possible” carcinogens for which there is insufficient animal evidence and limited evidence in humans fall into Group 2B and include coffee, pickled vegetables, radiofrequency fields, titanium dioxide and DDT.

Combining all three groups, there are more than 450 substances or processes that are classified as known, probable or possible carcinogens. What do we do with this information? We can limit alcohol consumption, take care with sun exposure, treat helicobacter infection, avoid charred foods and of course shun smoking. As far as the other agents are concerned, sometimes we have to be satisfied with knowing that not everything can be known. Outside of occupational exposure, there just isn’t enough known to make sweeping recommendations. But if you are offered a job as a chimney sweep, don’t take it.

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Bee Buzz

Our OSS Blog - Tue, 06/30/2015 - 10:24

Bees are critical to agriculture, there is no doubt about that. They fertilize various crops by spreading the pollen that they collect to meet their protein and fat needs. Recently there has been much concern about declining bee populations in some areas and speculation has focused on insecticides known as “neonicotinoids.” Many media reports have tried and convicted the “neonics” and urged that they be banned. But as is so often the case, media reports only scratch the scientific surface and deeper digging produces a different buzz. Neonics at a certain level of exposure can disorient or even kill bees, which comes as no surprise since they are insecticides, and bees are insects. The question is whether these chemicals can be used in a way that protects plants without harming bees.

Neonicotinoids, first introduced in 2004, are modeled on nicotine, the natural insecticide produced by the tobacco plant. One advantage is that instead of spraying, these chemicals can be applied to the seeds of crops such as corn, soybeans and canola. They then end up distributed throughout the plant as it grows and are ready to dispatch any insect that dares to dine on the foliage. Bees don’t do that, they go for the nectar in the flowers which has only traces of neonics. Yet bee deaths have been linked with neonic-coated corn and soy seeds, mostly in Ontario. But curiously, not with canola seeds in western Canada which are also treated with the same pesticides. So what is going on?

Mechanical planters use a jet of air to blow seeds into the soil. Commonly talc or graphite are added as lubricants to reduce friction between the seeds but these can rub off and can carry insecticide contaminated dust into the air, exposing flying insects such as bees to the neonics. The concern is that the tainted bees return to the hive where they can expose fellow bees to the neonics and wreak havoc. A novel polyethylene wax lubricant that can replace talc and graphite has shown a significant reduction in airborne insecticide during planting. There are also polymers being developed to help the insecticide stick to the seeds.

The planting of canola uses different technology and doesn’t produce comparable amounts of dust. Some 20 million acres of canola are planted in Canada with neonicotinoid treated seed and there has been no impact on bee health at all. So it seems the problem may not be the neonics as much as the seeding methodology. Neonics are also commonly used on cut flowers and on plants purchased from nurseries but whether these affect pollinators is an open question.

In any case, the neonics are only part of the picture when it comes to bee health. There are mites, parasites and viruses that can infect bees, and transporting hives, which is commonly done, also stresses them, as do harsh winters and long springs. Specifically, the Varroa mite can affect bee health significantly, and it is interesting to note that in Australia, which is free of these mites, no problems have been seen with bee populations in spite of extensive use of neonicotinoid coated seeds.

So while the neonicotinoids may be a factor in the decline of bee populations in some areas, they are not the only factor. Furthermore, loss of bee colonies has been observed in places where neonicotinoids are not used at all, and history records many cases of unusual deaths of honey bee colonies long before neonics were introduced.

Still, there are some troubling developments. A recent British study showed that bees are more attracted to a sugar solution laced with neonics than to one without, implying the bees may be getting some sort of a buzz from the chemicals and may be more likely to visit plants containing them and end up contaminating hives. And a study in Sweden showed a reduced density of wild bees, but not honey bees, in a field planted with neonic-coated seeds.

Because of the cloud hanging over neonics, Europe and Ontario have decided to greatly restrict their use. It will take a while to see the effect, not only on the bees, but also on crop yields which have steadily increased since the introduction of the neonicotinoids. If yields are to be maintained, it may be back to the insecticidal sprays which come with problems of their own, not only for pollinators, but for people as well. Of course in the western world we can forego insecticides and just pay more for our locally-grown food.

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Murky Mercola

Our OSS Blog - Tue, 06/30/2015 - 04:32

If you haven’t heard of Joe Mercola, you have not been surfing the waves of health advice on the web. He is an osteopathic physician whose practice now is limited to offering mostly iffy medical advice on his website and selling a variety of questionable products. He claims his website “is not a tool to get me a bigger house and car, or to run for senate.”. He says he funds his site and therefore, is not handcuffed to any advertisers, silent partners or corporate parents and profit generated from the sale of the products he recommend goes right back into maintaining and building a better site, “ a site that, startling as it may be with all the greed-motivated hype out there in health care land, is truly for you.” Gee, that sounds like motherhood and apple pie. It seems though that not every penny earned goes back into the managing the website. Mercola lives high on the hog in a multi-million dollar estate in Chicago. That wouldn’t be objectionable if the edifice were built on gains from promoting sound science. But that is not the case.

Besides being critical of vaccination, calling microwave ovens dangerous, questioning whether the HIV virus is the cause of AIDS, opposing homogenized milk, claiming that sunscreens increase the risk of skin cancer, Mercola hypes and sells a variety of pseudoscience-laced products. Let’s start with “Dr. Mercola’s Earthing Universal Mat,” which is described thus: “When you walk barefoot on the Earth, there's a transfer of free electrons from the Earth into your body that spread throughout your tissues. The effect is sufficient to maintain your body at the same negatively-charged electrical potential as the Earth. This simple process is called 'grounding.' If you constantly wear materials like rubber or 'plastic' shoes, which are both very effective insulators, you'll be disconnected from the natural energy that flows from the Earth.” Well, in my view, the only thing you will be disconnected from is science. This business of improving health by walking barefoot or by using Mercola’s Earthing Mat is nonsense. But Mercola tells us that his mat “is a great way to complement any outside 'barefooting' you might be able to fit into your busy schedule. It's a quick and easy way for you to get started grounding whether at home, at the office, or almost anywhere you go.” I prefer to get my grounding from science not fairy tales.

Dr. Mercola also sells books such as “Dark Deception” in which he describes how we need sun exposure for health. But he would prefer to expose you to the tanning beds he sells, the same ones health experts agree are dangerous and increase the risk of skin cancer. There is also Dr. Mercola’s “organic deodorant” with “baking soda as the “active ingredient.” Except that it isn’t very active. There are also supplements galore. Like “breast health formula,” “mushroom complex” and “silver solution,” none of is a solution to anything. His bamboo toilet paper I’m sure does as good a job as any other, but the claim that it is better because it is free of toxic BPA can be safely flushed away.

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Should one worry about reboiling water for coffee or tea?

Our OSS Blog - Tue, 06/30/2015 - 04:29

An article is circulating on the internet about the dangers of reboiling water and concentrating dissolved chemicals. It amounts to baseless fear-mongering. Lets consider fluoride as an example. Suppose you put a liter of water containing 1 ppm fluoride in a kettle and boil it. You then take 200 mL to make a cup of coffee or tea. That means you will ingest 0.2 mg of fluoride. If you now let the water keep boiling until 100 mL evaporates...which would take a long time...and you take 200 mL from the remaining water to make your next cup of coffee, you will be ingesting 0.22 mg of fluoride. This is an insignificant difference, even if there were an issue with that amount of fluoride, which there isn't. The same argument applies to any other solutes in water. To imply that making your next cup of coffee from boiled water is going to have any sort of impact on health is absolute nonsense. With tea there may actually be a slight difference but that has nothing to do with taste not toxicity. Boiling drives oxygen out of the water and deoxygenated water tends to taste more flat.

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Is it true that ice cream that doesn’t melt easily should be avoided?

Our OSS Blog - Sat, 06/20/2015 - 06:25

Joe Mercola, the font of much Internet poppycock, thinks that the safety of ice cream is somehow related to the ease with which it melts. He and other bloggers not well versed in science suggest that ice cream that does not melt easily should be avoided. There are ice creams that don't melt as readily as others but that doesn't mean that eating them poses a risk. There are a number of factors that determine how readily an ice cream melts. Basically, the melting rate is determined by the additives used. Ice cream is a mixture of fat globules, water, sugar and air. For a smooth texture the separation of fat and water must be avoided as well as the formation of large ice crystals. Emulsifiers such as mono and diglycerides prevent the fat from separating and guar gum and calcium sulphate add thickness. The thick texture also results in an ice cream that is more difficult to melt.There is no problem with these additives. The glycerides are basically a type of fat that occur naturally in many foods, guar gum is extracted from a bean and calcium sulphate is used in much higher doses in calcium supplements. People who suggest that ice cream is somehow toxic because it stays solid longer need to solidify their knowledge of chemistry.

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You Asked: What is “meat glue?’

Our OSS Blog - Sat, 06/20/2015 - 06:22

The idea of eating a steak made from pieces of meat scrap glued together is likely to stick in the craw for most people.  But there are also those who are ready to shell out a small fortune at New York’s uppity WD-50 restaurant for a chance to sink their teeth into “shrimp noodles” concocted with the same “meat glue.”

So, what is this “meat glue?”  Rest assured that no horses were condemned to the glue factory to produce it.  What we’re talking about is an enzyme called transglutaminase that allows a mouthful of shrimp to be served in the form of noodles that look, but certainly do not taste, like regular pasta.  How does it do this?  By facilitating a chemical reaction that forges links between structural protein molecules. Proteins of course are composed of chains of amino acids, and transglutaminase links the amino acid lysine in one chain to glutamine in an adjacent chain.  If these chains are located on the surface of adjacent pieces of meat, the pieces get stuck together almost like magic.  The joint then looks just like one of the white streaks of gristle or fat commonly seen in meat.  It’s so strong that the meat doesn’t even tear along the “fault line.”

Transglutaminase is not foreign to the human body.  We produce it to aid in blood clotting, a process that requires protein molecules to form interlinked complex structures.  Skin and hair are also composed of proteins that have been bound together, and transglutaminase plays a role here as well.

In the 1990s, the food industry discovered that this enzyme can be isolated in good yield from the bacterium Streptoverticillium mobaraense and that it can be used to “restructure” meat, fish and poultry.  For example, with the help of transglutaminase, bits of chicken left over after the carcass has been processed, instead of being discarded as waste, can be glued together to produce chicken patties.  Similarly, artificial crab legs and shrimp can be made by sticking together ground pieces of cheaper seafoods such as Pollock. While the taste of such artificial foods can be criticized, there is no health issue associated with consuming transglutaminase.  As any other protein, it is readily broken down into its component amino acids in the digestive tract.

“Meat glue” is produced for the food industry under the name Activa by the giant Japanese company Ajinomoto which also markets monosodium glutamate (MSG).  It did its work quietly behind the scenes until celebrity chef Heston Blumenthal brought it out of the shadows at the Fat Duck, the restaurant on the outskirts of London that has been labeled by many as the best eating place in the world. Blumenthal’s enthusiasm for creating novel dishes with transglutaminase rubbed off on Wylie Dufresne at New York’s famed WD-50 restaurant who managed to grind shrimp into noodles with the help of transglutaminase and served it on a bed of smoked yogurt.

Other chefs who pursue what has been called “molecular gastronomy,” defined as the application of scientific principles to the creation of new dishes, are pushing the transglutaminase envelope.  Around the corner are filet mignon with strips of bacon glued to its surface, fish coated with chicken skin to enhance flavour and shrimp burgers held together by cross-linked proteins.  How about chicken fat stuck to steak to add a new dimension to chicken fried steak?  Just in case your cholesterol isn’t high enough.

Unfortunately transglutaminase also lends itself to some less savory applications.  Such as producers or butchers using it to bind meat scraps too small to be sold into slices that look every bit as delectable as prime cuts.  The seamless joints are virtually undetectable. Ditto for any difference in taste.  Just take the bits of meat, sprinkle them with transglutaminase, place them on a sheet of plastic wrap and roll tightly into the shape of a tube.  Refrigerate for a few hours and then unwrap.  You’ll be looking at meat that for all the world looks like a single piece of filet.  And it can be priced accordingly.

Clearly there is deception involved here.  The customer is not getting what he or she is paying for.  There are some other issues as well.  Transglutaminase can be isolated from blood, with bovine and pig blood being used commercially.  This can be a problem for people adhering to religious dietary laws.  Not only can transglutaminase be used to make “restructured meat,” it can also be used to improve the texture of hot dogs and sausages.  Meat glue is not allowed in Europe, but can be used in Canada as long as it is declared on the label like any other additive.  For example, if Chicken McNuggets were glued together with this enzyme, it would have to be listed on the ingredients list, which is available from McDonald’s.  It’s not.  So no “meat glue” there.  Whether or not some unscrupulous butchers use it to make fake steaks, is another matter.

Any butcher engaging in such clandestine operations may pay a price.  While ingesting transglutaminase is no problem, inhaling the powder can damage the lungs.  Consumers don’t have to worry about this, but there is an issue with cooking glued meat.  The surface of meat is always covered with bacteria but the microbes are readily killed by cooking.  However, with structured meat, some of the outside becomes the inside, and if the meat is not thoroughly cooked, as is of course possible for people who like their steak rare, bacteria on the inside may survive.  This is the reason why hamburger meat, a classic “outside becomes inside” situation, has to be cooked through and through.

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You Asked: What is cream of tartar good for?

Our OSS Blog - Wed, 06/10/2015 - 09:30

It is a cheap, safe, readily available mild acid.  It is ideal for the generation of carbon dioxide from baking soda.  In fact, one version of baking powder is a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and cream of tartar.  When the mixture dissolves, bubbles of carbon dioxide are released.  The same chemistry can be used to keep drains clear.  Just make up a mix of one cup bicarbonate, one quarter cup cream of tartar and one cup of salt (for increased density) and periodically pour a few spoonfuls down the drain.  The bubbling action can dislodge small blockages.

Candy makers also know all about cream of tartar.  Candies are basically made by cooling down solutions in which a lot of sugar has been dissolved.  But this has to be done in a fashion that ensures small crystal formation otherwise the candy becomes too brittle and crunchy. If a small amount of cream of tartar is added, some of the sucrose is hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose which are less likely to form large crystals.

There is something else that cream of tartar can interfere with.  Protein molecules joining to each other.  That’s just what happens when we whip egg whites to make meringue.  Coiled proteins unwind and link up in a rigid three-dimensional network.  Sometimes, however, the proteins form too many links to each other and overcoagulation results.  This causes the meringue to be lumpy.  The addition of cream of tartar limits the extent to which proteins can bond to each other.  So it is a pastry chef’s beloved friend.

If that still isn’t enough to make you appreciate cream of tartar, how about its cleaning abilities?  A blackened aluminum pot will shine like new if you boil water with two spoonfuls of cream of tartar per liter in it.  Finally, cream of tartar complexes iron so it will even take rust stains out of fabrics and the bathtub.  Obviously no household should be without it.

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Plastic Cheese and Fake Mayo

Our OSS Blog - Mon, 06/08/2015 - 07:21

On a recent trip to the U.S. I perused the menu and decided on a cheese sandwich. When I queried the waitress about the kind of cheese involved, I was told, “American!” I replied I was interested in the type of cheese, not its citizenship. “You know, American, the plastic kind” came the irritated response. I now knew I had to prep the taste buds for “processed” cheese.

“Would you like it with just mayo?” “Not just mayo,” I replied, “I’d like lettuce and tomato as well.” “Yes, but with just mayo or real mayo?” Sensing my confusion, the waitress turned on her heels and returned with a jar sporting the label “Just Mayo.” Looked real to me. I decided not to torment the poor lady further and decided that “Just Mayo” would be just fine with my plastic cheese.

“American cheese” really is plastic. But don’t start conjuring up images of cheese makers grinding up recycled plastic bottles. A plastic is simply any material that can be molded into a desired shape, and processed cheese does fit that definition.

It was back in 1916 that cheese merchant J.L. Kraft, plagued by complaints of inconsistent quality, hatched a scheme to mix a variety of cheeses and blend them with water to produce a uniform product. For a smooth consistency Kraft had to devise a method to prevent the fat, protein and the water from separating. Sodium monohydrogen phosphate turned out to be an ideal “emulsifier,” and ensured that people who like their cheeseburgers can count on a slice that will always taste the same and melt in a uniform fashion. And yes, processed cheese does melt, as anyone who has ever made a grilled cheese sandwich can attest.

That is contrary to the implication of a widely circulating video portraying processed cheese as some sort of Satanic product because it does not melt in the heat of a flame. One viewer was prompted to wonder if this is why “cancer is on the rise,” and another asked why Kraft puts plastic in its cheese. No, there’s no plastic. But there are emulsifiers that bind the cheese’s components tightly and do not lose their hold with a sudden increase in temperature. They do, however, let go with prolonged heating at a lower temperature. There is nothing devilish here, just some clever chemistry. Nutritionally, processed cheese is comparable to whatever cheese was used to make it, usually cheddar. It does tend to be higher in sodium, but if there is any risk to be had from processed cheese, it is to the palate.

Now what about “Just Mayo?” Isn’t it real mayonnaise? Not according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “Mayonnaise" is defined as a condiment that must contain a specific amount of vegetable oil and egg yolk. But what if you shorten the name and call it “Just Mayo?” Does it still have to contain eggs? No, says Josh Tetrick of Hampton Creek, maker of the new-fangled spread that advertises itself as being healthier, more environmentally friendly, and more humane than “real mayonnaise” The term “mayo” is not defined, Tetrick maintains, and he says he does not sell his product as mayonnaise. “It’s Just Mayo!”

The “more humane” refers to the way egg-laying chickens are raised in small cages. True, the peas that are grown to produce the protein extract used to emulsify the oil and vinegar in Just Mayo have a peaceful life, and presumably do not suffer when their pods are wrenched apart. The “environmental friendliness” is based on the ratio of energy input to food energy output for eggs being about 39-to-1, whereas Just Mayo’s plant ingredients that replace eggs weigh in at a ratio 2-to-1.

Hampton Creek may be on firm footing when it comes to promoting the benefits of “no eggs” in terms of environmental footprint, but when it comes to implication of health benefits, the company is trampling in mud. Both Just Mayo and Hellman’s “real mayonnaise,” contain 90 calories per serving from 10 grams of fat. The 5 milligrams of cholesterol in the real mayo is inconsequential. Curiously, Just Mayo lists its protein content as zero, yet its promotional material describes how the company’s biochemists have investigated numerous plants to come up with a protein that can rival egg yolk as an emulsifier. Obviously not much of this protein is needed in the product. And how did the sandwich taste? Like plastic cheese with fake mayo.

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Miracle Mineral Solution is a Nightmare

Our OSS Blog - Tue, 06/02/2015 - 04:58

Malaria, AIDS, hepatitis, herpes, cancer.  Terrible diseases.  That’s why thousands and thousands of scientists around the world, armed with advanced degrees, are engaged in research projects aimed at finding a cure.

Now, ask yourself this question: what is the chance of a gold prospector, with no training in the health sciences, tackling a problem and finding an answer that has eluded the world’s most renowned researchers?  Furthermore, it’s simple to administer, readily available, and to boot, also destroys the H1N1 virus, clears up acne, eliminates heavy metals and cures the common cold.  I can tell you what probability I would attach to this miracle solution performing as claimed.  Let me see now, how does “zero” sound?

There’s nothing subtle about the name of this purported wonder: “Miracle Mineral Solution (MMS)!”  Well, there are no miracles to be had.  Or minerals.  Admittedly, however, there is a solution.  Not a solution to any problem, but a solution in the sense of a substance being dissolved in water.  And that substance is sodium chlorite, a common disinfectant and bleaching agent.  Its chief promoter, Jim Humble, is either a brilliant inventor, a self-delusional scientifically-bewildered simpleton, or a cunning scoundrel.  Take your pick.  I know which box I would tick off.

In a decidedly non-humble fashion, Humble claims that “this breakthrough can save your life, or the life of a loved one.”  He then brags that his discovery is the answer to AIDS, hepatitis A,B and C, malaria, herpes, TB, most cancers and many more of mankind's worse diseases."  Of course you may not have heard of this revolutionary treatment because it is being hidden from the public by those devilish pharmaceutical companies whose profits would be destroyed if the word got out about all diseases being cured in such a simple fashion.

Let’s just trace how this visionary, this wonder-worker, this mental colossus, discovered the gift “that would shift the course of human health history forever.”  Incidentally, MMS wasn’t this amazing philanthropist’s first gift to humanity.  That was the automatic garage door opener, which humble Humble supposedly invented although I can’t find any documented evidence for this claim.

In any case, the MMS saga begins in the South American jungle where our hero was prospecting for gold when two of his men fell ill with malaria.  With no prospects for immediate medical help, Humble had to resort to his razor-sharp wits.  Actually, I don’t think there was much chance of any cuts being inflicted.  The sodium chlorite solution he had brought along to disinfect water obviously killed bacteria, our champion thought, maybe it would also destroy whatever was causing the malaria.  So, he gave the men some of the solution and was stunned to see their symptoms vanish in just four hours.  I bet he was!

Now Humble had a new calling, rid the world of malaria.  He started to treat sick South Americans but found that the sodium chlorite solution was only effective 70% of the time.  Not good enough for this dazzling mind!  He began to experiment with his concoction and discovered that when mixed with citric acid, the chlorite would be converted to chlorine dioxide, which turned out to be a superior treatment.  Wow!  Before long, Humble claimed to have registered 75,000 successful treatments of malaria with his miracle product.

Strange, but I can’t find any of these spectacular results documented in the scientific literature.  Wouldn’t you think that the discovery of such a simple cure for malaria would merit publication?  Surely a Nobel Prize would be in the offing!  Ah, I know.  It must be those dastardly jealous scientists, or the evil pharmaceutical companies that are preventing publication.  Yup.  Must be.  As a supporter explains, “Humble had become so famous that two drug companies contacted the Minister of Health (in an unnamed country) and threatened to quit shipping drugs to the local hospitals if she didn’t do something about the person claiming to be able to cure malaria.”  Those fiendish companies!  It’s a wonder they have allowed Humble to live.  Actually.  Maybe they haven’t.   Attempts to contact him repeatedly fail.  I’m told he is “travelling” the world, busily helping people.  Helping them lighten their wallets, I suspect.  If you want to know the details of his discovery, that is “how to manufacture it in your own kitchen, how to use it intravenously, how to cure colds in an hour, how to cure the worst of flu in 12 hours, how to treat cancer, AIDS and hundreds of other problems,” you have to buy his book.

I’m not sure how to describe that epic work, but “comedic” comes to mind.  Discussions about how chlorine dioxide “elongates the electron shell” of pathogens, and how its safety is confirmed by the fact that its “oxidation strength” of 0.95 volts is less than oxygen’s 1.30 volts amount to no more than mindless chemical chatter.  I don’t buy it.  More importantly, Health Canada and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration don’t buy it.  And both urge consumers not to buy any version of Miracle Mineral Supplement.  Not only is there no evidence of efficacy for any condition, there is evidence of possible harm.  Nausea, vomiting, and a life-threatening drop in blood pressure have been reported.  Humble actually maintains that nausea is a good thing because it means the body is eliminating toxins, but if bothered, he suggests it can be controlled “by eating cold apple slices that will absorb stomach toxins that have been dumped there.” Like I said, comedic.  But what is decidedly not comedic is the advice on some MMS websites that AIDS patients give up their drugs and resort to intravenous MMS.

Jim Humble went out looking for gold and it seems that at least figuratively he has found it.  But it is fool’s gold.  MMS is not based on any reasonable science, has not been tested in any sort of randomized trials, and amounts to no more than a scheme to capitalize on the gullibility of the scientifically challenged and the desperate.  Promoting the sale of this product is criminal.

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“The Great Moment”

Our OSS Blog - Mon, 06/01/2015 - 07:40

Rarely does a single event alter the course of medicine, but that is exactly what happened at Boston’s Massachusetts General Hospital on October 16, 1846 in the surgical theatre that would eventually be christened “The Ether Dome.” Dr. John Collins Warren, having just excised a growth from the neck of a patient rendered unconscious with ether, looked up at the physicians and students who had witnessed the epic event, and declared, “Gentlemen, this is no humbug!”

The onlookers had likely anticipated a duplication of the fiasco that just two years earlier had disgraced dentist Horace Wells who had convinced Warren to allow a demonstration of painless tooth extraction using nitrous oxide. Wells had in his own practice administered the gas successfully on many occasions and gallantly even volunteered to have one of his own teeth extracted to confirm the wondrous properties of “laughing gas.” But in his eagerness to demonstrate the effect, Wells had not allowed enough time for the medical student, who curiously had agreed to be experimented upon, to inhale enough nitrous oxide. An ear shattering scream brought the proceedings to a halt and Wells retreated amidst loud cries of “humbug.”

William Morton had shared a dental practice with Wells and had seen nitrous oxide at work. He wondered if other gases could perform even better. How he happened upon ether would eventually become a matter of much acrimonious debate, but it seems he was put on its trail by Dr. Charles Jackson whose lectures on chemistry Morton attended after giving up dentistry in favour of studying medicine at Harvard. Ether was hardly a novel substance at the time, having been first made in 1540 by the Prussian Valerius Cordus who distilled it from a reaction between alcohol and sulfuric acid. The volatile chemical didn’t get much attention until John Dalton, of atomic theory fame, described it extensively in his 1819 monograph, “Memoir on SulfuricEther." Shortly after, an anonymous note, believed to have been penned by Michael Faraday, appeared in the Quarterly Journal of Science and the Arts pointing out that the vapours of ether, which some physicians were using at the time to treat respiratory problems, "produces effects similar to nitrous oxide." Faraday knew all about nitrous oxide from his mentor Humphry Davy who had illustrated its giddiness-inducing effects and sparked a craze of laughing gas parties. These were soon joined by “ether frolics.”

Jackson it seems was familiar with such frolics and had discussed ether with Morton, although there is no evidence he had suggested its use as an anesthetic. He did suggest rubbing the liquid on the gums before pulling a tooth to reduce pain. What is clear, is that Morton began to experiment on insects, fish, his dog and finally on himself. "Delighted with the success of this experiment, I waited impatiently for someone upon whom I could make a fuller trial. A man came in, suffering great pain, and wishing to have a tooth extracted. Saturating my handkerchief with ether, I gave it to him to inhale. He became unconscious almost immediately. It was dark, and Dr. Hayden held the lamp while I extracted a firmly-rooted bicuspid tooth. He recovered in a minute and knew nothing of what had been done for him. This was on the 30th of September, 1846."

An account of the event in the Boston Daily Journal the next day precipitated a visit to Morton by the eminent surgeon, Dr. Henry J. Bigelow, who after witnessing a number of successful tooth extractions under ether, convinced Dr. Warren to give ether a try. The result was “The Great Moment,” as it was called in a 1944 film that more or less accurately portrayed the story of the discovery of ether anesthesia.

Morton and Jackson fought bitterly over credit for the discovery of ether, oblivious of the fact that in 1842 Dr. Crawford Long, a physician practicing in Georgia, had witnessed a demonstration of "chemistry" with ether and laughing gas by an itinerant showman and made the connection to anesthesia. He amputated a toe under ether but never described his experiments until 1849 at the urging of his friends who regarded him as the true inventor of anesthesia. Indeed, Long may have been the first to use ether, but it was in Morton’s footsteps that others followed, justifying the epitaph on his tombstone "Inventor and Revealer of Anesthetic Inhalation." When Jackson chanced upon this one day, he apparently went mad and spent his last seven years in an insane asylum.

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There are no fish genes in tomatoes

Our OSS Blog - Tue, 05/26/2015 - 06:44

During a public lecture on genetic modification I described an experiment that involved enriching soybeans with the amino acid methionine. Soybeans are widely used to raise animals but are low in this essential amino acid often necessitating the use of methionine supplements. Brazil nuts produce a protein that is particularly rich in methionine so the idea was to isolate and clone the gene that codes for the production of the methionine-rich protein and insert it into the genome of the soybean.

This raised an obvious concern. Although the modified soybeans were to be used mostly for poultry, the possibility that they could somehow end up in human food had to be considered. What if a person allergic to Brazil nuts happened to consume these soybeans, possibly triggering a life threatening reaction? Testing of blood drawn from people allergic to Brazil nuts revealed that the antibodies they had produced in response to ingesting Brazil nut proteins also latched on to proteins in the engineered soybeans, indicating the potential for an allergic reaction. As a result the research was abandoned and the modified soybeans were never produced.

The first comment after my talk picked up on the allergen issue. “If genetically modified foods were properly labeled, I could still eat tomatoes,” was the angry remark. I was puzzled by this, but the gentleman went on to clarify. “I have a fish allergy,” he said, “and I have no way of knowing which tomatoes have been modified with fish genes, so I just don’t eat any tomato products.” He need not have worried. There are no fish genes in tomatoes, and if there were, the tomatoes would have to be so labeled according to existing regulations. What we have here is fear generated by misinformation.

The Arctic flounder lives happily in the ice cold waters of the Arctic Ocean, its blood prevented from freezing by an “antifreeze protein.” Since tomato growers live under the threat of a sudden freeze destroying their crop, researchers wondered about the possibility of inserting the flounder gene that codes for the antifreeze protein into the genome of the tomato. Preliminary experiments showed that in plants this protein was not effective in preventing ice crystal formation and the project was dropped. But on the Internet, no story ever dies. The “fish genes in tomatoes” myth lives on, often illustrated with syringes plunged into tomatoes, or drawings of tomatoes shaped like fish. Had the technology proved promising, it would have required extensive testing of the specific fish protein used to determine if it was involved in producing an allergic reaction.

Such testing is not required when novel conventionally produced foods are introduced into the market place. Kiwis are an interesting example. Allergy to the fruit did not exist in North America until some thirty years ago for the simple reason that kiwis were not eaten. With the expansion of global marketing kiwis are now found in every supermarket and correspondingly, allergies have increased. Introducing a novel fruit, like the kiwi, introduces hundreds of novel proteins, many with allergenic potential. On the other hand, genetic modification commonly introduces only one specific protein, meaning a reduced chance of an allergic reaction. This suggests that as far as allergies go, it is more important to focus on new foods, not on genetically modified ones. As people eat a wider variety of foods they will develop a wider variety of allergies, but this problem doesn’t get nearly as much attention as the potential reaction to a single protein in genetically modified food.

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Does Hydroquinone Have a Dark Side?

Our OSS Blog - Tue, 05/26/2015 - 06:41

They were once mistakenly thought to be caused by a disease of the liver, so they are called “liver spots.” Actually these skin blemishes are caused by a buildup of the skin pigment melanin and are associated with aging and long-term exposure to ultraviolet light. Technically referred to as “Lentigo senilis,” these hyperpigmented spots usually just present a cosmetic problem unless they develop irregular borders and undergo a colour change, in which case they need to be evaluated by a physician. People bothered by such “senile freckles” can look to hydroquinone for help.

When applied as an ingredient in a skin cream, this chemical inhibits the activity of tyrosinase, an enzyme that is necessary for the formation of melanin. This brings up three questions. How well does hydroquinone work, what concentration is needed, and what risks, if any, does its use present? Hydroquinone does work, and its efficacy, as is to be expected, is dose related. Need a minimum of 1% in a cream to see any result, and really significant effects kick in at 4%. In the U.S., hydroquinone is available in over the counter products at concentrations up to 2%, anything more than that requires a prescription. In Europe and in Canada all hydroquinone products require a prescription. Why the difference?

Different regulatory agencies arrive at decisions in different ways. In this case, Europe and Canada look at worst case scenarios while the U.S. evaluates hydroquinone based on its actual use in cosmetics. Rat feeding studies have suggested that hydroquinone may be carcinogenic, although this is contentious. In humans, in rare cases, accidental ingestion of photographic developer fluid containing hydroquinone has resulted in toxic reactions, but in a controlled trial with human volunteers, ingestion of 300-500 mgs daily for months produced no observable effects. As far as topical application goes, no systemic reaction has ever been noted, and no link to skin cancer has ever been found. But there is a chance of skin irritation, especially if sun protection is not used after application, as well as a rarely seen blue discoloration known as “ochronosis.” With higher concentrations there is the possibility of losing too much pigment resulting in white spots. It is mainly for the latter reasons, and some concern that hydroquinone has not been studied with enough rigour, that Canada and Europe are concerned about over-the-counter availability.

But aside from hydroquinone products that have been adulterated with mercury compounds, which has happened in Africa, no significant problems with 2% solutions have cropped up. Hydroquinone also occurs in nature, found in the bearberry, madder and mulberry plants, extracts of which are touted as “natural skin lightening agents.” These do work, but whatever issues arise with hydroquinone apply to these preparations as well. The fact that the hydroquinone comes from a natural source is irrelevant. Basically, 2% hydroquinone preparations, no matter what the source, can reduce age spots effectively and the alarm sounded by some activist organizations about such products is not backed up by evidence.

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VegeGreens products’ unfounded claims hide behind great marketing

Our OSS Blog - Thu, 05/21/2015 - 07:08

I opened the door to pick up my morning Gazette and found a package with an anonymous note. “Can you please discuss in a column whether this is good to take?” Inside was a bottle of “VegeGreens.” Although I had not previously encountered this specific product, I have looked into other such concentrated powders that claim to deliver the nutritional benefits of fruits, vegetables and grains, eliminating the need to track the recommended daily servings of these foods.

VegeGreens contains components from just about every vegetable, fruit, grain, oil and herb for which health claims have been made in the pages of health food magazines or on various websites. Consider, for example, oat bran powder. There actually is some evidence that beta-glucan found in oat bran can reduce cholesterol, but you need about 3000 mg a day. How much does a serving of VegeGreens contain? Thirty mgs! An inconsequential amount. The label on the bottle features a banner “blueberry medley,” an obvious attempt to capitalize on research showing the benefits of blueberry consumption. How many blueberries have made it into this wondrous powder? Not even one! The total amount of blueberry concentrate is 50 mg. How about resveratrol, the supposed healthy ingredient in red wine? That’s in here as well, to the extent of 2.5 mg. Any potential benefit requires hundreds of milligrams. And so it goes. The amount of green tea extract is not even equivalent to one sip of tea, and the amount of ginkgo biloba is 20 mgs, which is less than one tenth of the dose used in studies that have claimed to improve memory.

While each component of VegeGreens is present in doses that are much smaller than those used in studies, most of which are less than compelling in any case, there is still the possibility that this curious blend of some sixty ingredients provides a benefit. Is there any evidence provided? All we are told is that the company “takes the holistic approach of selecting and testing every ingredient to ensure they are in balance with each other and with your body.” Really? Where are the studies to show such balance, whatever that means?

We are also comforted with the info that this supplement is professionally formulated and “energetically tested.” The professional involved seems to be a naturopath whose claim to fame is that he is a recognized authority in the field of “auriculotherapy” and “therapeutic drainage.” Auriculotherapy is based on the idea that the ear is a microsystem of the entire body and that stimulation of certain points on its outer portion can treat disease. Needless to say, there is absolutely no scientific evidence for this. Therapeutic drainage “is the process of detoxifying the body by opening the elimination channels in the excretory organs and releasing toxic accumulations.” This is achieved by administering homeopathic remedies, which by definition are so dilute as to essentially contain nothing. So much for the “professional design.” How about energetically tested? Perhaps that refers to the energy that has gone into marketing.

Now, for some of the direct claims made on behalf of VegeGreens. “Restores a healthy pH.” Our blood is a buffer system that automatically controls pH. “Detoxifies the body.” Really? What toxins are removed and how were these identified? “Renews mental clarity.” Studies please! “Promotes clear, healthy skin.” How about some before and after pictures? “Balances blood sugar.” Blood sugar is easy to measure. Where is the data to show that this product balances it? “Strengthens the immune system.” What does that mean? The immune system is very complex and involves organs, white blood cells, antibodies, enzymes, complement proteins, interferon and lymphokines. Which of these has been shown to be affected by VegeGreens? If any such studies exist, they are certainly not referenced. Instead we get the usual anecdotal accounts. "VegeGreens are amazing! I feel so energized and clear-headed when taking it," one satisfied customer opines. And a sports trainer chimes in with "trust me, I have tried every vitamin company out there and this one makes the purest and most researched supplements available.” Not exactly the scientific method, is it?

I don’t think there is any harm in VegeGreens or any of the numerous similar products out there. They may even provide some benefits for people who have a low fruit and vegetable intake. But we don’t know because there are no studies. There are just unsubstantiated claims made by promoters who have a homeopathic knowledge of nutrition. I would have been happier to find a basket of fruits and vegetables on my doorstep.

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But it’s natural…

Our OSS Blog - Thu, 05/21/2015 - 07:05

The first British settlement in North America was established in 1607 and was named Jamestown, after King James I.  It was a little tobacco growing colony located on the east coast, in the region which was eventually to become the state of Virginia.  One of the constant debates among the settlers was whether or not to expand the colony.  There was great profit to be had in tobacco growing, especially since labor was cheap; the settlers of Jamestown had brought the first African slaves to North America.  On the other hand, the settlement was surrounded by unfriendly natives who, of course, opposed expansion. Nathaniel Bacon, a member of the Governor's Council, was one of the greatest advocates of expansion.  In 1676 he took the law into his own hands and organized an expedition against the Indians.  Governor William Berkley, fearing a large scale war, denounced these activities and sent his soldiers to quell what history has recorded as the "Bacon Rebellion."  The soldiers began to mobilize for the expected battle which never took place. Camped out in a field, the soldiers cooked up a stew which they flavored with what they thought was an edible plant.  A most remarkable picture began to unfold minutes after they had downed the food.  All thoughts of battle disappeared as soldiers began to run around laughing, giggling, yelling at each other with slurred speech.  The delirium continued for eleven days.  The Governor's army had been defeated not by Bacon's men, but by atropine,a naturally occurring chemical  found in a lowly weed, known to this day as Jamestown weed, or in a corrupted form, jimsonweed.

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You Asked: Can the much advertised Lipozene lead to weight loss?

Our OSS Blog - Tue, 05/12/2015 - 08:00

The "active" ingredient in Lipozene is glucomannan, a form of dietary fiber that is extracted from the root of the konjac plant. Fiber, by definition, is any type of food component that cannot be digested and consequently makes its way to the large intestine or colon, where bacteria may break it down into smaller compounds. Most of these, along with intact fiber, are excreted. Glucomannan is made of glucose and mannose molecules joined together in long chains, but unlike digestible carbohydrates like starch, it is resistant to breakdown by our salivary or pancreatic enzymes.

As the indigestible glucomannan sits in the stomach or small bowel before passing on to the colon, it absorbs a great deal of water. This bulky mélange of water and fiber makes for a feeling of fullness and curbs the appetite. There have actually been a few short term studies indicating more efficient weight loss on a low calorie diet when it was combined with about 4 grams of glucomannan per day. Marketers take such studies and inflate them with hype about easy weight loss. They promise weight loss without the need to diet or exercise. Of course this is a promise that cannot be fulfilled, which is the reason that an American company called Obesity Research Institute was taken to task by the Federal Trade Commission and was made to return 1.5 million dollars to customers who had been victimized by unsubstantiated claims. Two physicians who appeared as “expert endorsers” on infomercials produced by the company were also reprimanded. Seems that money can blur scientific vision.

This is not to say that glucomannan in combination with a low calorie diet and exercise cannot aid in weight loss. It can. But it is not a long term answer to the problem of weight control. This fiber does, however, provide some other possible benefits. It slows the absorption of other carbohydrates into the bloodstream and provides better control of blood glucose. Glucomannan also interferes with cholesterol uptake, so it can lead to lower blood cholesterol. For those in need, it can also be an effective laxative. And if you pop a couple of glucomannan pills before grocery shopping you will feel more full and buy less!

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You Asked: Is it true that some baloney is made with ground-up earthworms?

Our OSS Blog - Tue, 05/05/2015 - 03:52

Absolutely not. But here is the question I got: "A friend told me that that ground up earthworms are being used as fillers in many meat products like wieners and bologna. The name on the package is sodium erythorbate. I've checked packages at stores here and have found only one brand without this ingredient. My little boy loves hot dogs and I hate to think how many I've fed him over the past several years with earthworms in them."

Hard to know how such silly stories arise. Maybe it is the similar sounds of “erythorbate” and “earthworm bait.” Sodium erythorbate is just a form of Vitamin C and is used as a preservative. It also prevents the formation of potentially carcinogenic nitrosamines is meats processed with nitrite.

Erythorbate is a perfectly safe substance and has absolutely nothing to do with earthworms. It makes a lot more sense to minimize hot dog and baloney consumption because of their high fat and salt content than because they contain sodium erythorbate. There is more baloney in the sodium erythorbate story than there is sodium erythorbate in the baloney.

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Leave the donkey milk to donkeys

Our OSS Blog - Tue, 05/05/2015 - 03:49

Cleopatra supposedly took a daily bath in milk supplied by a herd of some 700 lactating donkeys. How she hit upon this idea isn’t known, but the legendary beauty may have been familiar Hippocrates’ recommendation that donkey milk was an effective treatment for fever, liver problems, joint pain and poisoning. If it was good for the inside, maybe it was good for the outside as well! Since donkeys don’t produce much milk, lots of lactating females are needed to fill a bathtub.

Should you contemplate following in Cleopatra’s footsteps and plunking yourself in a leisurely bath of donkey milk, you would need the riches of an Egyptian queen. Donkey milk goes for about forty dollars a liter! And you’ll have to travel quite a distance to find it. Specialty shops in Cyprus sell it for its supposed health benefits with scant evidence. A researcher at the Cyprus University of Technology did follow people who drank donkey milk for months and found they reported improvement with asthma, coughs, eczema and psoriasis. Not exactly a clinical trial, but interesting, given that of any mammal, donkey milk is the closest in composition to human milk which is known to help build an infant’s immune system. Like humans, and unlike cows, donkeys have only one stomach and don’t rely on as large a variety of bacteria to digest their food as do cows with their complex four-stomach fermentation process. Initial studies also point to more active anti-bacterial agents in donkey milk.

Such bits of anecdotal evidence often excite marketers who are on the lookout for a product that can be promoted as the newest miracle elixir. They got unexpected support from of all people, Pope Francis, who revealed that he was fed donkey milk as a baby. Still, donkey milk itself is not likely to take off due to its cost, but donkey milk products may get a boost. Cosmetics that contain the milk and soaps made from the fat in the milk are available. And they have their fans with people claiming that beard itchiness and eczema on hands clear up with the use of donkey milk soap.

While taking baths in donkey milk is far-fetched, in Australia, “bath milk” can be purchased, usually in health food stores. It is actually raw cow’s milk and isn’t really intended to be used for bathing. Rather this seems to be an attempt to get around the ban of selling unpasteurized milk. Raw milk enthusiasts claim that pasteurization destroys nutrients in milk, leads to lactose intolerance, allergic reactions and destruction of beneficial bacteria. They furnish anecdotes about raw milk miraculously clearing up asthma, eczema and tooth decay. Interestingly enough, a study that followed almost a thousand infants in Europe found a roughly 30% reduced incidence of colds, respiratory tract and ear infections associated with drinking raw milk. The researchers conclude that “if the health hazards of raw milk could be overcome, the public health impact of minimally processed but pathogen-free milk might be enormous, given the high prevalence of respiratory infections in the first year of life.” That “but,” though is a big one. Milk needs to be heated to 72 degrees C for 15 seconds to destroy pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria, and E. coli O157:H7.

A tragic case highlighting the importance of pasteurization occurred in Australia last year with five children falling ill and one dying after drinking raw milk that had been sold as “bath milk.” Such products are sold there in containers similar to regular milk and are often placed near regular milk in stores. Even though, as required by law, the label states that the milk is not for human consumption, it is clear that people who buy bath milk are not using it to fill their bathtubs. To remedy the situation, Australia has now passed a law stipulating that “bath milk” must either be pasteurized or be treated with a bittering agent that makes it unsuitable for drinking.

The law is predictably opposed by raw milk advocates who say that “you are allowed to smoke cigarettes and eat junk foods but you are not allowed to drink raw milk.” They say there should be a freedom of choice. Canada offers no such freedom, all sales of raw milk are banned. In the U.S., milk sales are under state jurisdiction and some, like California, allow retail sales. Supposedly raw milk there comes

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The Death of Smallpox

Our OSS Blog - Tue, 05/05/2015 - 03:46

Edward Jenner, an English country doctor is usually credited with introducing the idea of vaccination because of his landmark publication in 1798 in which he described inoculating 23 people with pus from smallpox postules. Normally they would have been expected to come down with the disease. But none did!  Why? Because Jenner had previously exposed them to a disease that was well-known among milkmaids, known as cowpox. Somehow this exposure conferred immunity to the far more serious smallpox.

Actually, Jenner did not come up with the idea of vaccination. That honor should really go to some unidentified Turkish whiz in the 16th century. But if we must connect a name with the discovery, how about Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, the wife of Britain's ambassador to Turkey in the 16th century. It was the gentle lady’s habit to put on disguises and roam the streets of Constantinople. During one of these incognito capers she came upon an old woman who had a reputation for protecting children against smallpox. Her technique must have seemed absurd. She would scratch a vein in a child’s arm and introduce some liquid from a smallpox postule. The story that Lady Montagu heard was that these children might get mildly ill, but never got smallpox!

This apparently bizarre approach did seem to make sense. It was well known at the time that someone who survived smallpox, would never get the disease again. So why not give the disease to the young and healthy who had the best chance of recovery? Lady Montagu, upon her return to England, suggested that the practice of inoculating children in this fashion should be introduced but was roundly condemned for proposing such a preposterous idea. How dare anyone suggest that the youth of the nation should be purposely made ill? The Church also put in its two bits. God’s laws must not be interfered with! Seemingly only a layman, Robert Sutton, showed any real vision, perhaps prompted by the chance to cash in on the discovery. He opened a vaccination center in Essex and inoculated more than 17,000 people with smallpox extract only five of whom died.

In 1774, farmer Benjamin Jesty followed in Sutton’s footsteps. He had noted that milkmaids sometimes came down with a disease that resulted in postules on their body. These looked to him to be very similar to smallpox postules, and using a darning needle, he inoculated his wife and two sons with pus he had withdrawn from a victim. Then sometime later, he exposed them to smallpox and found they were unaffected. Edward Jenner heard about this story and it sparked his interest because he himself had been inoculated with smallpox when he was a boy. Now, for the next twenty years Jenner observed milkmaids who had come down with cowpox and found that they never contracted smallpox. So finally in 1776 he inoculated eight year old James Phipps with cowpox and then exposed him to smallpox. The boy did not get the disease. This prompted further trials and resulted in the publication of Jenner’s paper in 1798. By 1801 about 100,000 people in Britain had been vaccinated.  Jenner was knighted and got a prize of ten thousand pounds. The term vaccination?  Of course it comes from the Latin word for cow!  Now you know why.

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Rounding up the science about Roundup

Our OSS Blog - Sat, 05/02/2015 - 02:10
    *Click here to view the video