For the purposes of this review, radicalisation is the process of adopting an extremist belief system, including the willingness to use, support, or facilitate violence as a method to affect societal change (The Homeland Security Institute (HSI), 2009). The result is the state of radicalism. A highly common trait of contemporary radicals is ideological intolerance, which depicts a belief system that refuses to “tolerate the practices, beliefs, and/or tenets of other individuals or groups. It encompasses bigotry and the demonstration of bitterness and/or enmity towards those who dissent or disagree with one’s belief systems” (Salaam, 2013). Most importantly, ideological intolerance can be present among those practising the same religion but who may hold different ideological views. When these views are promoted through violence, such acts could be regarded as terrorism.

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