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* indicates author is a trainee of Marcel's 

Published in 2023

Hill PC, Cobelens F, Martinez L, Behr MA, Churchyard G, Evans T, Fiore-Gartland AJ, Garcia-Basteiro AL, Hanekom W, Rangaka MX, Vekemans J, White RG. An aspiration to radically shorten phase 3 TB vaccine trials. J Infec Disease.  2023 Aug 22;jiad356. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiad356. Online ahead of print.

* Harrison LB, Behr MA. Mutation rates and the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium abscessus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2023 Jun 20;120(25):e2307499120

*Dubé J-Y, Behr MA. A nod to the bond between NOD2 and mycobacteria. PLoS Pathog. 2023 Jun 1;19(6):e1011389.

Sumanth LJ, Suresh CR, Venkatesan M, Manesh A, Behr MA, Kapur V, Michael JS. Clinical features of human tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium orygis in Southern India. J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis. 2023 Apr 15;32:100372

Semret M, Behr MA. Selfie-diagnosed tuberculosis.  Elsevier ID Cases.  2023 Feb 24;31:e01718, e01718 Case study.

Published in 2022

Eshraghisamani R, Mirto AJ, Wang J, Behr MA, Barkema HW, De Buck J. Identification of essential genes in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis genome for persistence in dairy calves. Front Microbiol. 2022 Oct 20;13:994421. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2022.994421. eCollection 2022. PMID: 36338087

*Sullivan JR, *Yao J, *Courtine C, *Lupien A, Herrmann J, Müller R, Behr MA. Natural Products Lysobactin and Sorangicin A Show In Vitro Activity against Mycobacterium abscessus Complex. Microbiol Spectr. 2022 Dec 21;10(6):e0267222. doi: 10.1128/spectrum.02672-22. Epub 2022 Oct 31. PMID: 36342177 

Ortiz-Brizuela E, Menzies D, Behr MA. Testing and Treating Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection. Med Clin North Am. 2022 Nov;106(6):929-947. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2022.08.001.

Waglechner N, Tullis E, Stephenson AL, Waters V, McIntosh F, Ma J, Jamieson FB, Behr MA, Batt J, Lee RS. Genomic epidemiology of Mycobacterium abscessus in a Canadian cystic fibrosis centre. Science Rep. 2022 Sep 27;12(1):16116. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-19666-8

Dowdy D, Behr MA. Estimating annual risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Authors' reply. Lancet Infect Dis. 2022 Sep;22(9):1277-1278. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(22)00448-0.

Dowdy D, Behr MA. Are we underestimating the annual risk of infection with M. tuberculosis in high-burden settings? Lancet Infect Dis. 2022 Sep;22(9):e271-e278. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(22)00153-0. Epub 2022 May 5.

Fanti RC, Vasconcelos SNS, Catta-Preta CMC, *Sullivan JR, Riboldi GP, Dos Reis CV, Ramos PZ, Edwards AM, Behr MA, Couñago RM. A Target Engagement Assay to Assess Uptake, Potency, and Retention of Antibiotics in Living Bacteria. ACS Infect Dis. 2022 Aug 12;8(8):1449-1467.  doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.2c00073.

Camargo C, *Lupien A, McIntosh F, Menzies D, Behr MA, Sagan SM. Effectiveness of germicidal ultraviolet light to inactivate coronaviruses on personal protective equipment to reduce nosocomial transmission. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2022 Jul;43(7):886-891. doi: 10.1017/ice.2021.249. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Garcia-Basteiro AL, White RG, Tait D, Schmidt AC, Rangaka L, Quaife M, Nduba V, Nemes E, Mogg R, Hill PC, Harris R, Hanekom W, Frick M, Fiore-Gartland A, Evans T, Danew AF, Churchyard G, Cobelens F, Behr MA, Hatherill M. End-point Definition and Trial Design to Advance Tuberculosis Vaccine Development. Eur Respir Rev. 2022 Jun 7;31(164):220044. doi: 10.1183/16000617.0044-2022. Print 2022 Jun 30.

*Dubé J-Y, McIntosh F, A. Behr MA. Mice dually disrupted for Nod2 and Mincle manifest early bacteriological control but late susceptibility during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Front. Immunol., 28 March 2022.

Kaufmann E, Khan N, Tran KA, Ulndreaj A, Pernet E, Fontes G, *Lupien A, Desmeules P, McIntosh F, Abow A, Moorlag SJCFM, Debisarun P, Mossman K, Banerjee A, Karo-Atar D, Sadeghi M, Mubareka S, Vinh DC, King IL, Robbins CS, Behr MA, Netea MG, Joubert P, Divangahi M. BCG vaccination provides protection against IAV but not SARS-CoV-2. Cell Reports. 2022 Mar 8;38(10):110502. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2022.110502. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Lange C, Aaby P, Behr MA, Donald PR, Kaufmann SHE, Netea MG, Mandalakas AM. 100 years of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin. Lancet Infect Dis. 2022 Jan;22(1):e2-e12. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00403-5. Epub 2021 Sep 7. PMID: 34506734 Review.

Book Chapter: Behr MA, Grandjean Lapierre S, Kunimoto DY, Lee RS, Long R, Sekirov I, Soualhine H, Turenne CY. Diagnosis of tuberculosis disease and drug-resistant tuberculosis. Chapter 3. Canadian Tuberculosis Standards 8th Edition, PHAC, Mar 2022

Published in 2021

Bettencourt PJG, Joosten SA, Lindestam Arlehamn CS, Behr MA, Locht C, Neyrolles O. 100 years of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine. Vaccine. 2021 Dec 8;39(50):7221-7222. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.11.038. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Adjobimey M, Behr MA, Menzies D. Individualized Treatment Duration in TB Treatment - Precision vs Simplicity. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021 Nov 1;204(9):1013-1014. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202107-1744ED. PMID: 34432615

*Duffy SC, Venkatesan M, Chothe S, Poojary I, Verghese VP, Kapur V, Behr MA, Michael JS. Development of a Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Validation in a Clinical Laboratory. Microbiol Spectr. 2021 Oct 31;9(2):e0109821. doi: 10.1128/Spectrum.01098-21. Epub 2021 Sep 8. PMID: 34494864 

*Sullivan JR, *Lupien A, Kalthoff E, Hamela C, Taylor L, Munro KA, Schmeing TM, Kremer L, Behr MA. Efficacy of epetraborole against Mycobacterium abscessus is increased with norvaline. PLoS Pathog. 2021 Oct 12;17(10):e1009965. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009965.

Veyrier FJ, Behr MAEmergence of persistent tubercle bacilli. Nat Microbiol. 2021 Aug;6(8):977-978. doi: 10.1038/s41564-021-00945-5.

Behr MA, Kaufmann E, Duffin J, Edelstein P, Ramakrishnan L. Latent tuberculosis: two centuries of confusion. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021 Jul 15;204(2):142-148. doi: 10.1164/rccm.202011-4239PP.

*Dubé JY, Fava VM, Schurr E, Behr MA. Underwhelming or Misunderstood? Genetic Variability of Pattern Recognition Receptors in Immune Responses and Resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Front Immunol. 2021 Jun 30;12:714808. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.714808. eCollection 2021.

Alvarez GG, Zwerling A, Duncan C, Pease C, Van Dyk D, Behr MA, Lee RS, Mulpuru S, Pakhale S, Bill Cameron, Aaron S, Patterson M, Allen J, Sullivan K, Jolly A, Sharma M, Jamieson FB. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to describe the transmission dynamics among Inuit residing in Iqaluit Nunavut using whole genome sequencing. Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 15;72(12):2187-2195. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa420.

Duncan D, *Lupien A, Behr MA, Auclair K. Effect of pH on the antimicrobial activity of the macrophage metabolite itaconate Microbiology (Reading). 2021 May;167(5).  doi: 10.1099/mic.0.001050.

Luo T, Xu P, Zhang Y, Porter JL, Ghanem M*, Liu Q, Jiang Y, Li J, Miao Q, Hu B, Howden BP, Fyfe JAM, Globan M, He W, He P, Wang Y, Liu H, Takiff HE, Zhao Y, Chen X, Pan Q, Behr MA, Stinear TP, Gao Q. Population genomics provides insights into the evolution and adaptation to humans of the waterborne pathogen Mycobacterium kansasii. Nat Commun. 2021 May 3;12(1):2491. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-22760-6.

Clemmensen HS, *Dube J-Y, McIntosh F, Rosenkrands I, Jungersen G, Aagaard C, Andersen P, Behr MA, Mortensen R. In vivo antigen expression regulates CD4 T cell differentiation and vaccine efficacy against Mtb infection. mBio, 2021 Apr 20;12(2):e00226-21. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00226-21.

*Cheng B, Behr MA, Howden BP, Cohen T, Lee RS. Reporting practices for genomic epidemiology of tuberculosis: a systematic review of the literature using STROME-ID guidelines as a benchmark. Lancet Microbe, 2021 Mar;2(3):e115-e129.

Behr MA, Divangahi M, Schurr E. Lessons From Bacille Calmette-Guérin for SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Candidates J Infect Dis.  2021 Feb 3;223(2):189-191.  doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiaa637.

Behr MA, Divangahi M, Schurr ES. Lessons from BCG for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates. J Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 3;223(2):189-191. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiaa637.

*Rufai S, McIntosh F, Poojari I, Chothe S, Sebastian A, Albert I, Praul C, Venkatesan M, Mahata G, Maity H, Dadapat P, Michael J, Katani R, Kapur VG, Behr MA. Complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium orygis strain 51145. Microbiol Resour Announc. 2021 Jan 7;10(1):e01279-20. doi: 10.1128/MRA.01279-20.

Published in 2020

Benea C, Rendon L, Papenburg J, Frenette C, Imcaoudene A, McDonald EG, Nguyen QD, Rajda E, Tran E, Vameghestahbanati M, Benedetti A, Behr MA, Smith BM. Evaluation of a home-based 7-day infection control strategy for healthcare workers following high-risk exposure to SARS-CoV-2: a cohort study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2020 Dec 16:1-11. doi: 10.1017/ice.2020.1389. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33323137

*Danchuk SN, Behr MA. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin: One hundred years, one hundred questions. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 5;71(8):1894-1895. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz1083.Khan N, Downey J, Sanz J, Kaufmann E, Blankenhaus B, Pacis A, Pernet E, Ahmed E, Cardoso S, Nijnik A, Mazer B, Sassetti D, Behr MA, Soares MP, Barreiro LB, Divangahi M. M. tuberculosis reprograms HSCs to limit myelopoiesis and impair trained immunity via a type I IFN/iron axis. Cell. 2020 Oct 29;183(3):752-770.e22.

*Ghanem M, *Dube JY, Wang J, McIntosh F, Houle D, Domenech P, Reed MB, Raman S, Buter J, Minnaard AJ, Moody DB, Behr MA. Heterologous production of 1-tuberculosinyladenosine in Mycobacterium kansasii models pathoevolution towards the transcellular lifestyle of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. mBio. 2020 Oct 20;11(5):e02645-20. doi: 10.1128/mBio.02645-20.

Veyrier F, Nieves C, Lefrancois LH, Trigui H, Vincent AT, Behr MARskA is adual function activator-inhibitor that controls SigK activity across distinct bacterial genera. Front Microbiol . 2020 Sep 9;11:558166.  doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.558166. eCollection 2020.

El-Zein M, Gotlieb WH, Gilbert L, Hemming SR, Behr MA, Franco EL. Dual staining for p16/Ki-67 to detect high-grade cervical lesions: results from the Screening Triage Ascertaining Intraepithelial Neoplasia by Immunostain Testing (STAIN-IT) study. Int J Cancer. 2020 Aug 11. doi: 10.1002/ijc.33250.

*Duffy SC, Srinivasan S, Schilling MA, Stuber T, *Danchuk SN, Michael JS, Venkatesan M, Bansal N, Maan S, Jindal N, Chaudhary D, Dandapat P, Katani R, Chothe S, Veerasami M, Robbe-Austerman S, Juleff N, Kapur V, Behr MA. Reconsidering Mycobacterium bovis as a proxy for zoonotic tuberculosis: a molecular epidemiological surveillance study. Lancet Microbe. 2020 Jun;1(2):e66-e73. doi: 10.1016/S2666-5247(20)30038-0.

Behr MA, Edelstein P, Ramakrishnan L. SLeuthing Tuberculous Cough. Cell. 2020 Apr 16;181(2):230-232. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.03.057.

*Dubé JY, McIntosh F, Zarruk JG, David S, Nigou J, Behr MA. Synthetic mycobacterial molecular patterns partially complete Freund’s adjuvant. Scientific Reports. 2020 Apr 3;10(1):5874. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-62543-5.

*Danchuk SN, McIntosh F, Jamieson FB, May K, Behr MA. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin strains with defined resistance mutations: a new tool for TB lab quality control. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020 Mar;26(3):384.e5-384.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2019.10.033. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Lee RS, Proulx JF, McIntosh F, Behr MA, Hanage WP. Previously undetected superspreading of Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed by deep sequencing. Elife. 2020 Feb 4;9. pii: e53245. doi: 10.7554/eLife.53245

Reingewertz TH, Meyer T, McIntosh F, *Sullivan J, Meir M, Chang YF, Behr MA, Barkan D. Differential sensitivity of mycobacteria to isoniazid is related to differences in KatG-mediated enzymatic activation of the drug. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2020 Jan 27;64(2):e01899-19. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01899-19. Print 2020 Jan 27.

El-Zein M, Cheishvili D, Bacot F, Gotlieb W, Behr MA, Szyf M, Franco EL. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling identifies two novel genes in cervical neoplasia. Int J Cancer, 2020 Jan 25. doi: 10.1002/ijc.32880.

Kennedy JM, Georges A, Bassenden AV, Vidal SM, Berghuis AM, Taniuchi I, Majewski J, Lathrop M, Behr MA, Langlais D, Gros P. ZBTB7B (ThPOK) is required for Pathogenesis of Cerebral Malaria and Protection against Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 2020 Jan 22;88(2):e00845-19. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00845-19. Print 2020 Jan 22.

Fox GJ, Nguyen CB, Nguyen TA, Tran PT, Marais BJ, Graham SM, Nguyen BH, Velen K, Dowdy DW, Mason P, Britton WJ, Behr MA, Benedetti A, Menzies D, Nguyen VN, Marks GB. Levofloxacin versus placebo for the treatment of latent tuberculosis among contacts of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (the VQUIN MDR trial): a protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open. 2020 Jan 2;10(1):e033945. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033945.

Chapter *Duffy S, Behr MA. Paratuberculosis and Crohn’s disease. Chapter 3. Paratuberculosis: Organism, Disease, Control. 2nd Edition. CAB International (Oxford) Oxford U.K. September 2020

Chapter *Sullivan J, Behr MA. Drug Susceptibility Testing & Antimicrobial Resistance in Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis. Chapter 10. Paratuberculosis: Organism, Disease, Control. 2nd Edition. CAB International (Oxford) September 2020

BOOK Behr MA, Stevenson K, Kapur V. Paratuberculosis: Organism, Disease, Control. 2nd Edition. CAB International, Oxford U.K. September 2020 | Hardback | 440 Pages | ISBN: 9781789243413


Published in 2019

Behr MA, Edelstein PH, Ramakrishnan L. Is Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection lifelong? BMJ. 2019 Oct 7 doi: 10.17863/CAM.44583

Buter J, Cheng TY, Ghanem M, Grootemaat AE, Raman S, Feng X, Plantijn AR, Ennis T, Wang J, Cotton RN, Layre E, Ramnarine AK, Mayfield JA, Young DC, Jezek Martinot A, Siddiqi N, Wakabayashi S, Botella H, Calderon R, Murray M, Ehrt S, Snider BB, Reed MB, Oldfield E, Tan S, Rubin EJ, Behr MA, van der Wel NN, Minnaard AJ, Moody DB. Mycobacterium tuberculosis releases an antacid that remodels phagosomes. Nat Chem Biol. 2019 Sep;15(9):889-899. doi: 10.1038/s41589-019-0336-0. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

El-Zein M, Bouten S, Louvanto K, Gilbert L, Gottlieb W, Hemmings R, Behr MA, Franco EL; CASSIS Study Group. Predictive Value of HPV Testing in Self-collected and Clinician-Collected Samples Compared with Cytology in Detecting High-grade Cervical Lesions. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2019 Jul;28(7):1134-1140. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-1338. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

*Cheng MP, Butler-Laporte G, *Parkes LO, Bold TD, Fritzler MJ, Behr MA. Prevalence of Auto-antibodies in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019 Mar 7;6(4):ofz114. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofz114. eCollection 2019 Apr.

Ackley SF, Lee RS, Worden L, Zwick E, Porco TC, Behr MA, Pepperell CS. Multiple Exposures, Reinfection, and Risk of Progression to Active Tuberculosis. Journ of the Royal Society Open Science, Mar 20;6(3):180999

Published in 2018

Brites D, Loiseau C, Menardo F, Borrell S, Boniotti MB, Warren RM, Dippenaar A, Parsons SD, Breisel C, Behr MA, Fyfe J, Coscolla M, Gagneux S. A new Phylogenetic Framework for the Animal-adapted Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex. Front Microbiol. 2018 Nov 27;9:2820.

Behr MA, Edelstein PH, Ramakrishnan L. Revisiting the timetable of tuberculosisBMJ. 2018 Aug 23;362:k2738. doi: 10.1136/bmj.k2738.

Al-Halabi B, Shulman Z, Viezel-Mathieu A, Behr MA, Fouda Neel O. Breast Implant Mycobacterial Infections - An Epidemiological Review and Outcome Analysis, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2018 Nov;142(5):639e-652e.

Chihota VN, Niehaus A, Streicher EM, Wang X, Sampson SL, Mason P, Källenius G, Mfinanga SG, Pillay M, Klopper M, Kasongo W, Behr MA, Gey van Pittius NC, van Helden PD, Couvin D, Rastogi N, Warren RM. Geospatial distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes in Africa. PLoS One. 2018 Aug 1;13(8):e0200632.

Ates L, Sayes F, Frigui W, Ummels R, Damen M, Bottai D, Behr MA, Bitter W, Majlessi L, and Brosch R.  RD5-mediated lack of PE_PGRS and PPE-MPTR export in BCG vaccine strains results in strong reduction of antigenic repertoire but little impact on protection. PLOS Pathogens 2018 Jun 18;14(6):e1007139

El-Zein M, Bouten S, Louvanto K, Gilbert L, Gotlieb W, Hemmings R, Behr MA, Franco EL; CASSIS Study Group. Validation of a new HPV self-sampling device for cervical cancer screening: The Cervical and Self-Sample In Screening (CASSIS) study. Gynecol Oncol. 2018 Jun;149(3):491-497.

Published in 2017:

Abdallah AM, Behr MAEvolution and Strain Variation in BCG. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;1019:155-169. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-64371-7_8.

Divangahi M, Behr MA. Cracking the Vaccine Code in Tuberculosis. Am J Resp Crit Care Med, 2017 Oct 18. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201707-1489PP. [Epub ahead of print]

Mathema B, Andrews JR, Cohen T, Borgdorff MW, Behr M, Glynn JR, Rustomjee R, Silk BJ, Wood R. Drivers of Tuberculosis transmission. J Infect Dis. 2017 Nov 3;216(suppl_6):S644-S653. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jix354.


Pai M, Behr M. Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and interferon-gamma release assays. Tuberculosis and the Tubercle Bacillus. Editors: Jacobs WR; McShane H, Mizrahi V, Orme IM. Chapter 17. ASM Press, 2017

Abdallah A, Behr MA. Evolution and strain variation in BCG. Strain Variation in the Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex: its Role in Biology, Epidemiology and Control. Editor: S. Gagneux. Chapter 8. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Springer, 2017

Published in 2016:

*Lee RS, Proulx, J-F, Menzies D, Behr MAProgression to Tuberculosis Disease Increases with Multiple ExposuresEuropean Respiratory Journal. 2016 Dec;48(6):1682-1689. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00893-2016. Epub 2016 Oct 6.

Pai M, Behr M. Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and interferon-gamma release assays. Microbiol Spectrum 2016 Oct;4(5). doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.

Pai M, Behr MA, Dowdy D, Dheda K, Divangahi M, Boehme C, Ginsberg A, Swaminathan S, Spigelman M, Getahun H, Menzies D, Raviglione M. Tuberculosis. Nature Reviews Disease Primers 2016 Oct 27;2:16076  doi:10.1038/nrdp.2016.76 

Khan FA, Fox GJ, *Lee RS, Riva M, Benedetti A, Proulx JF, Jung S, Hornby K, Behr MA, Menzies D. Housing and tuberculosis in an Inuit village in Nunavik, Québec: a case-control study. CMAJ Open. 2016 Sep 16;4(3):E496-E506. eCollection 2016 Jul-Sep.

*Rochefort C, Behr MA. New-Data Letter – « Assessment of microbiological diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis: culture on liquid media with or without solid media ». J Clin Microbiol.2016 Dec;54(12):3064. Epub 2016 Sep 21. 

Bouttier M, Laperriere D, Memari B, Mangiapane J, Fiore A, Mitchell E, Verway M, Behr MA, Sladek R, Barreiro LB, Mader S, White JH. Alu repeats as transcriptional regulatory platforms in macrophage responses to M. tuberculosis infection. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016 Sep 6. pii: gkw782.

*Lee RS, Behr MA. Does choice matter? Reference-based alignment for molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2016 Jul;54(7):1891-5. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00364-16. 

Gavino C, Hamel N, Zeng JB, Legault C, Guiot MC, Chankowsky J, Lejtenyi D, Lemire M, Alarie I, Dufresne S, Boursiquot JN, McIntosh F, Langelier M, Behr MA, Sheppard DC, Foulkes WD, Vinh DC. Impaired RASGRF1/ERK-mediated GM-CSF response characterizes CARD9 deficiency in French-Canadians. J Allergy Clin Immunol.  2016 Apr;137(4):1178-88.e1-7

*Lee RS, Behr MA. The implications of whole genome sequencing in the control of tuberculosis. Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease, 2016 Apr;3(2):47-62. doi. 2049936115624630. Review.

Published in 2015:

*Wang J, *Moolji J, *Dufort A, Staffa A, Domenech P, Reed MB, Behr MA. Iron acquisition in Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis. J Bacteriol. 2015 Dec 28;198(5):857-66. doi: 10.1128/JB.00922-15.

Memari B, Bouttier M, Dimitrov V, Ouellette M, Behr MA, Fritz JH, White JH. Engagement of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Macrophages Has Pleiotropic Effects on Innate Immune Signaling. J Immunol. 2015 Nov 1;195(9):4479-4491. 

Abdallah AM, Hill-Cawthorne GA, Otto TD, Coll F, Guerra-Assunção JA, Gao G, Naeem R, Ansari H, Malas TB, Adroub SA, Verboom T, Ummels R, Zhang H, Panigrahi AK, McNerney R, Brosch R, Clark TG, Behr MA, Bitter W, Pain A. Genomic expression catalogue of a global collection of BCG vaccine strains show evidence for highly diverged metabolic and cell-wall adaptations. Scientific Reports 2015 Oct 21;5:15443

*Lee RS, *Radomski N, Proulx J-F, Levade I, Shapiro BJ, McIntosh F, Soualhine H, Menzies D, Behr MA. Population genomics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Inuit. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2015 Nov 3;112(44):13609-14. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1507071112.

Behr M, Ellis R, Ernst J, Evans T, Flynn J, Hatherill M, Hoft D , Lalvani A, McShane H, Nardell E, Ordway D, Ramanathan R, Ruhwald M, Schlesinger L, Self S, Sizemore C, Walker B, White RG, Schrager L. Developing vaccines to prevent sustained infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Conference proceedings. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Rockville, Maryland USA, November 7, 2014. Vaccines, Volume 33, Issue 26, 12 June 2015, Pages 3056-3064

Fox GJ, *Lee RS, Lucas M, Ahmad Khan F, Proulx JF, Hornby K, Jung S, Benedetti A, Behr MA, Menzies D. Inadequate Diet is Associated with Acquiring Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in an Inuit Community: A Case-Control StudyAnn Am Thorac Soc. 2015 Aug;12(8):1153-62. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201503-156OC.

*Wang J, McIntosh F, *Radomski N, Dewar K, Simeone R, Enninga J, Brosch R, Rocha EP, Veyrier FJ, Behr MAInsights on the emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the analysis of Mycobacterium kansasii. Genome Biol Evol, 2015 Feb 25;7(3):856-7

Behr MA, Divangahi M. Freund's adjuvant, NOD2 and mycobacteria. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2015 Feb;23:126-32. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2014.11.015. 

Behr MA, Gordon SV. Why doesn't Mycobacterium tuberculosis spread in animals?  Trends Microbiol. 2015 Jan;23(1):1-2. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2014.11.001. 

*Lee RS, *Radomski N, Proulx JF, Manry J, McIntosh F, Desjardins F, Soualhine H, Domenech P, Reed M, Menzies D, Behr MA. Reemergence and amplification of tuberculosis in the Canadian Arctic, J Infec Diseases, 2015 Jun 15;211(12):1905-14.


Behr MA, Comparative genomics of mycobacteria: Some answers, yet more new questions.  Chapter 39.  Tuberculosis. Editors: Stefan H.E. Kaufmann, Eric Rubin, Alimuddin Zumla. Cold Spring Laboratory Press, 2015

Gordon S, Behr MA.  Comparative Mycobacteriology of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.  “Tuberculosis, Leprosy, and other Mycobacterial Diseases of Man and Animals. The Many Hosts of Mycobacteria”.  Chapter 2. CABI. Editors: Mukundan H, Chambers M, Waters R, Larsen M. September 2015.

Published in 2014:

Mamiya H, Schwartzman K, Verma A, Jauvin C, Behr MA, Buckeridge DL. Towards probabilistic decision support in public health practice: Predicting recent transmission of tuberculosis from patient attributes. J Biomed Inform. 2014 Nov 20. pii: S1532-0464(14)00236-6.

Behr MAComparative Genomics of Mycobacteria: Some Answers, Yet More New QuestionsCold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2014 Nov 13. pii: a021204

Rose W, Kitai I, Kakkar F, Read SE, Behr MA, Bitnun A. Quantiferon Gold-in-Tube Assay for TB screening in HIV Infected Children: Influence of Quantitative ValuesBioMed Central, 2014, Sep 23;14:516. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-516

Bos KI, Harkins KM, Herbig A, Coscolla M, Weber N, Comas I, Forrest SA, Parkhill J, Bryant JM, Harris SR, Schuenemann VJ, Campbell TJ, Majander K, Wilbur AK, Guichon RA, Wolfe Steadman DL, Cook DC, Niemann S, Behr MA, Zumarraga M, Huson D, Nieselt K, Young D, Buikstra JE, Gagneux S, Stone AC, Krause J.  Pre-Columbian Mycobacterial Genomes Reveal Seals as a Source of New World Human TuberculosisNature, 2014 Oct 23;514(7523):494-7. doi: 10.1038/nature13591. 

Dauphinee SM, Richer E, Eva MM, McIntosh F, Paquet M, Dangoor D, Burkart C, Zhang DER, Gros P, Behr M, Malo D. Contribution of increased ISG15, ISGylation and deregulated Type I IFN signaling in Usp18 mutant mice during the course of bacterial infections. Genes Immun. 2014 May 8. doi: 10.1038/gene.2014.17. 

Ahmad Khan F, Behr M. Resistant Plus Susceptible Tuberculosis: The Undiscovered CountryJournal of Infectious Diseases.  Editorial Commentary, 2014, Jun;209(11):1682-4. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu078. 

Domenech P, Rog A, Moolji J, *Radomski N, Fallow A, Leon-Solis L, Bowes J, Behr MA, Reed MB.  The origins of a 350-kilobase genomic duplication in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its impact on virulence, Infection and Immunity, 2014 Apr 28. 

Dauphinee SM, Richer E, Eva MM, McIntosh F, Paquet M, Dangoor D, Burkart C, Zhang DER, Gros P, Behr M, Malo D. Contribution of increased ISG15, ISGylation and deregulated Type I IFN signaling in Usp18 mutant mice during the course of bacterial infections. Genes and Immunity, 2014 May 8. doi: 10.1038/gene.2014.17. 

*Wang J, Behr MA Building a better bacillus: the emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosisFrontiers in Microbiology, 03 April 2014 | doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00139

Gavino C, Cotter A, Lichtenstein D, Lejtenyi D, Fortin D, Legault D, Alirezaie D, Majewski J, Sheppard DC, Behr MA, Foulkes WD, Vinh DC. CARD9 deficiency and spontaneous central nervous system candidiasis: complete clinical remission with GM-CSF therapyClinical Infectious Diseases, 2014 Apr 4. 

Verma A, Schwartzman K, Behr MA, Zwerling A, Allard R, Rochefort CM, Buckeridge DL. Accuracy of prospective space-time surveillance in detecting tuberculosis transmission. Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol. 2014 Apr;8:47-54. doi: 10.1016/j.sste.2014.01.003. 

Sohn H, Aero AD, Menzies D, Behr M, Schwartzman K, Alvarez GG, Dan A, McIntosh F, Pai M, Denkinger CM.  Xpert MTB/RIF testing in a low TB incidence, high-resource setting: limitations in accuracy and clinical impact. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2014, Apr;58(7):970-6. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu022. 


Tran V, Liu J, Behr MABCG vaccines.  Chapter 3. Molecular Genetics of Mycobacteria, ASM Press, 2014

Published in 2013:

*Radomski N, Roguet A, Lucas FS, Veyrier F, Cambau E, Accrombessi H, Moilleron R, Behr MA and Moulin L.  atpE gene as a new useful specific molecular target to quantify Mycobacterium in environmental samples BMC Microbiol. 2013 Dec 3;13:277. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-13-277

Marcel A. Behr, W. Ray Waters.  Is tuberculosis a lymphatic disease with a pulmonary portal?  Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2014 Mar;14(3):250-5. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70253-6. 

*Hansen JM, Golchin SA, Veyrier FJ, Domenech P, Boneca IG, Azad AK, Rajaram MVS, Schlesinger LS, Divangahi M, Reed MB, Behr MAN-glycolylated peptidoglycan contributes to the immunogenicity but not pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosisJ Infect Dis. 2014 Apr;209(7):1045-54. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit622. 

*Radomski N, *Kreitmann L, McIntosh F and Behr MA. The critical role of DNA extraction for detection of mycobacteria in tissuesPLoS One, 2013, Oct 23;8(10):e78749

Behr MA, Schurr E. Cell biology: A table for two  Nature. 2013 Sep 26;501(7468):498-9. doi: 10.1038/nature12555.

*Lefrancois LH, Bodier CC, Cochard T, Canepa S, Raze D, Lanotte P, Sevilla IA, Stevenson K, Behr MA, Locht C, Biet F. A novel feature of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis highlighted by characterization of the HBHA adhesin J Bacteriol. 2013 Aug 23. 

Behr MA, Schwartzman K, Pai M. Tuberculosis vaccine trials, Lancet. 2013 Jun 29;381(9885):2252-3. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61481-6

Vincent C, Stephens DA, Loo VG, Edens TJ, Behr MA, Dewar K, Manges AR.  Reductions in intestinal Clostridiales precede the development of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection.  Microbiome, 2013 Jun 28;1(1):18. doi: 10.1186/2049-2618-1-18.

*Verway M, Bouttier M, Wang TT, Carrier M, Calderon M, An BS, Devemy E, McIntosh F, Divangahi M, Behr MA, White JH. Vitamin D Induces Interleukin-1β Expression: Paracrine Macrophage Epithelial Signaling Controls M. tuberculosis PLoS Pathog. 2013 Jun;9(6):e1003407. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003407.

Behr MA, Evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;783:81-91. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-6111-1_4

Zwerling A, Benedetti A, Cojocariu M, McIntosh F, Pietrangelo F, Behr MA, Schwartzman K, Menzies D, Pai M. Repeat IGRA Testing in Canadian Health Workers: Conversions or Unexplained Variability? PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e54748. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054748. 

Vinh DC, Behr MA Crohn's as an immune deficiency: from apparent paradox to evolving paradigm Expert Reviews Clinical Immunology. 2013 Jan;9(1):17-30. doi: 10.1586/eci.12.87


Pai M, Minion J, Jamieson F, Wolfe J, Behr MA.  Diagnosis of active tuberculosis and drug resistance.  Chapter 3, Canadian Tuberculosis Standards, PHAC, 2013 

Behr MA. Jarand J, Marras TK. Nontuberculous mycobacteria.  Chapter 11, Canadian Tuberculosis Standards, PHAC, 2013

Behr MA, Elwood K. Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination in Canada. Chapter 16, Canadian Tuberculosis Standards, PHAC, 2013

Published in 2012:

Rossi C, Zwerling A, Thibert L, Rivest P, McIntosh F, Behr MA, Benedetti A, Menzies D, Schwartzman K. Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission over an 11-year period in an urban, low-incidence settingInternational Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2012;16(3):312-8. 

Lalvani A, Behr MA, Saranya Sridhar.  Innate immunity to TB: a druggable balancing act.  Cell, 2012, Feb 3;148(3):389-91.

McShane H, Jacobs WR, Fine PE, Reed SG, McMurray DN, Behr M, Williams A, Orme IM. BCG: Myths, realities, and the need for alternative vaccine strategies. Tuberculosis (Edinb). Volume 92, Issue 3, May 2012, Pages 283-288

Silayuv E. Bongfen, Ian-Gael Rodrigue-Gervais, Joanne Berghout, Sabrina Torre, Rob Sladek, Mathieu Blanchette, Marcel A. Behr, Samantha Gruenheid, Silvia Vidal, Maya Saleh, Philippe Gros.  An N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced mutation in Jak3 protects against cerebral malaria but causes susceptibility to mycobacteria. PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e31012 .

Bogunovic D, Byun M, Durfee LA, Abhyankar A, Sanal O, Mansouri D, Salem S, Radovanovic I, Grant AV, Adimi P, Mansouri N, Okada S, Bryant VL, Kong XF, Kreins A, Moncada Velez M, Boisson B, Khalilzadeh S, Ozcelik U, Darazam IA, Schoggins JW, Rice CM, Al-Muhsen S, Behr M, Vogt G, Puel A, Bustamante J, Gros P, Huibregtse JM, Abel L, Boisson-Dupuis S, Casanova JL. Mycobacterial disease and impaired IFN-γ immunity in humans with inherited ISG15 deficiencyScience. 2012 Aug 2. 

Zwerling A, Cojocariu M, McIntosh F, Pietrangelo F, Behr MA, Schwartzman K, Dendukuri N, Menzies D, Pai M. TB screening in Canadian Health Care Workers using Interferon-gamma release assaysPLoS One 2012; 7(8): e43014. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043014

Demers AM, Verver S, Boulle A, Warren R, van Helden P, Behr MA, Coetzee D.  High Yield of Culture-based Diagnosis in a TB-endemic SettingBMC ID, 2012 Sep 14;12:218. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-218.

Biet F, Sevilla IA, Cochard T, Lefrançois LH, Garrido JM, Heron I, Juste RA, McLuckie J, Thibault VC, Supply P, Collins DM, Behr MA, Steveson K. Inter- and Intra-subtype genotypic differences that differentiate Mycobacterium avium subspecies, BMC Microbiol. 2012 Nov 19;12(1):264.

Published in 2011:

*Kozak RA, Behr MA. Divergence of Immunologic and Protective Responses of Different BCG strains in a Murine Model.  Vaccine. 2011 Feb 4;29(7):1519-26

*Veyrier F, *Dufort A, Behr MAThe rise and fall of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome.  Trends in Microbiology, 2011 Apr;19(4):156-61.

Di Pietrantonio T, Correa JA, Orlova M, Behr MA and Schurr E.  Joint effects of host genetic background and mycobacterial strain on susceptibility to infection. Infection and Immunity, 2011 Jun;79(6):2372-8

Zwerling A, Behr MA, Verma A, Brewer TF, Menzies D, Pai M. The BCG World Atlas: A Database of Global BCG Vaccination Policies and Practices. PLoS Medicine, 2011 Mar;8(3):e1001012.

Pepperell C, Granka J, Alexander D, Behr M, Chui L, Gordon J, Guthrie J, Hoeppner V, Jamieson F, Langlois-Klassen D, Long R, Nguyen D, Wobeser W, Feldman M. Dispersal of M. tuberculosis via the Canadian fur tradePNAS, 2011 Apr 19;108(16):6526-31.

Albanna AS, Reed MB, Kotar KV, Fallow A, McIntosh FA, Behr MA, Menzies D. Reduced Transmissibility of East African Indian Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS One, 2011 Sept; 6(9): e25075

Tan de Bibiana J, Rossi C, Rivest P, Zwerling A, Thibert L, McIntosh FA, Behr MA, Menzies D, Schwartzman K. Tuberculosis and homelessness in Montreal: A retrospective cohort studyBMC Public Health 2011, 11:833

Published in 2010:

BOOKBehr MA, Collins DM.  Paratuberculosis: Organism, Disease, ControlCAB International, Oxford U.K.  January 2010, 384 Pages, ISBN: 9781845936136

Manges AR, Labbe A, Loo V, Atherton JK, Behr MA, Masson L, Tellis PA, Brousseau P. Comparative metagenomic study of alterations to the intestinal microbiota and risk of nosocomial Clostridum difficile-associated disease. Journal of Infectious Diseases, J Infect Dis. 2010 Dec 15;202(12):1877-84

Di Pietrantonio T, Hernandez C, Girard M, Verville A, Orlova M, *Belley A, Behr MA, Concepción Loredo-Osti J, Schurr E.  Strain-specific differences in the genetic control of two closely related mycobacteria. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Oct 28;6(10):e1001169

*Kozak RA, *Alexander DC, Liao R, Sherman DR, Behr MA. Region of Difference 2 contributes to virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection and Immunity, 2011 Jan;79(1):59-66

Gideon HP, Wilkinson KA, Rustad KA, Oni T, Guio H, Kozak R, Sherman D, Meintes G, Behr MA, Rangaka MX, Vordermeier HM, Young DB, Wilkinson RJ.  Hypoxia induces a target of Mycobacterium tuberculosis specific memory T cells absent from common BCG vaccines. PLoS Pathogens, 2010 Dec 23;6(12):e1001237

Behr MA, Divangahi M, *Lalande JD. What's in a name? The (mis)labelling of Crohn's as an autoimmune disease. Lancet. 2010 Jul 17;376(9736):202-3.

Demers AM, Boulle A, Warren R, Verver S, van Helden P, Behr MA, Coetzee D. Use of simulated sputum specimens to estimate the specificity of laboratory-diagnosed tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2010 Aug;14(8):1016-23.

*Lalande JD, Behr MA. Mycobacteria in Crohn's disease: how innate immune deficiency may result in chronic inflammation. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2010 Jul;6(4):633-41.

*Verway M, Behr MA, White JH. Vitamin D, NOD2, autophagy and Crohn's disease. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2010 Jul;6(4):505-8.

Benedetti A, Menzies D, Behr MA, Schwartzman K, Jin Y. How close is close enough? Exploring matching criteria in the estimation of recent transmission of tuberculosis. Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Aug 1; 172(3):318-26. 

Behr M, Schurr E, Gros P. TB: screening for responses to a vile visitor. Cell. 2010 Mar 5;140(5):615-8.

Demers AM, Mostowy S, Coetzee D, Warren R, van Helden P, Behr MA. Mycobacterium africanum is not a major cause of human tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2010 Mar;90(2):143-4. 

Wang TT, Dabbas B, Laperriere D, Bitton AJ, Soualhine H, Tavera-Mendoza LE, Dionne S, Servant MJ, Bitton A, Seidman EG, Mader S, Behr MA, White JH. Direct and indirect induction by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 of the NOD2/CARD15-defensin beta2 innate immune pathway defective in Crohn diseaseJ Biol Chem. 2010 Jan 22;285(4):2227-31. 

Cayrou C, *Turenne C, Behr MA, Drancourt M. Genotyping of Mycobacterium avium complex organisms using multispacer sequence typingMicrobiology. 2010 Mar;156(Pt 3):687-94. 

Behr MA.  The path to Crohn’s disease: is mucosal pathology a secondary event? Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 2010 May;16(5):896-902.


Behr MA. Paratuberculosis and Crohn’s disease. Chapter 5. Paratuberculosis: Organism, Disease, Control.  Editors Marcel Behr and Desmond Collins, 2010, CAB International (Oxford).

Published in 2009:

Mackenzie N, *Alexander DC, *Turenne CY, Behr MA, De Buck JM. Genomic comparison of PE and PPE genes in the Mycobacterium avium complexJ Clin Microbiol. 2009 Apr;47(4):1002-11. 

Behr MA, Falkinham JO 3rd. Molecular epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteriaFuture Microbiol. 2009 Oct;4:1009-20.

Oxlade O, Schwartzman K, Behr MA, Benedetti A, Pai M, Heymann J, Menzies D. Global tuberculosis trends: a reflection of changes in tuberculosis control or in population health? Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2009 Oct;13(10):1238-46.

*Coulombe F, Behr MA. Crohn's disease as an immune deficiency? The Lancet 2009 Sept 03

*Veyrier F, Pletzer D, *Turenne C, Behr MA. Phylogenetic detection of horizontal gene transfer during the step-wise genesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosisBMC Evol. Biol. 2009 Aug 10;9(1):196.

*Coulombe F, *Divangahi M, *Veyrier F, de Léséleuc L, Gleason JL, Yang Y, Kelliher MA, Pandey AK, Sassetti CM, Reed MB, Behr MA. Increased NOD2-mediated recognition of N-glycolyl muramyl dipeptide. J. Exp. Med. 2009 Aug 3;206(8):1709-16. doi: 10.1084/jem.20081779. 

Pandey AK, Yang Y, Jiang Z, Fortune SM, *Coulombe F, Behr MA, Fitzgerald KA, Sassetti CM, Kelliher MA. NOD2, RIP2 and IRF5 play a critical role in the type I interferon response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog. 2009 Jul;5(7):e1000500. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000500. 

Reed MB, Pichler VK, McIntosh F, Mattia A, Fallow A, Masala S, Domenech P, Zwerling A, Thibert L, Menzies D, Schwartzman K, Behr MA. Major Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages associate with patient country of origin. J. Clin Microbiol. 2009 Apr;47(4):1119-28. 


Published in 2008:

*Alexander DC, *Turenne CY, Behr MA. Insertion and Deletion Events That Define the Pathogen Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. J. Bacteriol. 2009 Feb;191(3):1018-25. doi: 10.1128/JB.01340-08. 

Lowe AM, Yansouni CP, Behr MA. Causality and gastrointestinal infections: Koch, Hill, and Crohn's. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008 Nov;8(11):720-6

*Divangahi M, *Mostowy S, *Coulombe F, *Kozak R, Guillot L, *Veyrier F, Kobayashi KS, Flavell RA, Gros P, Behr MA. NOD2-deficient mice have impaired resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection through defective innate and adaptive immunity. J. Immunol. 2008 Nov 15;181(10):7157-65.

Behr MA. Mycobacterium du jour: what's on tomorrow's menu? Microbes Infect. 2008 Jul;10(9):968-72.

Behr MA, Hanley J. Antimycobacterial therapy for Crohn's disease: a reanalysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008 Jun;8(6):344.

Veerapathran A, Joshi R, Goswami K, Dogra S, Moodie EE, Reddy MV, Kalantri S, Schwartzman K, Behr MA, Menzies D, Pai M. T-cell assays for tuberculosis infection: deriving cut-offs for conversions using reproducibility data. PLoS ONE. 2008 Mar 26;3(3):e1850.

Behr MA, Bruere P, Oxlade O. Global rates of Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2008 Aug;14(8):1170-2.

*Turenne CY, Collins DM, *Alexander DC, Behr MA. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. avium subsp. avium are independently evolved pathogenic clones of a much broader group of M. avium organisms. J Bacteriol. 2008 Apr;190(7):2479-87.

Geier H, *Mostowy S, Cangelosi GA, Behr MA, Ford TE. Autoinducer-2 triggers the oxidative stress response in Mycobacterium avium, leading to biofilm formation. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 Mar;74(6):1798-804.

*Veyrier F, *Saïd-Salim B, Behr MA. Evolution of the mycobacterial SigK regulon. J. Bacteriol. 2008 Mar;190(6):1891-9.

Published before 2008:

*Jeyanathan M, Boutros-Tadross O, *Semret M, Rahdi J, Bitton A, Behr MA. Visualization of Mycobacterium avium in Crohn’s tissue by oil-immersion microscopy. Microbes and Infection, 2007, Vol 9/14-15 pp 1567-1573

Banaiee N, January V, Barthus C, Lambrick M, Roditi D, Behr MA, Jacobs WR Jr, Steyn LM. Evaluation of a semi-automated reporter phage assay for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in South Africa. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2008 Jan;88(1):64-8.

Scott A, Joseph L, Bélisle P, Behr MA, Schwartzman K. Bayesian estimation of tuberculosis clustering rates from DNA fingerprinting data. Statistics in Medicine, Stat Med. 2008 Jan 15;27(1):140-56.

*Alexander DC, Behr MA. Rv1773 is a Transcriptional Repressor Deleted from BCG-Pasteur. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2007 Sep;87(5):421-5

Sancho-Shimizu V, Khan R, *Mostowy S, Lariviere L, Wilkinson R, Riendeau N, Behr M, Malo D. Molecular genetic analysis of two loci (Ity2 and Ity3) involved in the host response to infection with Salmonella Typhimurium using congenic mice and expression profiling. Genetics. 2007 Oct;177(2):1125-39

Haase I, Olson S, Behr MA, Wanyeki I, Thibert L, Scott A, Zwerling A, Ross N, Brassard P, Menzies D, Schwartzman K. Use of geographic and genotyping tools to characterize tuberculosis transmission in Montreal. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2007 Jun;11(6):632-8.

*Turenne CY, Wallace R and Behr MA. Mycobacterium avium in the postgenomic era. Clinical Microbiology Reviews Apr. 2007; 20(2): 205–229

Brosch R, Gordon SV, Garnier T, Eiglmeier K, Frigui W, Valenti P, Dos Santos S, Duthoy S, Lacroix C, Garcia-Pelayo C, Inwald JK, Golby P, Nuñez Garcia J, Hewinson RG, Behr MA, Quail MA, Churcher C, Barrell BG, Parkhill J and Cole ST. Genome plasticity of BCG and impact on vaccine efficacy. PNAS, 2007 Mar 27; 104(13):5596-601

*Said-Salim B, *Mostowy S, Kristof AS, Behr MA. Mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv0444c, the gene encoding anti-SigK, explain high level expression of MPB70 and MPB83 in Mycobacterium bovis. Molecular Microbiology, 2006 Dec;62(5):1251-63.

Yeo IKT, Tannenbaum T, Scott AN, Kozak R, Behr MA, Thibert L, Schwartzman K. Contact investigation and genotyping to identify tuberculosis transmission to children. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Journal, 2006 Nov;25(11):1037-43.

*Semret M, Bakker D, Smart N, Olsen I, Haslov K, Behr MA. Genetic analysis of M. avium complex strains used for producing Purified Protein Derivatives. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology 2006;13(9):991–996

Achonu C, Jamieson F, Behr MA, Lillebaek T, Khan K, Gardam M. Evidence for local transmission and reactivation of tuberculosis in the Toronto Somali community. Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38(9):778-81.

*Jeyanathan M, *Alexander D, *Turenne CY, Girard C, Behr MA. Evaluation of in situ methods used to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Crohn’s disease. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2006 Aug;44(8):2942-5

Wanyeki I, Olson S, Brassard P, Menzies D, Ross N, Behr MA, Schwartzman K. Dwellings, Crowding, and TB in Montreal. Social Science and Medicine, 2006 Jul;63(2):501-11

Horan KL, Freeman R, Weigel K, Semret M, Pfaller S, Covert T, van Soolingen D, Leão SC, Behr MA, Cangelosi GA. Isolation of the genome sequence strain Mycobacterium avium 104 from multiple patients patients over a 17 year period. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Mar;44(3):783-9.

*Semret M, *Turenne CY, Behr MA. Insertion sequence IS900 revisited. J Clin Microbiol, 2006, 44(3): 1081–1083

*Semret M, T*urenne CY, de Haas P, Collins DM, Behr MA. Differentiating host-assoiciated variants of virulent M. avium species using PCR for large-sequence polymorphisms. J Clin Microbiol, 2006, 44(3): 881–887

*Turenne CY, Semret M, Cousins DV, Collins DM and Behr MA. Sequencing of hsp65 distinguishes among subsets of the Mycobacterium avium complex. J Clin Microbiol, 2006 Feb; 44(2): 433–440

Cangelosi GA, Do JS, Freeman R, Bennett JG, *Semret M and Behr MA. The Two Component Regulatory System mtrAB Functions in the Morphotypic Multi-Drug Resistance of Mycobacterium avium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Feb;50(2):461-8.

*Mostowy S, Inwald J, Gordon S, Martin C, Warren R, Kremer K, Cousins D, Behr MA. Revisiting the evolution of Mycobacterium bovis. J. Bacteriology Sept. 2005, 187(18): 6386–6395

*Semret M, *Alexander DC, *Turenne CY, de Haas P, Overduin P, van Soolingen D, Cousins D, Behr MA. Genomic polymorphisms for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis diagnostics. J Clin Microbiol 2005 Aug;43(8):3704-12.

Somerville W, Thibert L, Schwartzman K, Behr MA. Extraction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA: a Question of Containment. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 June 43(6): 2996–2997

*Charlet D, *Mostowy S, *Alexander D, Sit L, Wiker HG, Behr MA. Reduced expression of antigenic proteins MPB70 and MPB83 in Mycobacterium bovis BCG strains due to a start codon mutation in sigK . Molecular Microbiology 2005 Jun;56(5):1302-13.

Verver S, Warren RM, Beyers N, Richardson M, van der Spuy GD, Borgdorff MW, Enarson DA, Behr MA, van Helden PD. Rate of Reinfection TB After Successful Treatment is Higher than the Rate of New TB. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005 Jun 15;171(12):1430-5.

Spreadbury CL, Pallen MJ, Overton T, Behr MA, *Mostowy S, Spiro S, Busby SJW and Cole JA. Point Mutations in the DNA- and cNMP-Binding Domains of the Homologue of the cAMP Receptor Protein (CRP) in Mycobacterium bovis BCG: Implications for the Inactivation of a Global Regulator and Strain Attenuation. Microbiology 2005 Feb 151: 547-556

Scott AN, Menzies D, Tannenbaum TN, Thibert L, Kozak R, Joseph L, Schwartzman K, Behr MA. Sensitivities and specificities of spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat typing methods for studying molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2005 Jan;43(1):89-94

*Semret M, Zhai G, *Mostowy S, Cleto C, *Alexander D, Cangelosi G, Cousins D, Collins DM, van Soolingen D, Behr MA. Extensive genomic polymorphism within Mycobacterium avium. Journal of Bacteriology 2004 Sep;186(18):6332-4.

*Mostowy S, A Onipede, S Gagneux, S Niemann, K Kremer, EP Desmond, M Kato-Maeda, and MA Behr. Genomic analysis distinguishes M. africanum. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2004, 42 (8): 3594–3599

*Mostowy S, C Cleto, DR Sherman, MA Behr. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex transcriptome of attenuation. Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2004;84(3-4):197-204.

*Nguyen D, P Brassard, D Menzies, L Thibert, R Warren, *S Mostowy, M Behr. Genomic characterization of an endemic Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain: evolutionary and epidemiologic implications. J. Clin. Microbiol 2004 Jun;42(6):2573-80

*Belley A, T Di Pietrantonio, M Girard, *D Alexander, J Jones, E Schurr, J Liu, D Sherman, MA Behr. Impact of methoxymycolic acid production by M. bovis BCG. Infection and Immunity 2004 May;72(5):2803-9

*Mostowy S, Cleto C, Sherman DR, Behr MA. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex transcriptome of attenuation. Tuberculosis 2004;84(3-4):197-204

Verver S, RM. Warren, Z Munch, E Vynnycky, PD van Helden, M Richardson, GD van der Spuy, DA Enarson, MW Borgdorff, Behr MA, Nulda Beyers. Transmission of tuberculosis in a high incidence urban community in South Africa. International Journal of Epidemiology 2004 Apr;33(2):351-7.

T Koivula, M Ekman, T Leitner, S Löfdahl, S Ghebremicahel, SB Svenson, *S. Mostowy, MA Behr, Gunilla Kallenius, Genetic characterization of the Guinea Bissau family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains. Microbes and Infection 2004 Mar;6(3):272-8.

Kulaga S, Behr M, *D. Nguyen, J. Westley, D. Menzies, P. Brassard, L. Thibert, J.-F. Boivin, L. Joseph, K. Schwartzman. Diversity of M. tuberculosis DNA "fingerprints" among an immigrant population in Montreal: Evidence against a founder effect. American Journal of Epidemiology 2004 159:507-513

Verver S, RM Warren, Z Munch, M Richardson, GD van der Spuy, MW Borgdorff, Behr MA, N Beyers, PD van Helden. Proportion of tuberculosis transmission that takes place in households in a high-incidence area. The Lancet, 2004 363: 212-214

*Mostowy S, Cousins D, Behr MA. Genomic interrogation of the dassie bacillus reveals it as a unique RD1 mutant within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. J Bacteriol. 2004 Jan; 186(1): 104-9.

van der Spuy GD, Warren RM, Richardson M, Beyers N, Behr MA, van Helden PD. Use of genetic distance as a measure of ongoing transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2003 Dec; 41(12): 5640-4.

Nguyen D, Proulx J-F, Westley J, Thibert L Dery S, Behr MA. Tuberculosis in the Inuit community of Quebec, Canada. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Dec 1; 168(11): 1353-7

*Mostowy S, Tsolaki A, Small PM, Behr MA. In vitro evolution of BCG vaccines. Vaccine 2003 Oct 1; 21(27-30): 4270-4.

*Nguyen D, Westley J, Thibert L, Proulx M, Brassard P, Schwarzman K, Menzies D, Behr MA. A widespread pyrazinamide-resistant M. tuberculosis family in a low incidence setting. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2003 Jul;41(7):2878-83

Chen JM, *Alexander DC, Behr MA, Liu J. Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccines exhibit defects in alanine and serine catabolism. Infection and Immunity. 2003 Feb; 71(2):708-16.

Kaeryn Lewis, Reiling Liao, Kristi Guinn, Sherilyn Smith, Mark Hickey, Behr MA, David R. Sherman. Deletion of RD1 from M. tuberculosis mimics BCG attenuation. JID 2003 Jan 1; 187(1):117-23.

R. M. Warren, E.M. Streicher, S. Sampson, G. D. van der Spuy, M. Richardson, D. Nguyen, M.A. Behr, T. Victor, P. D. van Helden. Micro-evolution of the DR region of M. tuberculosis and its implications for the interpretation of spoligotype data. J Clin Microbiol. 2002. 40(12): 4457-4465.

*Mostowy S, Behr MA. Comparative Genomics in the Fight Against Tuberculosis: Diagnostics, Epidemiology, and BCG Vaccination. Am J Pharmaco. 2002. 2(3): 189-196.

Kulaga S, Behr M, Musana K, Brinkman J, Menzies D, Brassard P, Kunimoto D, Tannenbaum TN, Thibert L, Joseph L, Boivin JF, Schwartzman K. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in Montreal. CMAJ. 2002 Aug 20;167(4):353-4.

*Mostowy S, Cousins D, Brinkman J, Aranaz A, Behr MA. Genomic deletions suggest a phylogeny for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. J Infect Dis. 2002 Jul 1;186(1):74-80. (15-16):2146-2151.

Warren RM, van der Spuy GD, Richardson M, Beyers N, Borgdorff MW, Behr MA, van Helden PD. Calculation of the stability of the IS6110 banding pattern in patients with persistent Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease J Clin Microbiol. 2002 May;40(5):1705-8.

Warren RM, van der Spuy GD, Richardson M, Beyers N, Booysen C, Behr MA, van Helden PD. Evolution of the IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern during the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Apr;40(4):1277-82.

Behr MA . BCG--different strains, different vaccines? Lancet Infect Dis. 2002 Feb;2(2):86-92. Review (15-16):2146-2151.

Zaharatos J, Behr MA, Libman MD. Profound T-lymphocytopenia and cryptococcemia in an HIV- seronegative patient with disseminated tuberculosis Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2001 33:e125-e128

Behr MA. Correlation between BCG genomics and protective efficacy. Plenary paper from Nobel Symposium 114. Scandinavian Jounrnal of Infectious Diseases, 2001 ; 33(4):249-52.

Behr MA. Comparative genomics of BCG vaccines.  Plenary paper from M. bovis 2000 meeting. Tuberculosis, 2001 ; 81(1/2): 165-168. 

Reynolds S, Behr MA, McDonald J Turicella Otitidis as an unusual agent causing a posterior auricular abscess Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2001 Apr;39(4):1672-3.

Bedwell J. Kairo S. Behr MA and Bygraves J. Identification of substrains of BCG vaccine using multiplex PCR Vaccine, 2001 Feb 28;19 (15-16):2146-2151.

Liu YP, Behr MA, Small PM, Kurn N. Genotypic Determination of M. tuberculosis Antibiotic Resistance Using a Novel Mutation Detection Method: Branch Migration Inhibition (BMI) / M. tuberculosis Antibiotic Resistance Test  Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 2000 Oct;38(10):3656-3662

Rhee JT, Behr MA, Agasino CA, Paz EA, Hopewell PC, Small PM. Use of multiple markers in population-based molecular epidemiologic studies of tuberculosis International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2000; 4 (12): 1111-1119.

Behr MA, Schroeder BG, Brinkman JN, Slayden RA, Barry CE 3rd. Point mutation in mma3 gene is responsible for impaired methoxymycolic acid production in BCG strains obtained after 1927.  Journal of Bacteriology, 2000 Jun;182(12):3394-9. 

Borgdorff MW, Behr MA, Nagelkerke NJD, Hopewell PC, Small PM.  Transmission of tuberculosis in San Francisco and its association with immigration and ethnicity. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2000; 4 (4): 287-294. 

Salamon H, Behr MA, Rhee JT, Small PM. Genetic distances for the study of infectious disease epidemiology. American Journal of Epidemiology, 2000 Feb 1;151(3):324-34.

Martinez A, Rhee JT, Small PM, Behr MA.  Sex differences in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in San Francisco. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 2000; 4 (1): 26-31.

Kulaga S, Behr MA, Schwartzman K. Genetic fingerprinting in the study of tuberculosis transmission. CMAJ 1999 Nov 2;161(9):1165-9.

Jasmer RM, Hahn JA, Small PM, Daley CL, Behr MA, Moss AR, Creasman JM, Schecter GF, Paz EA, Hopewell PC. A molecular epidemiologic analysis of tuberculosis trends in San Francisco, 1991-1997. Annals of Internal Medicine 1999; 130(12): 971-978.

Behr MA, MA Wilson, WP Gill, H Salamon, GK Schoolnik, S Rane, PM Small. Comparative genomics of BCG vaccines by whole genome DNA-microarray.   1999;284(5419):1520-1523

Behr MA, Small PM. A historical and molecular phylogeny of BCG strains. Vaccine 1999; 17(7-8): 915-922.

Behr MA, Warren SA, Salamon H, Hopewell PC, Ponce de Leon A, Daley C, Small PM. Tuberculosis transmission from AFB smear-negative cases in San Francisco. The Lancet 1999; 353(9151): 444-9.

Behr MA, Hopewell PC, Paz EA, Kawamura LM, Small PM.  Predictive value of contact investigation for identifying recent transmission of M. tuberculosis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1998; 158 (2): 465-469.

Behr MA, Small PM. Molecular fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: how can it help the clinician? Clinical Infectious Diseases 1997; 25: 806-810.

Behr MA, Small PM. Has BCG attenuated to impotence? Nature 1997; 389: 133-134.


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