Daniel J Schoen

Academic title(s): 

W.C. Macdonald Professor of Botany

Daniel J Schoen
Contact Information

Stewart Biology Building, N3/8A

Email address: 
dan.schoen [at]
Research areas: 
Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Conservation, Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour
Areas of expertise: 

Evolution, ecology, and population genetics of plants. Conservation genetics. Application of theory and molecular genetic data to studies in plant evolution.

Current research: 

Higher plants have evolved an enormous diversity of strategies for successfully reproducing.This can be seen by taking a casual glance at the many flower and inflorescence types seen among the Angiosperms, as well as the diversity of reproductive structures seen in the ferns and gymnosperms.

Our lab has been interested in understanding the evolution of plant reproductive systems and related life history characteristics, ranging from varying rates of self-pollination, different inflorescence types and the varying longevity of reproductive structures. We use a combination of experiments and theoretical analysis to address these questions. Our current work focuses on the evolution and breakdown of self-incompatibility in the mustard genus Leavenworthia, a group of annual plants that has been a model system for studying mating system evolution.

Selected publications: 
  • Hendry AP, Schoen DJ, Wolak ME, Reid JM. 2018. The contemporary evolution of fitness. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 49:457-76
  • Chantha, S.-C., Herman, A. C., Castric, V., Vekemans, X., Schoen, D.J. 2017. The unusual S-locus of Leavenworthia is composed of two sets of paralogous loci. New Phytologist 216:1 247-1255
  • Wu, L.-Y., Wang, B. Schoen, D.J., Huang, S.-Q. 2017. Transitions from distyly to homostyly are associated with floral evolution in the buckwheat genus (Fagopyrum). American Journal of Botany 104:1232-1240
  • Josephs, E., Wright, S.I., Stinchcombe, J.R., Schoen, D.J. 2017. The relationship between selection, network connectivity, and regulatory variation within a population of Capsella grandiflora. Genome Biology and Evolution 9:1099-1109
  • Baldwin S.J., Schoen D.J. 2017. Genetic variation for pseudo-self-compatibility in self-incompatible populations of Leavenworthia alabamica (Brassicaceae). New Phytologist 213:430-439
  • Flynn J, Chain F., Schoen D.J., Cristescu M.E. 2016. Spontaneous mutation accumulation in Daphnia pulex in selection-free versus competitive environments. Molecular Biology and Evolution 34:160-173
  • Schoen D.J., Roda, M. 2016. Selection of sporophytic and gametophytic self-incompatibility in the absence of a superlocus. Evolution 70:1409-1417.
  • Zelt, N., Schoen D.J. 2016. Testing for heterosis in traits associated with seed yield in Camelina sativa. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 96: 525-529.
  • Herman, A.C., Schoen D.J. 2016. Recent selection for self-compatibility in Leavenworthia alabamica. Evolution 70:1212-1224.
  • Baldwin, S. J. and Schoen, D. J. 2016. Genetic variation for pseudo-self-compatibility in self-incompatible populations of Leavenworthia alabamica (Brassicaceae). New Phytologist doi: 10.1111/nph.1409
  • Fulton M. Jesson L.K., Bobiwash K., Schoen, D.J. (2015) Mitigation of pollen- limited fruit set in commercial lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium): How effective is augmenting the natural pollinator community? Ecosphere 6: Article 235
  • Annabelle Haudry, Adrian E Platts, Emilio Vello, Douglas R Hoen, Mickael Leclercq, Robert J Williamson, Ewa Forczek, Zoé Joly-Lopez, Joshua G Steffen, Khaled M Hazzouri, Ken Dewar, John R Stinchcombe, Daniel J Schoen, Xiaowu Wang, Jeremy Schmutz, Christopher D Town, Patrick P Edger, J Chris Pires, Karen S Schumaker, David E Jarvis, Terezie Mandáková, Martin A Lysak, Erik van den Bergh, M Eric Schranz, Paul M Harrison (2013) An atlas of over 90,000 conserved noncoding sequences provides insight into crucifer regulatory regions. Nature Genetics doi:10.1038/ng.2684
  • Sier-Ching Chantha, Adam C. Herman, Adrian E. Platts, Xavier Vekemans, Daniel J. Schoen (2013) Secondary Evolution of a Self-Incompatibility Locus in the Brassicaceae Genus Leavenworthia. PLoS (Biology) 11(5): e1001560. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001560
  • Bobiwash K, Schultz ST, Schoen DJ (2013) Somatic deleterious mutation rate in a woody plant: estimation from phenotypic data. Heredity 111: 338-344.
  • Jensen HR, Dreiseitl A, Sadiki M, Schoen DJ (2013) High diversity, low spatial structure and rapid pathotype evolution in Moroccan populations of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. European Journal of Plant Pathology 136:323-336.
  • Jensen, H. R., Belqadi, L. De Santis, P., Sadiki, M., Jarvis, D. I. Schoen, D. J. (2012) A case study of seed exchange networks and gene flow for barley (Hordeum vulgaresubsp. vulgare) in Morocco. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 60: 1119-1138.
  • Jensen, H. R., Dreiseitl, A., Sadiki, M., Schoen, D. J. (2012) The Red Queen and the seed bank: pathogen resistance of ex situ and in situ conserved barley. Evolutionary Applications 5:353-367.
  • Herman, A., Busch J. W., and Schoen, D. J. (2012) Phylogeny of Leavenworthia S-alleles suggests unidirectional mating system evolution and enhanced positive selection following and ancient population bottleneck. Evolution 66:1849-1861.
  • Busch J. W., Joly, S., Schoen, D. J. (2011) Demographic signatures accompanying the evolution of selfing in Leavenworthia alabamica. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28:1717-1729.
  • Joly, S., and Schoen, D. J. (2011) Migration rates, frequency-dependent selection and the self-incompatibility locus in Leavenworthia (Brassicaceae). Evolution 65:2357-2368.
  • Busch, J. W., Joly, S, and Schoen, D. J. (2010) Does mate limitation in self- incompatible species promote the evolution of self-pollination? The case of Leavenworthia alabamica. Evolution 64:1657-1670
  • Schoen, D.J., and Busch, J.W. (2009) The evolution of dominance in sporophytic self-incompatibility systems. II. Mate availability and recombination. Evolution 63:2099-2113.
  • Jarvis, D.I., (and 28 other authors), Schoen, D.J. (2008) A global perspective of the richness and evenness of traditional crop genetic diversity maintained by farming communities. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 105: 5326-5331.
  • Schoen, D.J., Reichman, J.R., Ellstrand, N.C. (2008) Transgene escape monitoring, population genetics, and the law. Bioscience 58:71-77.
  • Busch, J.W., Sharma, J., Schoen, D.J. (2008) Molecular characterization of a SRK-like gene linked to self-incompatibility in the wild mustard Leavenworthia alabamica. Genetics 178:2055-2067.
  • Busch, J.W., and Schoen, D.J. (2008) The evolution of self-incompatibility when mates are limiting. Trends in Plant Science 13:128-136.
  • Schoen, D.J., and Busch, J.W. (2008) On the evolution of self-fertilization in a metapopulation. Intl. Jour. Plant Sci. 169:119-127.
  • Begin, M., Schoen, D.J. (2007) Transposable elements, mutational correlations, and population divergence in Caenorhabditis elegans. Evolution 61: 1062-1070.
  • Cloutier, D. et al. (2007) Low inbreeding and high pollen dispersal distances in populations of two Amazonian forest tree species. Biotropica 29:406-415.
  • Cheptou, P.-O., Schoen, D.J. (2006) Combining population genetics and demographical approaches in evolutionary studies of plant mating systems. Oikos 116:271-279.
  • Begin, M., Schoen, D.J. (2006) Low impact of germline transposition on the mildly deleterious mutation in C. elegans. Genetics 174(4): 2129-2136.
  • Cloutier, D., Kanashiro, M., Ciampi, A.Y., Schoen, D.J. (2006) Impact of selective logging on inbreeding and gene dispersal in an Amazonian tree population of Carapa guianensis. Mol. Ecol. 16:797-809.
  • Docking, T.R., Saade, F.E., Elliott, M.C., and Schoen, D.J. (2006) Retrotransposon Sequence Variation in Four Asexual Plant Species Jour. J. Mol. Evol. 62: 375-387.
  • MacKenzie, J.L., Saade, F.E., Le, Q.H., Bureau, T.E., and Schoen, D.J. (2005) Genomic Mutation in Lines of Arabidopsis thaliana Exposed to Ultraviolet-B Radiation. Genetics 171: 715-723.
  • Cowan, R.K., Hoen, D.R., Schoen, D.J., Bureau, T.E. (2005) MUSTANG Is a Novel Family of Domesticated Transposase Genes Found in Diverse Angiosperms. Mol. Biol. Evol. 22: 2084 - 2089.
  • Schoen, D.J. (2005) Spontaneous deleterious mutation in wild plant species with contrasting mating systems. Evolution 59: 2370-2377.
  • Schoen, D.J. (2005) Deleterious mutation in related species of the plant genus Amsinckia with contrasting mating systems. Evolution 59:2370-2377.
  • Cloutier, D.J., Povoa, J.S.R., Procopio, L.C., Leao, N.V.M., Wadt, L.H.O., Ciampi, A.Y., Schoen, D.J. (2005) Chloroplast DNA variation of Carapa guianensis in the Amazon basin. Silvae Genetica 54: 270-274.
  • Pérusse, J. & Schoen, D.J. (2004) Molecular evolution of the GapC gene family in Amsinckia spectabilis populations that differ in outcrossing rate. Journal of Molecular Evolution 59: 427-436.
  • Latta, R.G., MacKenzie, J.L., Vats, A. & Schoen, D.J. (2004) Divergence and variation of quantitative traits between allozyme genotypes of Avena barbata from contrasting habitats. J. Ecol., 92: 57-71
  • Cloutier, D., Rioux, D. Beaulieu, J., Schoen, D.J. (2003) Somatic stabilty of microsatellite loci in Eastern White Pine, Pinus strobus L. Heredity 90:247-252.
  • Cheptou, P-O., Schoen, D.J. (2003) Frequency-dependent fitness and the selection of selfing. American Naturalist 162:744-753.
  • Navarro-Quezada, A., and Schoen, D.J. (2002) Sequence evolution and copy number of Ty1-copia retrotransposons in diverse plant genomes. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., USA 99:268-273.
  • Schoen, D.J, Brownstein, J., White, P. (2002) Mutation load in natural populations of sensitive fern Onoclea sensibilis exposed to environmental mutagens. Ecol. Appl. 12:124-137.
  • Cheptou, P-O., Schoen , D.J. (2002) The cost of fluctuating inbreeding depression. Evolution 56:1059-1062.
  • Wright, S.I., Schoen, D.J., Bureau, T., Le, Q. H. (2001) Population dynamics of an Ac -like transposable element in self- and cross-pollinating Arabidopsis. Genetics 158:1279-1288.
  • Schoen, D. J, and Brown, A.H.D. (2001) The conservation of wild plant species in seed banks. Bioscience 51:960-966.
  • Gouesnard, B., Bataillon, T.M., Decoux, G., Rozale, C., Schoen, D.J. , David, J. (2001) MSTRAT: An algorithm for building germ plasm core collections by maximizing allelic or phenotypic richness. Journal of Heredity 92:93-94.
  • Schoen, D.J. (2000) Comparative genomics, marker density, and statistical analysis of chromosome rearrangements. Genetics 154: 943-952.
  • Wright, S.I., and Schoen, D.J. (1999) Transposon dynamics and the mating system. Genetica 107: 139-148.
  • Tremblay, N.O., and Schoen , D.J. (1999) Molecular phylogeography of Dryas integrifolia: glacial refugia and postglacial recolonization. Mol. Ecol. 8: 1187-1198.
  • Schoen, D.J, David, J.L., & Bataillon, T.M. (1998) Deleterious mutation and the regeneration of plant genetic resources. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., USA 95:394-399.
  • Morgan, M.T., Schoen, D.J., & Bataillon, T.M. (1997) The evolution of self-pollination in perennials. American Naturalist 150:618-638.
  • Schoen, D.J., Johnston, M.O , L'Heureux, A.-M., Marsolais, J. (1997) Evolutionary history of the mating system in Amsinckia (Boraginaceae). Evolution 51:1090-1099.
  • Morgan, M.T., & Schoen, D.J. (1997) The role of theory in an emerging new plant reproductive biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12:231-234.
  • Ashman, T.L., & Schoen, D.J. (1997) The cost of floral longevity. Evolutionary Ecology 11:289-300.
  • Johnston, M. & Schoen, D.J. (1996) Correlated evolution of self-fertilization and inbreeding depression: An experimental study of nine populations of Amsinckia (Boraginaceae). Evolution 50:1478-1491.
  • Bataillon, T.M., David, J.L., & Schoen, D.J. (1996) Neutral genetic markers and conservation genetics. Genetics 144:409-417.
  • Ashman, T.L., & Schoen, D.J.. (1996) Flower lifespan and disease risk. Nature 379:780.
  • Schoen, D.J., Morgan, M.T., Bataillon, T.M. (1996) How does self-pollination evolve? Inferences from floral ecology and neutral theory. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B 351:1291-1298.
  • Johnston, M. & Schoen, D.J. (1996) Correlated evolution of self-fertilization and inbreeding depression: An experimental study of nine populations of Amsinckia (Boraginaceae). Evolution 50:1478-1491.
  • Johnston, M. & Schoen, D.J. (1995) Mutation rates and dominance levels of genes affecting total fitness in two angiosperm species. Science 267:226-229.
  • Schoen, D.J. & Ashman, T.-L. (1995) The evolution of floral longevity: resource allocation to maintenance versus construction of repeated structures in modular organisms. Evolution 49:131-139.
  • Brown, A.H.D. & Schoen, D.J. (1994) Optimal sampling strategies for core collections of genetic resources. In: Loeschcke, V. et al. (eds), Conservation Genetics. Birkhäuser.
  • Brown, A.H.D. & Schoen, D.J. (1994) A revised measure of association of gene diversity. Hereditas 120:77-79.
  • Schoen, D.J., & Brown, A.H.D. (1994) Maximizing genetic diversity in core collections of crop relatives: the role of genetic markers, In Brown, A.H.D., Hodgkin, T., van Hintum, T., and Morales, E. (eds.) Core Collections of Plant Genetic Resources , Wiley-Sayce.
  • Ashman, T.-L. & Schoen, D.J. (1994) How long should flowers live? Nature 371:788-791.
  • Schoen, D.J., & Brown, A.H.D. (1993) Conservation of allelic richness in wild crop relatives is aided by genetic markers. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., USA 90:10623-10627.
  • Schoen, D.J., & Brown, A.H.D. (1993) Conservation of allelic richness in wild crop relatives is aided by assessment of genetic markers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 10623-10627.
  • Brown, A.H.D., & Schoen , D.J. (1992) Plant population genetic structure and biological conservation. In Sandlund, O.T., Hindar, K., & Brown, A.H.D. (eds.) Conservation of Biodiversity for Sustainable Development Oxford Univ. Press, London.
  • Schoen, D.J., Burdon, J.J., & Brown, A.H.D. (1992) Resistance to soybean leaf rust Phakopsora polyrhiza in diploid and tetraploid accessions of Glycine tomentella: pattern of variation and genetic control. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 83:827-832.
  • Lloyd, G. & Schoen, D.J. (1992) Self- and cross-fertilization in plants. I. Functional dimensions. International Journal of Plant Science. 153:358-369.
  • Schoen, D.J. & Lloyd, G. (1992) Self- and cross-fertilization in plants. III. Methods for studying modes and functional aspects of self-fertilization. International Journal of Plant Science. 153:381-393.
  • Schoen, D.J. & Brown, A.H.D. (1991) Intraspecific variation in population gene diversity and effective population size correlates with the mating system in plants. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., USA 88: 4494-4497.
  • Schoen, D.J. & Brown, A.H.D. (1991) Whole- and part-flower self-pollination in Glycine clandestina and G. argyrea and the Evolution of Autogamy. Evolution 45: 1651-1664.
  • Schoen, D.J. & Dubuc, M. (1990) The evolution of inflorescence size and number: a gamete packaging strategy in plants. American Naturalist 135:845-857.
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