If you watched the news, read newspapers or surfed the web recently you will have been inundated with pictures of bacon and headlines describing it as carcinogenic. That’s because the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified processed meats as being carcinogenic, placing them in the same category as tobacco smoke, asbestos, oral contraceptives, alcohol, sunshine, X-rays, polluted air, and inhaled sand. However, it is critical to understand that the classification is based on hazard as opposed to risk. Hazard can be defined as a potential source of harm or adverse health effect. Risk is the likelihood that exposure to a hazard causes harm or some adverse effect. If a substance is placed in IARC’s Group 1, it means that there is strong evidence that the substance can cause cancer, but it says nothing about how likely it is to do so. That likelihood depends on several factors including innate carcinogenicity, extent of exposure and personal liability. Ultraviolet light, a component of sunlight, is a good example to illustrate the difference between hazard and riskLight can be thought of as being composed of packets of energy called photons. When a photon impacts a molecule of DNA it can damage it, triggering an irregular multiplication of cells, in other words, cancer. X-rays are also made up of photons, but these are more energetic than the photons of ultraviolet light so they are more likely to damage DNA. Although both sunlight and X-rays are in Group 1, X-rays are clearly more capable of triggering cancer than sunlight. But exposure matters. A single chest X-ray is not a problem but repeated baking in the sun is. More photons of lower energy can have a greater effect than fewer photons of greater energy. Then there is individual liability. A person with dark skin is less at risk for developing cancer than someone with pale skin even at the same ultraviolet light exposure. Inhaled sand is also listed in Group 1. That’s because studies have shown that workers engaged in occupations that can result in inhaling sand show a significantly increased risk of cancer. But this doesn’t mean that going to the beach and frolicking in the sand is a risky business. Tobacco smoke is also in Group 1because there is no doubt that it causes lung cancer. In fact about ninety percent of all lung cancer cases can be attributed to smoking. Alcohol is also in this category because it is known to increase the risk of oral cancers as well as breast cancer, yet nobody worries about drinking a glass of wine. Listing processed meat in IARC’s Group 1 just says that like alcohol, like tobacco, like sunshine, and some 180 other chemicals, mixtures and exposure circumstances, it is capable of causing cancer. It does not mean that if you have a bacon lettuce and tomato sandwich you are putting yourself at risk. Let’s clarify what is meant by processed meat. Grinding meat into hamburger does not result in processed meat. But smoking, fermenting or adding chemicals such as salt or nitrites to either extend the product’s shelf life or change its taste does. We’re talking about bacon, sausages, hot dogs, salami, corned beef, beef jerky and ham as well as canned meat and often meat-based sauces. The evidence that these tasty morsels are linked to cancer comes from observational studies, which of course do not prove cause and effect. But they are quite consistent in demonstrating that populations that consume lots of processed meats have higher cancer rates, particularly colorectal cancer, even when corrections are made for smoking, other foods eaten and activity levels. Furthermore, there are theoretical and experimental foundations for declaring some components found in processed meat, like polycyclic aromatics, heterocyclic amines, nitrites, insulin-like growth factor and heme-iron, carcinogenic. The evidence is certainly not ironclad, but science rarely is. It comes down to making educated guesses and evaluating the downside of such guesses. There is no significant downside to limiting processed meat, especially if it is replaced by plant products.But the significant question to ask is how much can we reduce our risk of colorectal cancer by robbing our taste buds of the taste of bacon and such? The risk of this cancer in the general population is roughly six in a hundred. After poring through some 800 peer-reviewed publications, IARC estimates that eating 50 grams of processed meat every day over a lifetime increases risk by about 18%. In other words, if a hundred people follow such a regimen over a lifetime, there will be seven cases of colorectal cancer instead of six. So for an individual, the chance of getting colon cancer because of eating processed meats is about 1 in 100. That is a very small risk, but because there may well be millions of people following such a diet, the impact on the population can be significant, in IARC’s estimate, about 34,000 cases a year.
What do we do with this information? A one in a hundred chance is not insignificant and it makes sense to try to reduce it. That means consuming less than 50 grams of processed meat a day on average. To do that we need to keep some numbers in mind. Two to three strips of bacon add up to 50 grams, as do two slices of ham, 4 slices of salami or one hot dog. Remember though that we are talking averages here. Certainly a couple of hot dogs, a salami sandwich and a couple of bacon and egg breakfasts a week is not a great risk. But if you have a smoked meat sandwich, well, you have used up your weekly allotment. But remember that all these numbers are estimates, basically educated guesses, and are not based on hard evidence.Read more
The city that never sleeps; where dreams are made and realized, (and probably more often than not, discarded); the possibilities endless. I was strolling through the streets and making my way down to the Financial District where I was set to have a tour of the 9/11 Museum.The day, I was soon told by our guide, was similar to that horrific September 11th morning – where, according to air traffic control, skies were an “extreme clear” – where in a matter of minutes, the world, as we knew it, would change forever. The Museum is relatively new, only opening its doors to the public in 2014. And although I Iived in NYC last year, I never ended up making my way to the museum. I knew there were two pools, where each of the towers stood, but that was about it. Of course I also knew there was much consultation with the families of the victims as to what the museum should include and how its artifacts presented. With whatever unknown I went in with, I did know that I would feel much of the same emotions I felt on that Tuesday September morning where, in Mr. Moore’s English class, we were told that a plane had crashed into the World Trade Center. Read more
Just about everyone now knows something about DNA ( with some obvious notable exceptions). The term “template of life” has been repeatedly used in the press to describe this molecule. That is quite accurate because DNA is like a library of information which tells our cells which proteins to synthesize. Proteins are the key to life because they make up important structures of the body as well as hormones and the enzymes that govern the body’s numerous chemical reactions. DNA is a nucleic acid, a "polymer" composed of pieces called nucleotides strung together like beads on a necklace.
Each of these nucleotides is made up of a sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate group and a molecule commonly referred to as a “base.” It is the sequence of the bases along the nucleic acid chain that holds genetic information. There are four such bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine. They are named after the source from which they were isolated. Adenine from the Greek word for gland because it was first isolated from the pancreas, thymine from the thymus, cytosine from cells and guanine from bird guano, the technical name for bird poop.
Yes Ms. Hari, every one of your cells contains the same chemical that is found in bird excrement. This is as relevant as finding azodicarbonamide, the chemical that was used in Subway rolls in yoga mats. (I'm including the molecular structures of the four nucleotides although I'm quite confident they will be meaningless to our intended pupil. I have no idea what she thinks of molecular structures, but given that she thinks that multisyllabic names make a chemical dangerous, she probably doesn't look on them favourably.)Read more
Rotting apples release ethylene gas, which is a natural hormone produced by fruits to stimulate ripening. A rotten apple is just an overly ripe apple, producing enough ethylene to "ripen" the rest of the apples in the barrel. The process is usually initiated by physical damage to an apple. The skin becomes bruised, releasing nutritious juice which is very inviting to air-borne molds. When molds set up shop on the apple, ethylene production increases, ripening other apples, inviting more mold! The answer of course is to remove the rotten apple!
Although in this instance the reaction is not desirable, the use of ethylene gas often allows fruit to be picked "green" and to be subsequently ripened during transport in tank cars under an atmosphere of ethylene. This is especially useful in the case of bananas, the most widely consumed fresh fruit in North America. Bananas bruise very easily and could not survive shipping if they were picked when ripe. Green bananas are much more hearty and stand up well during transport. If they are still green when purchased you can ripen the bananas by putting them in a plastic bag with an over-ripe apple!
Our such bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine. They are named after the source from which they were isolated. Adenine from the Greek word for gland because it was first isolated from the pancreas, thymine from the thymus, cytosine from cells and guanine from bird guano, the technical name for bird poop.
Yes Ms. Hari, every one of your cells contains the same chemical that is found in bird excrement. This is as relevant as finding azodicarbonamide, the chemical that was used in Subway rolls in yoga mats. (I'm including the molecular structures of the four nucleotides although I'm quite confident they will be meaningless to our intended pupil. I have no idea what she thinks of molecular structures, but given that she thinks that multisyllabic names make a chemical dangerous, she probably doesn't look on them favourably.)
P.S. Vani's take on this would likely be: Do you want a chemical that is used to make pig balls in your bananas?
(Ethylene is used to make polyethylene which is used to make "pig balls" that are thrown into pig pens to give the animals something to play with instead of nibbling on each others' ears and tails.)Read more