The faculty and students of the School of Urban Planning are actively engaged in a variety of research endeavours. Both faculty and students contribute regularly to professional publications and participate in international conferences. Students in the M.Sc. (thesis) and Ph.D. programs in Urban Planning, Policy, and Design work with faculty on original research on urban issues. Students in the Master of Urban Planning program are required to undertake a final Supervised Research Project. Faculty and students also contribute to the practice of urban planning, in Montréal and beyond. Faculty members contribute to practice by acting as advisors and consultants for many types of projects. Students contribute to practice principally through studio projects. Many of these projects are carried out for real-world clients, including municipal planning departments and civil-society organisations.