The Three Rs

A lab technician holding up and looking at a tiny square xray

The “Three Rs” of Animal Research

Animals are used in research when there is simply no alternative that will produce the necessary results. Before researchers at McGill are allowed to employ animals in research, they must follow what are called the “Three Rs” as established by the federal government’s Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC).

The 3 Rs - Replacement, Reduction and Refinement

Please take the time to explore the CCAC web page on the 3 Rs to assist you in replacing the use of animals with alternatives, reducing the number of animals to be involved and to refine procedures, conditions and experimental design in regards to animal welfare.

  • Replacement: Animals must be replaced with alternative research methods wherever possible.
  • Reduction: Researchers must reduce the amount of animals used in each experiment.
  • Refinement: Researchers must refine their procedures to minimize adverse conditions for animals.
Back to top