Plurilingual and Pluricultural Competence

Examining Canadian Residents’ Linguistic and Cultural Repertoire

While Canada is officially English/French bilingual, nearly 20% of Canadians speak more than one language at home, an increase of 13.3% from 2011 and 2016. This linguistic diversity is integral to the Canadian context where many residents use more than one language to communicate on a daily basis.

This study investigated the use of language(s) among speakers of two or more languages in Canada. Results show the complex linguistic and cultural behaviours of residents in Montréal, which are helpful in the development of pedagogy and language policies that support and encourage plurilinguals to maintain and enhance their language and cultural learning. The study has also produced the PPC Scale which can be used in both research and pedagogy.

PrincipaI Investigator: Dr. Angelica Galante

Research Assistant: John Wayne dela Cruz


Galante, A., & dela Cruz, J. W. N. (2021). Plurilingual and pluricultural as the new normal: An examination of language and identity in the multilingual city of Montréal. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development,

Galante, A. (2020). Plurilingual and pluricultural competence (PPC) scale: The inseparability of language and culture. International Journal of Multilingualism, 19(4), 477-498.

Watch our AAAL 2021 presentation with results of this study:



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