Structure of the complex I-like molecule NDH of oxygenic photosynthesis
The publication reports the high-resolution cryo-EM structure of the Complex I-like molecule from a photosynthetic organism. This protein is found in all stretches of life forms, and humans have a similar molecule that we use to produce energy inside mitochondria.
Thomas G. Laughlin, Andrew N. Bayne, Jean-François Trempe, David F. Savage & Karen M. Davies
Nature volume 566, pages411–414 (2019).Published: 11 February 2019
Accardi MV, Brown PM, Miraucourt LS, Orser BA, Bowie D
α6-Containing GABAA Receptors Are the Principal Mediators of Inhibitory Synapse Strengthening by Insulin in Cerebellar Granule Cells
J Neurosci. 2015 Jul 1;35(26):9676-88. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0513-15.2015. PubMed Link
Insulin has long been known as the hormone which controls the body’s sugar levels: humans who lack or are insensitive to insulin develop diabetes. Although insulin is also made and released in the brain, its effects there have remained unclear. In this paper we report a new role for this metabolic hormone. Insulin controls the activity of the brain’s ‘brakes’, which are called inhibitory GABA-A receptors. Insulin prevents the brain from getting overexcited by calling upon a subtype of GABA-A receptors - a discovery which may lead to new treatments for epilepsy and other central nervous system conditions.
GABA-A receptors are targeted by many psychoactive drugs such as benzodiazepines (e.g. valium) which are used to treat anxiety, induce anesthesia in surgery and relieve chronic pain. Although beneficial, these drugs often have unwanted side-effects. We found that regulating the brain's own chemistry using insulin brings about the same beneficial effect of these drugs, suggesting new routes for drug therapies that may have fewer side-effects.