Volume 13:2 (2017)

PDF icon Front Matter Volume 13:2

 

PDF icon La justice : un avenir commun dans un monde divisé Le rôle des juridictions dans la gouvernance mondiale

Guy Canivet 

Abstract: Dans un article publié en 2011, «Équité et justice dans la gouvernance mondiale»1 , Pascal Lamy, alors Directeur général de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC), se demandait comment améliorer la gouvernance de notre monde. Prenant l’exemple de l’évolution du commerce international depuis 60 ans, il observait que les barrières classiques, comme les droits de douane ou les restrictions tarifaires, se sont finalement érodées, mais que subsistent des obstacles mettant en cause les valeurs qui touchent aux questions de justice et d’équité. Et il concluait que, dans sa mission d’accroître les échanges pour faciliter le progrès économique et social et le développement durable, l’OMC devait davantage prendre en compte la justice et l’équité entre pays riches et pays pauvres, entre pays émergents et pays développés.

 

PDF icon How Can the Rule of Law Advance Sustainable Development in a Troubled and Turbulent World?

Irene Kahn

Abstract: Justice Charles Doherty Gonthier is remembered around the world for his commitment to sustainability. As a renowned Canadian jurist, he brought to the notion of legal justice a new perspective of global justice through his championing of sustainable development and fraternity, or solidarity. We recall the legacy of Justice Gonthier on the eve of Canada’s 150th anniversary and at a time when Canada’s longstanding tradition of multilateralism and international solidarity are in ever greater demand. 

 

PDF icon A “New” Developmental State in Africa? Evaluating Recent State Interventions vis-à-vis Resource Extraction in Kenya, Tanzania, and Rwanda

Chilenye Nwapi & Nathan Andrews

Abstract: This article considers development interventions in the extractive resource sector undertaken by three African countries (Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda) to understand how they fit into the “developmental state” framework originally used to explain the miraculous economic development East Asia experienced after World War II. We focus on interventions aimed primarily at enhancing the capacity of a state’s nationals to participate in extractive resource development. Our understanding of a development state is based fundamentally on Mkandawire’s definition: a state “whose ideological underpinnings are developmental and one that seriously attempts to deploy its administrative and political resources to the task of economic development.” However, we also propose that the existence of opportunities for citizen participation in the development process is an essential ingredient of a developmental state. While the state itself sets the policy agenda and coordinates the developmental efforts, it is the citizens themselves who are to generate that development. This view aligns with the idea of a “democratic developmental state” but is apparently inconsistent with Johnson’s original formulation of the developmental state concept. However, we postulate that the developmental state need not be conceptualized exactly according to its original formulation since development itself is not static. That said, the most important thing is the seriousness of the attempts a state makes to develop. After evaluating the seriousness of the attempts Kenya, Tanzania and Rwanda have made to promote development through the adoption of policies and laws intended to enhance local participation in the extractive sector, we argue that there is a significant gap between policy declarations and the actionable steps and/or laws initiated to translate those policies into reality. We conclude, however, that Tanzania and Rwanda fit more properly into the developmental state framework, whereas there are serious doubts as to whether Kenya qualifies as a developmental state

 

PDF icon Farming, Good Neighbours, and Protecting the General Interest in Water Resources: How Effective is the Promise of Sustainable Watershed Management in Quebec?

Mark L. Shepheard 

Abstract: The framework for implementation of sustainable watershed management in Quebec comprises a mix of statutory accountability, compliance with plans, and civil liability. At the centre of this framework is the goal of realizing collective responsibility for the protection and preservation of water now and for future generations. Implementation of this framework to achieve that goal, and the extent to which it enables farmers to deliver sustainable watershed management practices, is a case study in natural resource governance arrangements and sustainable resource management behaviour change. This article reviews governance arrangements for sustainable watershed management in Quebec and presents research on farmer accountability within sustainable watershed systems. The analysis considers the extent to which farmer accountability for protection of water is defined by sustainable watershed management planning processes. Such processes are focussed on strategic imperatives that are not effectively connected with the practice of private rights and interests. With this in mind, I question how effectively accountability for sustainable watershed management translates into practical guidance that enables farmers to manage resources as good neighbours and meet their duty of water protection. Obstacles identified include: a tendency for the National Assembly, regulators, and courts to absolve farmers from liability for environmental harm; the lack of sanctions for non-compliance with a plan; a lack of financial incentives to modify farm practices; and the fact that watershed organizations lack powers to compel participation in the adoption of a plan.

 

PDF icon Case Comment—Urgenda v. The State of the Netherlands: The “Reflex Effect”— Climate Change, Human Rights, and the Expanding Definitions of the Duty of Care

Eleanor Stein & Alex Geert Castermans

 

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