Los desarrollos de vivienda progresiva buscan estimular el proceso de evolución observado en asentamientos informales al proveer condiciones favorables para que éste se produzca. El presente estudio sugiere que en estos ambientes generados, el proceso de evolución de la vivienda ocurre de una manera particular que lo diferencia de procesos similares en otros contextos.
Una evaluación a largo plazo del proceso de evolución de las viviendas fue conducida en "El Gallo", un desarrollo de vivienda progresiva en Ciudad Guayana, Venezuela. La evolución de las viviendas fue observada a través de características del proceso que eran relevantes al caso de estudio. Estas caracteristicas incluyeron cambios en el área de la vivienda, en su estructura espacial y en su estructura funcional. El caso de estudio presentó diferentes niveles de participación del usuario en las etapas iniciales de desarrollo que también fueron considerados en el analisis.
Los resultados demostraron un marcado cambio de la vivienda provisional a la permanente que discrepa con el proceso gradual de substitución de la vivienda provisional característico de los asentamientos informales. Asi mismo, el estudio reveló que la participación del usuario en etapas iniciales de la construcción, y el uso de diseños adaptados a sus necesidades, resultaron en menor nûmero de etapas de evolución y mayor nivele de desarrollo de la vivienda.
Les projects de développement progressifs ont pour but de renforcir le processus d'évolution des habitations, tel qu'observé dans les quartiers informels, en offrant des conditions qui sont favorable au développement des habitations. Cependant, cette étude suggère que dans ces environnements planifiés l'évolution des maisons a presenté des charactéristiques particulières différentes de celles observées dans d'autres contextes.
Cette étude montre le processus évolutif à longue-durée des maisons à El Gallo, un projet de développement progressif à Ciudad Guayana au Vénézuela. L'évolution des maisons a été évalué en observant certains aspects clef du processus du projet évalué. Les observations ont porté sur l'agrandissement de la surface habitable, la structure de l'espace bâti et les changements d'usage des espaces de la maison. Le project évalué a offert différents niveaux de participation aux usagers dans le développement initiale de leurs maisons, ce qui fut considéré parmi les observations.
Dans cette étude des changements drastiques ont été observé entre la maison temporaire et la maison permanente. Ces changements sont différents des changements graduels observés d'habitude dans les quartiers informels. Enfin cette étude révèle que la participation des usagers au début de la construction et l'usage de solutions qui répondent aux besoins des usagers pour les structures permanentes ont produit des maisons avec moins d'étapes d'évolution et avec des développements plus approfondis.
Progressive development projects are aimed at enforcing the process of dwelling evolution which has been observed in informal settlements by providing conditions that are favourable for housing development. This study suggests that, under these created environments, dwelling evolution presented particular characteristics that differentiated it from similar processes in other contexts.
A long-term assessment of the phenomenon of dwelling evolution was conducted at "El Gallo", a progressive development project in Ciudad Guayana, Venezuela. Dwelling evolution was examined by observing aspects of the process that were relevant to the case study. These included changes in the dwelling area, spatial configuration and functional layout. The case study provided different levels of user participation in the early stages of development that were also considered in the analisys.
The findings indicated a marked change from the temporary dwelling to the permanent structure. This process differed from the gradual replacement of initial shacks that is characteristic of informal settlements. The findings also revealed that the early involvement of the user, as well as the utilization of user-responsive designs for the permanent structure, resulted in lesser stages of dwelling evolution and higher degrees of dwelling development.
List of Figures.
List of Tables.
. The Scope.
1.0 Chapter I.
1.1 Dwelling Evolution.
1.1a. Progressive development.
1.1b. Progressive development projects.
1.1c. Dwelling evolution in progressive development projects.
1.2 Progressive Development Projects in Venezuela.
1.2a. The UMUP strategies.
1.2b. General background of Ciudad Guayana.
1.2c. The case study: El Gallo.
1.2d. Initial physical aspects of El Gallo.
. Notes for Chapter I.
2.0 Chapter II. Method.
2.1 Research Questions.
2.2 Sources of Information and Collection of Data.
2.2a. Literature and documentation on Ciudad Guayana.
2.2b. Selection of the case study.16
Interviews with key informants in Ciudad Guayana.
Characteristics of the case study.
2.2c. Initial visits to the site identifying relevant dimensions.
2.2e. Design of interview, interview schedule, field testing and
2.2f. Data collection.
2.2g. Aerial photographs.
2.2h. Archival documents in CVG.
2.3 Strategy of Analysis.
. Notes for Chapter II.
3.0 Chapter III. Data Analysis.
3.1 El Gallo, from 1963 to 1991.
. Selection of participants and land allocation.
. Settling and facilities provision.
. Housing provision and diversity.
3.2 A New Consideration: The User-Participation Level.
3.3 Housing Provision According to Levels of User-Participation:
Selected Case Studies.
3.3a. Formally produced dwellings. No user-participation.
Subgroup A. Units type 1.
Subgroup B. Units type 2.
3.3b. Group C. Formally prescribed dwellings. Limited
3.3c. Group D. Self-produced dwellings. Total user-participation.
3.4 Housing Evolution According to the User-Participation Levels.
. Area increase.
. Changes in the spatial structure.
. Changes in the use-layout.
3.5 Dwelling Evolution at El Gallo.
3.5a. Area increase.
. Group A.
. Group B.
. Group C.
. Group D.
Summary of area increase.
3.5b. Extension of the spatial structure of the dwelling.
Initial structures. The rancho.
. Group A.
. Group B.
. Group C.
. Group D.
Characteristics of added and leftover areas.
. Rear additions and backyards.
. Front additions and front yards.
. Lateral additions and side yards.
. Second-floor additions and internal modifications.
Summary of extensions of the spatial structure of
3.5c. Additions and changes in the use-layout of the dwelling.
. Group A.
. Group B.
. Group C.
. Group D.
Characteristics of added functions.
. Extra bedrooms.
. Kitchen areas.
. Living rooms.
. Dining rooms.
. Laundry areas.
. Commercial premises.
. Rooms for renting.
. Front porches.
. Parking areas.
Summary of additions and changes in the Use-layout.
3.6 Summary of Dwelling Evolution at El Gallo.
. Notes for Chapter III.
4.0 Chapter IV. Summary of Findings.
4.1 Dwelling Evolution at El Gallo.
4.2 Factors that Affected the Process of Progressive Development
at El Gallo.
4.2a Factors inherent to the context.
. Availability of private open space.
. Local regulations.
4.2b Factors inherent to the dwellings.
. The user participation approach.
. The design of the first permanent structure.
4.3 Characteristics of Housing Produced at El Gallo.
. Notes for Chapter IV.
5.0 Chapter V. Conclusions, Interpretation and Discussion.
5.1 Summary of Research.
5.2 Discussion and Interpretation of Findings.
5.3 Significance of the Study.
5.4 Steps for Further Research.
. Notes for Chapter V.
Appendix 1: Surveyed Dwellings.
Appendix 2: Aerial Photographs (1967, 1980, 1987).
List of Figures
Fig. 1 Location of Ciudad Guayana and El Gallo
Fig. 2 El Gallo
Fig. 3 Initial aspects of El Gallo
Fig. 4 Example of Chronology of Dwelling Evolution
Fig. 5 Initial Housing Diversity for El Gallo
Fig. 6 Group A. Formally Produced Dwellings. House #301
Fig. 7 Group B. Formally Produced Dwellings. House #410
Fig. 8 Group C. Formally Prescribed Dwellings. House #92
Fig. 9 Group D. Self-Produced Dwellings. House #178b
Fig. 10 Area Increase of Group A. Formally Produced Dwellings
Fig. 11 Area Increase of Group B. Formally Produced Dwellings
Fig. 12 Area Increase of Group C. Formally Prescribed Dwellings
Fig. 13 Area Increase of Group D. Self-Produced Dwellings
Fig. 14 Area Increase of all Groups
Fig. 15 Rancho of Ciudad Guayana
Fig. 16 Extension of the Spatial Structure of Group A. Formally Produced Dwellings
Fig. 17 Extension of the Spatial Structure of Group B. Formally Produced Dwellings
Fig. 18 Extension of the Spatial Structure of Group C. Formally Prescribed Dwellings
Fig. 19 Extension of the Spatial Structure of Group D. Self-Produced Dwellings
Fig. 20 Rear Additions
Fig. 21 Rear Additions
Fig. 22 Rear Additions
Fig. 23 Backyards
Fig. 24 Front Additions
Fig. 25 Front Additions
Fig. 26 Front Yards
Fig. 27 Lateral Additions
Fig. 28 Lateral Additions
Fig. 29 Side Yards
Fig. 30 Second-Floor additions and Internal Modifications.
Fig. 31 Changes and additions in the Lay-Out of the Dwelling
Fig. 32 Bedrooms
Fig. 33 Kitchens
Fig. 34 Dining Rooms
Fig. 35 Laundry Areas
Fig. 36 Commercial Premises
Fig. 37 Rooms for Renting
Fig. 38 Dwelling #22
Fig. 39 Dwelling #72
Fig. 40 Dwelling #73
Fig. 41 Dwelling #101
Fig. 42 Dwelling #167
Fig. 43 Dwelling #189
Fig. 44 Dwelling #301
Fig. 45 Dwelling #320
Fig. 46 Dwelling #18
Fig. 47 Dwelling #50
Fig. 48 Dwelling #80
Fig. 49 Dwelling #321
Fig. 50 Dwelling #412
Fig. 51 Dwelling #429
Fig. 52 Dwelling #446
Fig. 53 Dwelling #71
Fig. 54 Dwelling #75
Fig. 55 Dwelling #92
Fig. 56 Dwelling #147
Fig. 57 Dwelling #177
Fig. 58 Dwelling #410
Fig. 59 Dwelling #178a
Fig. 60 Dwelling #178b
Fig. 61 Dwelling #180
Fig. 62 Dwelling #226
Fig. 63 Dwelling #226a
Fig. 64 Dwelling #229
Fig. 65 Dwelling #236b
Fig. 66 Dwelling #253
Fig. 67 Dwelling #343
Fig. 68 Dwelling #448
Fig. 69 El Gallo. Surveyed Dwellings
Fig. 70 El Gallo, 1967
Fig. 71 El Gallo, 1980
Fig. 72 El Gallo, 1987
List of Tables
Table 1 Household Characteristics
Table 2 Area Increase of Group A
Table 3 Area Increase of Group B
Table 4 Area Increase of Group C
Table 5 Area Increase of Group D
Table 6 Area Increase of all Groups
Table 7 Additions and Changes in the Use-Layout of the Dwelling
Table 8 Area of Bedrooms
Table 9 Area of Kitchens
Table 10 Area of Living Rooms
Table 11 Area of Dining Rooms
Table 12 Area of Bathrooms
Table 13 Area of Laundry Areas
Table 14 Area of Commercial Premises
Table 15 Area of Rooms for Renting
Table 16 Area of Front Porches
Table 17 Number of Bedrooms per Dwelling Group
I wish to express my gratitude to all of those who offered me their help and assistance during the completion of this thesis.
I owe thanks to the Fundayacucho-Laspau loan program, which provided me with the economic means to pursue graduate studies at McGill University.
I sincerely appreciate the guidance of my Thesis Supervisor Prof. Vikram Bhatt at the School of Architecture, McGill University, for the many hours of patient dedication that helped me clarify, organize and express my ideas.
At the beginning of this thesis and during the field research, many people openly offered their time and assistance. Prof. Lloyd Rodwin at the department of Urban Planning at MIT shared with me his experiences of the Guayana project. This information was very helpful in defining the scope of the research. The people working at the different departments in charge of the development of Ciudad Guayana contributed with their views and perceptions of the city. No detailed or extensive research could have substituted this knowledge. Urban Planner Maria-Nuria De-Césaris, director of the urban planning department of San Felix, included me in her busy schedule helping me to shape the research project and putting me in contact with the neighbourhood associations, and at every moment transmitting her contagious enthusiasm. Architect Rafael Lugo, Architect Fanny Salazar and Geographist Helga Cabañas at the department of urban studies of the Corporación Venezolana de Guayana -CVG-, dedicated many hours describing the characteristics of the city and its development. Sociologist Brigida Kahn shared her experiences on social work at the community center of El Gallo.
I am specially indebted to Cruz Lanz, of the neighbourhood association from El Gallo who day after day accompanied me door to door and introduced me to the families. I am also thankful to the people of El Gallo who received me in their houses and taught me about housing and architecture, and to Ana and Stefano Finco who provided me warm hospitality and friendship in their home during my stay in Ciudad Guayana.
Thanks are also due to the staff members of the library of CVG, the department of Statistics of the CVG, the Computer department, the department of Social Development and the department of Audio-Visual Services which contributedwith the valuable documentation about the creation and development of Ciudad Guayana. I owe special thanks to Mrs. Sunilde Bernal, director of the administrative department of the "Dirección de Cartografía Nacional" of the Venezuelan Ministry of Environment, who kindly helped me obtain all the aerial documentation on Ciudad Guayana within my restricted schedule.
During the preparation of this report I had the luck of counting on several friends that assisted me unconditionally. Tasneem Chowdhury and Jesûs Navarrete always offered constructive criticism to refine my ideas and were of assistance in numerous opportunities. My sister-in-law Eleonora put much effort correcting the different drafts of this report to make the content consistent and coherent. Maurice made the final draft grammatically correct. My sister Patricia spent days of her holidays proof-reading the document.
It would take much longer than these lines to express how grateful I am to my brother Fernando, for his continuous support and encouragement during my entire studies and my life. My mother, though physically distant, always showed her love and support in the times of weakness.
I am indebted to my friends of the Minimum Cost Housing who shared with me this studying experience, Prof. André Casault, Sina Del Rosario, Shaibu Garba, Qing Huang, Norma Angel and María Ortega. My sincere appreciation to Maureen Anderson, for her invaluable help during my studies at McGill.
Finally, I am unable to describe the sensible advise, strong support, candid motivation and companionship that were given by my wife Maricarmen. I dedicate the work behind these pages to her.
Progressive development has been the main component of sponsored housing projects during the last two decades. Based on observations of informal settlements, progressive development is the process by which dwellings evolve, shaped by the changing cultural, social and economic characteristics of the households. The cost-effectiveness and user-suitability of this process and the quality that dwellings eventually reached raised questions about the effectiveness of comparable conventional housing programs. Strategies of progressive development focused their efforts on reproducing the process of dwelling evolution observed in informal settlements under sponsored housing projects.
Progressive development projects aimed at manipulating the adequate housing variables to encourage the user's participation and investment in the housing production. Most of the times, however, rather than duplicating the kind of housing observed in informal settlements, progressive development projects tried to replicate certain aspects of the process, reducing the time and public investment needed for development. This last point was specially true for basic housing strategies such as site and services, which attempted to use only features of the process (i.e, self-help or mutual aid) to build at the pace, standards and even designs proposed by the project. Expectations, however, were that the process of dwelling evolution was similar to that in informal settlements.
This research examines the process of dwelling evolution occurring in a progressive development project over a long-term period. The case study is a 27-year-old project located in Ciudad Guayana, a planned industrial city in the south-eastern region of Venezuela. The purpose is to analyze and understand the process of individual dwelling evolution of the existing housing stock at the settlement of "El Gallo." The study aims to obtain a long-term picture of the process of dwelling development and to document how the housing stock of "El Gallo" was produced. The study reveals priorities of household investment in their dwellings within the context of sponsored progressive developments. The research also extends the knowledge regarding progressive development projects in Venezuela. Ultimately, this study depicts housing as a dynamic and changing entity.
Progressive development projects embrace any kind of housing approach, from upgrading existing settlements to more complete phased housing developments. This study considers progressive development projects that have been planned and implemented on land reserved for housing purposes. The construction of the dwelling in these developments is managed by the user, and it is expected to occur in an incremental way. Site and services and the multiple variations of the approach are part of these kinds of developments. However, since many authors agree that site and services never provide more than core non-finished dwellings, this study also includes developments in which finished basic housing that can be extended is mixed with other types of housing, such as self-help and core housing. The study does not include projects such as upgrading, in which the process of progressive development is already occurring.
In terms of what was observed, the study endeavours to consider aspects of the evolution of dwellings that were documented during this process. Thus, the research limited itself to the study of physical aspects of the evolution of the dwellings. These aspects were observed directly in the field or in the graphic documentation collected for the study. The documentation that supports this work was recorded during the lifetime of the settlement. The material consists of written accounts of the planning and evolution of Ciudad Guayana, aerial photographs of the settlement taken regularly, and a field survey conducted by the author between July and August 1991. The survey collected data on household characteristics and provided detailed information on physical features of the dwelling. Aerial documentation recorded throughout the lifetime of the settlement provided excellent information on the process of dwelling evolution. The written material about Ciudad Guayana is very extensive and multidisciplinary. The diversity of approaches of the collected documentation was most useful to understand the extent of the process of dwelling development within the context of the city.
Chapter one is a literature review, which is divided into three sections. The first section introduces the significance of the process of dwelling evolution in low-income settlements, and how progressive development became a housing strategy for sponsored projects. The problems addressed by the research end the section. The second section reviews selected works that studied the process of dwelling evolution in progressive developments. The third section is an introduction to the case study: El Gallo. The characteristics of the project are described, followed by the geographical, historical and institutional background of the context of the project: the industrial city of Ciudad Guayana. General aspects of the creation, implementation and servicing of El Gallo are also presented.
Chapter two explains the method used to obtain and analyze the information collected by the research. The chapter is divided into three sections. The first section states the research questions of this research. The second section lists and explains the sources of information used in the research, the reasons for choosing El Gallo as a case study and the aspects of dwelling evolution to be considered by the study. The third section explains the strategy used to analyze dwelling evolution at El Gallo.
Chapter three contains the analysis upon which the study was based. Three dimensions of the process of dwelling evolution were observed at El Gallo: area increase, extension of the spatial structure and changes in the functional layout of the dwelling. Area increase was the enlargement of the initial structures by the construction of other structures. Records of area increase gave a picture of the growing process of the house up to what it is today. The extension of the spatial structure was the process produced by alterations to the house plan by the addition of new structures. Patterns of incremental development were drawn from the observations. Finally, changes to the use layout were recorded from uses given to the added structures and the consequent modification of the existing use layout. The relevance of these dimensions to the household was illustrated by the presentation of brief case stories. A concrete analysis of the surveyed sample was then made. A summary of the three dimensions of dwelling evolution at El Gallo concludes the section.
Chapter four is a summary of the findings of the research.
Chapter five concludes the study and is complemented by a discussion of the impact of its findings in the context of low-income housing.
1. "Conventional housing" is understood as the sponsored housing projects which provide a finished, standardized dwelling unit traditionally supported by international and local housing agencies.
2. As expalined by Laquian: "The shelter component of sites-and-services projects may vary. A few projects do not have shelter at all. Most projects, however, have a variety of 'core units,' which might include a wall and a toilet, a kitchen, or even a room" (Laquian, 1983:18).
Van Huyck defines sites and services more precisely by excluding them from any program that provides finished housing: "a variety of proposals come under the title 'sites and services,' the only similarity being that neither type provides complete houses" (Van Huyck 1971:23).