Molecular HPV testing is becoming the new paradigm replacing cytology for cervical cancer screening, thus paving the way for the implementation of HPV testing in self-collected specimens. The Cervical And Self-Sample In Screening (CASSIS) study was launched in 2015 to help determine whether vaginal self-sampling is as effective as physician-collected sampling. The study aimed at validating a self-sampling device to ultimately increase cervical cancer screening coverage to remote areas (e.g., aboriginal populations or urban women who fail to attend screening). This is a first step in providing methods for women to be in charge of their own healthcare, and in providing alternatives to women who cannot easily access healthcare. The CASSIS study resulted in two spin-off studies (MARKER and STAIN-IT) that aim, respectively, to investigate host biomarkers (HPV DNA methylation) and p16/Ki67 dual cytology staining for risk prediction.

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