All required and complementary courses used to fulfil program requirements, including the Freshman program, must be completed with a grade of C or better. If you fail to obtain a satisfactory grade in a required course (core, part of a concentration, minor, major, or honours program), you must repeat the course. Course substitution will be allowed only in special cases; you should consult your academic adviser. Normally, you are permitted to repeat a failed course only once (failure is considered to be a grade of less than C or the administrative failures of J and KF). If the failed course is a complementary course required by the program, you may choose to replace it with another complementary course. If you choose to substitute another complementary course for a complementary course in which a D was received, credit for the first course will still be given, but as an elective. If you repeat a required course in which a D was received, credit will be given only once. In either case, both grades of D count toward the CGPA.