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Major Life Sciences (Biological and Agricultural) (42 credits)

Offered by: Natural Resource Sciences     Degree: Bachelor of Science (Agricultural and Environmental Sciences)

Program Requirements

Revision, August 2011. Start of revision.

The Life Sciences (Biological and Agricultural) Major provides a strong foundation in the basic biological sciences. It will prepare graduates for careers in the agricultural, environmental, health, and biotechnological fields. Graduates with high academic achievement may go on to postgraduate studies in research, or professional programs in the biological, veterinary, medical, and health sciences fields.

Program Director: Professor Brian Driscoll
Academic Adviser: Dr. Julie Major
Macdonald-Stewart Building, Room 2-082
Telephone: 514-398-8380

Program Prerequisites

Please refer to "Faculty Information and Regulations" > "Minimum Credit Requirements", in this publication for prerequisites and minimum credit requirements.

Required Courses (27 credits)

* Other appropriate Statistics courses may be approved as substitutes by the Program Director.

  • AEBI 210 Organisms 1 (3 credits)

    Offered by: Plant Science (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Biology (Agric & Envir Sc) : The biology of plants and plant-based systems in managed and natural terrestrial environments. The interactions between autotrophs and soil organisms and selected groups of animals with close ecological and evolutionary connections with plants (e.g., herbivores and pollinators) will be explored in lecture and laboratory.

    Terms: Fall 2011

    Instructors: Jaswinder Singh (Fall)

    • Restriction(s): Not open to students who have taken PLNT 201 or PLNT 211
    • 2 hour lecture and 3 hour lab
  • AEBI 211 Organisms 2 (3 credits)

    Offered by: Natural Resource Sciences (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Biology (Agric & Envir Sc) : Introduction to the biology, physiology, structure and function of heterotrophs and their interactions with other organisms. This course will focus on animals in terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. Topics include bioenergetics and functional metabolism, adaptations to environments, animal-animal, animal-plant, and animal-pathogen interactions.

    Terms: Winter 2012

    Instructors: David James Lewis (Winter)

    • Winter
    • Restriction: Not open to students who have taken WILD 200
  • AEBI 212 Evolution and Phylogeny (3 credits)

    Offered by: Natural Resource Sciences (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Biology (Agric & Envir Sc) : A phylogenetic-based overview of the tree of life and examination of relationships between major taxa, from bacteria and archaea to eukaryotes. Evolution will be discussed via topics including: evolution by natural selection, neo-Darwinism and alternatives, myths and misconceptions in evolution, species and speciation.

    Terms: Winter 2012

    Instructors: Terry A Wheeler (Winter)

    • Winter
    • Restriction: Not open to students who have taken WILD 212.
  • AEHM 205 Science Literacy (3 credits)

    Offered by: Agricultural & Env.Sc.-Dean (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    English (Agric & Envir Sc) : Development of English language and information literacy. Problem-based approach using science topics from specializations offered by the Faculty will be central to skill development. The course includes how to research and compose work in scientific format and will encourage a reader-oriented style.

    Terms: Fall 2011, Winter 2012, Summer 2012

    Instructors: Carole Newman, Natalie Heather Waters (Fall) Carole Newman, Natalie Heather Waters (Winter) Carole Newman, Natalie Heather Waters (Summer)

    • Students whose first language is not English are encouraged to register for CESL 299, ESL: Academic English Seminar, or equivalent, prior to starting their program.
  • AEMA 310 Statistical Methods 1 (3 credits) *

    Offered by: Plant Science (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Mathematics (Agric&Envir Sci) : Measures of central tendency and dispersion; binomial and Poisson distributions; normal, chi-square, Student's t and Fisher-Snedecor F distributions; estimation and hypothesis testing; simple linear regression and correlation; analysis of variance for simple experimental designs.

    Terms: Fall 2011, Winter 2012

    Instructors: Pierre R L Dutilleul, Kelly Ann Bona (Fall) Pierre R L Dutilleul (Winter)

    • Two 1.5-hour lectures and one 2-hour lab
  • LSCI 202 Molecular Cell Biology (3 credits)

    Offered by: Parasitology (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Life Sciences : Organization and function of intracellular organelles in eukaryotic cells. Mechanisms of membrane transport. Protein sorting and vesicular transport. Cytoskeleton. DNA and chromosome structure. DNA replication. Mechanisms of RNA and protein synthesis. Control of gene expression. Cell cycle and the control of cell division. Mechanisms of cell communication and signal transduction. Apoptosis. Neuronal signaling.

    Terms: Winter 2012

    Instructors: A Paula Ribeiro, Robin N Beech (Winter)

    • Prerequisites: FDSC 211 or LSCI 211
    • Restriction(s): Not open to students who have taken AEBI 202
  • LSCI 204 Genetics (3 credits)

    Offered by: Plant Science (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Life Sciences : The course integrates classical, molecular and population genetics of animals, plants, bacteria and viruses. The aim is to understand the flow of genetic information within a cell, within families and in populations. Emphasis will be placed on problem solving based learning. The laboratory exercises will emphasize the interpretation of genetic experimental data.

    Terms: Winter 2012

    Instructors: Jean-Benoit Charron (Winter)

    • Restriction: Not open to students who have taken CELL 204.
    • Pre- or Co-requisite: FDSC 211 or LSCI 211
  • LSCI 211 Biochemistry 1 (3 credits)

    Offered by: Parasitology (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Life Sciences : Biochemistry of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids; enzymes and coenzymes. Introduction to intermediary metabolism.

    Terms: Fall 2011, Winter 2012

    Instructors: Elias Georges, Armando Jardim, Reza Salavati (Fall) Armando Jardim, Elias Georges, Reza Salavati (Winter)

    • Restriction(s): Not open to students who have taken FDSC 211
    • Co-requisite: FDSC 230
  • LSCI 230 Introductory Microbiology (3 credits)

    Offered by: Natural Resource Sciences (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Life Sciences : The occurrence and importance of microorganisms (especially bacteria) in the biosphere. Principles governing growth, death and metabolic activities of microorganisms. An introduction to the microbiology of soil, water, plants, food, man and animals.

    Terms: Winter 2012

    Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 2011-2012 academic year.

    • Winter
    • Restriction: Not open to students who have taken MICR 230.

Complementary Courses (15 credits)

15 credits of the complementary courses selected from:

  • AEHM 330 Academic and Scientific Writing (3 credits)

    Offered by: Agricultural & Env.Sc.-Dean (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    English (Agric & Envir Sc) : The object of the course is to enable students who have previously mastered the basic elements of written English to produce well-written, well-researched, and well-documented scientific papers for an academic audience.

    Terms: Fall 2011, Winter 2012

    Instructors: Carole Newman (Fall) Carole Newman (Winter)

    • 3 hours
    • Prerequisite: entrance test.
  • ANSC 234 Biochemistry 2 (3 credits)

    Offered by: Animal Science (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Animal Science : Metabolism in humans and domestic animals. The chemistry of alimentary digestion, absorption, transport, intermediary metabolism and excretion.

    Terms: Winter 2012

    Instructors: Deborah Martin, Raj Duggavathi (Winter)

    • Winter
    • 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab
    • Prerequisite: FDSC 211 or LSCI 211
  • ANSC 250 Principles of Animal Science (3 credits)

    Offered by: Animal Science (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Animal Science : Introduction to the scientific principles underlying the livestock and poultry industries. Emphasis will be placed on the breeding, physiology and nutrition of animals raised for the production of food and fibre.

    Terms: Fall 2011

    Instructors: Kevin Wade (Fall)

    • Fall
    • 3 lectures and one 2-hour lab
  • ANSC 312 Animal Health and Disease (3 credits)

    Offered by: Animal Science (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Animal Science : An introduction to the pathogenesis and control of diseases in farm animals. Immune response and other protective mechanisms. Implications of animal diseases and drug therapy for product safety and public health.

    Terms: Winter 2012

    Instructors: Vilceu Bordignon (Winter)

    • Winter
    • 3 lectures and one 2-hour conference
  • ANSC 323 Mammalian Physiology (3 credits)

    Offered by: Animal Science (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Animal Science : A study of the organization, functions and regulation of various organ systems in mammals. The nervous, endocrine, muscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, urinary, digestive and reproductive systems are discussed.

    Terms: Fall 2011

    Instructors: Denyse Laurin, Sarah Kimmins (Fall)

    • Fall
    • 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab
    • Prerequisite: AEBI 202 or LSCI 202 or permission of instructor
    • This course carries an additional charge of $15 to cover the cost of a colour printed lab exercise book. The fee is refundable only during the withdrawal with full refund period.
  • ANSC 324 Developmental Biology and Reproduction (3 credits)

    Offered by: Animal Science (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Animal Science : Focus on the hormonal, cellular and molecular aspects of reproduction and development (gametogenesis, folliculogenesis, fertilization, embryonic and foetal development, parturition, lactation period, periods before and after puberty). Emphasis on underlying cellular mechanisms and their regulation by hormones and the environment.

    Terms: Winter 2012

    Instructors: Sarah Kimmins, Xin Zhao (Winter)

    • Winter
    • 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab
    • Prerequisites: FDSC 211 or LSCI 211, and ANSC 323
  • ANSC 326 Fundamentals of Population Genetics (3 credits)

    Offered by: Animal Science (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Animal Science : Population genetics mechanisms in mammals, birds and plant. Factors influencing gene, genotype, and phenotypic frequencies. Effects of different types of selection, Hardy-Weinberg, linkage and recombination, polymorphisms and heterozygosity, population size, random drift and inbreeding on gene and genotype frequencies. Relationship between quantitative genetic parameters and gene frequencies.

    Terms: Fall 2011

    Instructors: Roger I Cue (Fall)

    • Fall
    • Prerequisites: AEMA 310 or equivalent or permission of instructor and CELL 204 or LSCI 204 or equivalent or permission of instructor.
  • ANSC 330 Fundamentals of Nutrition (3 credits)

    Offered by: Animal Science (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Animal Science : A discussion of the nutrients; water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, minerals and vitamins, with particular emphasis on their functions in and essentially for the animal organism.

    Terms: Fall 2011

    Instructors: Arif Mustafa (Fall)

    • Fall
    • 3 lectures
    • Prerequisite(s): FDSC 211 or LSCI 211 and ANSC 234 (ANSC 234 pre-req applies to students in B.Sc. Nutritional Sciences only).
  • ANSC 400 Eukaryotic Cells and Viruses (3 credits)

    Offered by: Animal Science (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Animal Science : The basic principles of molecular biology and the underlying molecular basis for various methodologies in molecular biology are covered. The molecular genetic basis for viral infections and tumorigenesis will be covered as examples of the use of molecular genetic approaches to address biological problems.

    Terms: Winter 2012

    Instructors: David Zadworny (Winter)

    • Winter
    • Prerequisites: CELL 204 or LSCI 204
    • Restrictions: Not open to students who have taken PARA 400
  • ANSC 420 Animal Biotechnology (3 credits)

    Offered by: Animal Science (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Animal Science : Applications of animal biotechnology in agriculture, biomedicine and environmental preservation, including culture, manipulation and transformation of somatic cells, isolation of stem cells, reproductive biotechnologies, animal cloning by nuclear transplantation, production of transgenic animals, and cell and gene therapies.

    Terms: Fall 2011

    Instructors: Vilceu Bordignon (Fall)

    • Fall
    • Prerequisites: AEBI 202 or LSCI 202 and MICR 230 or LSCI 230
  • BINF 301 Introduction to Bioinformatics (3 credits)

    Offered by: Parasitology (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Bioinformatics : Introduces analysis of DNA, RNA and protein sequences using computer software. Emphasis on implementation of molecular evolution theory for algorithms to make predictions of sequence function and infer the evolutionary history of sequences. Assessing analysis reliability and methods to improve efficiency of computer algorithms and their implications are discussed.

    Terms: Winter 2012

    Instructors: Robin N Beech (Winter)

    • Prerequisite(s): LSCI 202 or LSCI 204, and ANSC 326
    • Restriction: Not open to students who have taken BTEC 501.
  • BINF 511 Bioinformatics for Genomics (3 credits)

    Offered by: Plant Science (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Bioinformatics : Bioinformatics methods and reasoning in relation to genomics, proteomics and metabolomics strategies with an emphasis on functional genomics data. The course will cover introduction to UNIX, Perl programming, data processing and integration, file parsing, relational database design and implementation, angled towards solutions relevant for genomics.

    Terms: Winter 2012

    Instructors: Martina Stromvik (Winter)

    • Prerequisite: Understanding of cell and molecular biology (equivalent to a cell or molecular biology course) or permission from instructor.
  • BTEC 306 Experiments in Biotechnology (3 credits)

    Offered by: Plant Science (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Biotechnology : Practical laboratory-based research experience. Techniques in cellular and molecular biology, designing experiments and developing skills in interpretation and communication of experimental results.

    Terms: Fall 2011

    Instructors: Jean-Benoit Charron (Fall)

    • Fall
    • Prerequisites: AEBI 202 or LSCI 202 and CELL 204 or LSCI 204 or permission of instructor.
    • Restriction: Not open to students who have taken AEBI 306.
  • ENVB 210 The Biophysical Environment (3 credits)

    Offered by: Natural Resource Sciences (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Environmental Biology : With reference to the ecosystems in the St Lawrence lowlands, the principles and processes governing climate-landform-water-soil-vegetation systems and their interactions will be examined in lecture and laboratory. Emphasis on the natural environment as an integrated system.

    Terms: Fall 2011

    Instructors: Caroline B Begg (Fall)

    • Fall
    • Restriction: Not open to students who have taken SOIL 210
  • ENVB 222 St. Lawrence Ecosystems (3 credits)

    Offered by: Natural Resource Sciences (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Environmental Biology : Integrative field course about the biological diversity and ecology of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems within St Lawrence lowlands and adjacent realms. Natural history and systematics of regional flora and fauna and interactions between organisms and their physical environment. Fundamentals of ecosystem and landscape ecology.

    Terms: Fall 2011

    Instructors: Christopher Buddle (Fall)

    • Fall
    • This course carries an additional charge of $15 to cover the cost of transportation (bus rental) for local field trips. The fee is refundable only during the withdrawal with full refund period.
  • LSCI 451 Research Project 1 (3 credits)

    Offered by: Natural Resource Sciences (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Life Sciences : A research project on a topic relevant to the life sciences. This course is intended for senior undergraduates.

    Terms: Fall 2011, Winter 2012

    Instructors: Brian T Driscoll, Lyle Whyte (Fall) Brian T Driscoll, Lyle Whyte (Winter)

    • Fall and Winter
    • Prerequisites: AEHM 205 and permission of instructor. Minimum 3.0 CGPA
    • Restriction: Not open to students who have taken AEBI 451.
    • Enrolment is limited by availability of research project supervisors and to students in the Life Sciences (Biological and Agricultural) Major. Students should make arrangements with a willing supervisor, and the proposed supervisor and project are subject to approval. Recommended for students in their final year (U3).
  • LSCI 452 Research Project 2 (3 credits)

    Offered by: Natural Resource Sciences (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Life Sciences : Continuation of the project begun in LSCI 451 on a topic relevant to the life sciences.

    Terms: Fall 2011, Winter 2012

    Instructors: Brian T Driscoll, Lyle Whyte (Fall) Brian T Driscoll, Lyle Whyte (Winter)

    • Fall and Winter
    • Prerequisite: LSCI 451
    • Restrictions: Enrolment is limited by availability of research project supervisors and to students in the Life Sciences (Biological and Agricultural) Major. Students should make arrangements with a supervisor; the proposed supervisor and project are subject to approval. Not open to students who have taken AEBI 452.
  • MICR 331 Microbial Ecology (3 credits)

    Offered by: Natural Resource Sciences (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Microbiology (Agric&Envir Sc) : The ecology of microorganisms, primarily bacteria and archaea, and their roles in biogeochemical cycles will be discussed. Microbial interactions with the environment, plants, animals and other microbes emphasizing the underlying genetics and physiology. Diversity, evolution (microbial phylogenetics) and the application of molecular biology in microbial ecology.

    Terms: Winter 2012

    Instructors: Brian T Driscoll (Winter)

    • Winter
    • Restriction: Not open to students who have successfully completed NRSC 331
  • MICR 338 Bacterial Molecular Genetics (3 credits)

    Offered by: Natural Resource Sciences (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Microbiology (Agric&Envir Sc) : Basic bacterial genetics, DNA damage and repair, mutagenesis, gene cloning, mapping and regulation, molecular biology. Laboratory sessions will provide the student with practical experience in the genetic manipulation of microbes and in molecular biology techniques.

    Terms: This course is not scheduled for the 2011-2012 academic year.

    Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 2011-2012 academic year.

    • Fall
    • Prerequisites: FDSC 211 or LSCI 211 and CELL 204 or LSCI 204
    • Restriction: Not open to students who have successfully completed NRSC 338.
  • MICR 341 Mechanisms of Pathogenicity (3 credits)

    Offered by: Natural Resource Sciences (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Microbiology (Agric&Envir Sc) : A study of the means by which bacteria cause disease in animals and humans. Includes response of host to invading bacteria, bacterial attachment and penetration processes, and modes of actions of exotoxins and endotoxins.

    Terms: Fall 2011

    Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 2011-2012 academic year.

    • Fall
    • 3 lectures, one 3-hour lab
    • Prerequisite: MICR 230 or LSCI 230
  • MICR 450 Environmental Microbiology (3 credits)

    Offered by: Natural Resource Sciences (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Microbiology (Agric&Envir Sc) : Focus on microbes in the environment. Topics include extreme environments, polar microbiology, biotechnology and bioremediation. Emphasis will be on population studies based upon molecular biological methods.

    Terms: This course is not scheduled for the 2011-2012 academic year.

    Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 2011-2012 academic year.

    • Winter
    • Prerequisites: MICR 230 or LSCI 230
  • NRSC 333 Pollution and Bioremediation (3 credits)

    Offered by: Natural Resource Sciences (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Natural Resource Sciences : The environmental contaminants which cause pollution; sources, amounts and transport of pollutants in water, air and soil; waste management.

    Terms: Fall 2011

    Instructors: Lyle Whyte, William H Hendershot, Dina Schwertfeger (Fall)

    • Fall
    • 3 lectures
    • Restriction: Not open to students who have taken WILD 333
  • PARA 410 Environment and Infection (3 credits)

    Offered by: Parasitology (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Parasitology : Infectious pathogens of humans and animals and their impact on the global environment are considered. The central tenet is that infectious pathogens are environmental risk factors. The course considers their impact on the human condition and juxtaposes the impact of control and treatment measures and environmental change.

    Terms: Winter 2012

    Instructors: Marilyn Scott (Winter)

    • 2 lectures per week
    • Prerequisite: BIOL 111 or AEBI 120 or equivalent
  • PLNT 304 Biology of Fungi (3 credits)

    Offered by: Plant Science (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Plant Science : This course describes the various groups of fungi and explores in depth their biology and physiology, their ecological niches and the role in various ecosystems and their benefits and uses in industry and biotechnology.

    Terms: Winter 2012

    Instructors: Suha Jabaji (Winter)

    • 3 lectures and one 3-hour lab
  • PLNT 353 Plant Structure and Function (3 credits)

    Offered by: Plant Science (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Plant Science : The general anatomy and physiology of vascular plants with emphasis on the cells, tissues, organs, chemical components of plants and the physiological processes associated with their function.

    Terms: Winter 2012

    Instructors: Jacqueline Bede (Winter)

    • Fall
    • 2 lectures and one 3-hour lab
    • Prerequisites: PLNT 201 or AEBI 210 and FDSC 211 or LSCI 211
  • PLNT 424 Cellular Regulation (3 credits)

    Offered by: Plant Science (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Plant Science : An overview of the cellular mechanisms used by prokaryotes and eukaryotes to regulate biosynthetic pathways. Topics covered range from control of gene transcription to the regulation of enzyme activity to the role of signal transduction pathways in the control of metabolic flux through cellular pathways.

    Terms: This course is not scheduled for the 2011-2012 academic year.

    Instructors: There are no professors associated with this course for the 2011-2012 academic year.

    • Prerequisites: FDSC 211 or LSCI 211, AEBI 202 or LSCI 202 or permission of the instructor.
  • PLNT 426 Plant Ecophysiology (3 credits)

    Offered by: Plant Science (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Plant Science : Investigates of the complex interactions between plants and their environment, focusing on the mechanisms underlying plant physiological processes. Plasticity of plants to their ecological environment; topics include phytoremediation, plant stress responses, plant-symbiosis and plant-insect interactions.

    Terms: Winter 2012

    Instructors: Jacqueline Bede (Winter)

    • Prerequisites: AEBI 210 and LSCI 204 or permission of instructors
  • PLNT 435 Plant Breeding (3 credits)

    Offered by: Plant Science (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Plant Science : Principles and practices of plant breeding, including reproduction of crop plants; plant hybridization; sources of genetic variation; selection methods used for self- and cross-pollinated crops and for clonally reproduced crops; breeding for diseases and pest resistance; applications of biotechnology in plant breeding.

    Terms: Winter 2012

    Instructors: Jaswinder Singh (Winter)

    • Winter
    • Prerequisites: PLNT 201 or AEBI 210 and CELL 204 or LSCI 204
    • Restriction: Not open to students who have taken PLNT 535.
  • WILD 375 Issues: Environmental Sciences (3 credits)

    Offered by: Natural Resource Sciences (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Resource Development : Principles and trends in global ecology as they pertain to agricultural and natural ecosystems and the impact of environmental change on food production.

    Terms: Winter 2012

    Instructors: David James Lewis (Winter)

    • Winter
    • 3 lectures
  • WILD 424 Parasitology (3 credits)

    Offered by: Parasitology (Agricultural & Environmental Sciences)

    Overview

    Resource Development : Systematics, morphology, biology and ecology of parasitic protozoa, flatworms, roundworms and arthropods with emphasis on economically and medically important species.

    Terms: Winter 2012

    Instructors: Petra Rohrbach (Winter)

    • Winter
    • 2 lectures and one 3-hour lab
    • Restriction: Not open to students who have taken WILD 424 (formerly ZOOL 424).

Specialization

At least one specialization of 18-24 credits from:

Specializations designed to be taken with the Life Sciences (Biological and Agricultural) Major:

- Animal Biology
- Animal Health and Disease
- Life Sciences (Multidisciplinary)
- Microbiology and Molecular Biotechnology

Note: For a complete list of specializations offered for students in the Bachelor of Science in Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, please refer to "Academic Programs" > "Bachelor of Science (Agricultural and Environmental Sciences) - B.Sc.(Ag.Env.Sc.)" > "Specializations", in this publication.

Electives

To meet the minimum credit requirement for the degree.

Revision, August 2011. End of revision.

Faculty of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences—2011-2012 (last updated Aug. 18, 2011) (disclaimer)