There are several reasons why Universal Design is the model most Higher Education Disability service providers in North America are turning to. These include the need to manage resources of rapidly expanding service demands, building a more sustainable model of service provision, responding to the increasing complexity and diversity of diagnostic labels, its use of inclusive practices, and its foundation on a social model of disability.
Resource Management is an imperative all Disability service providers are having to address proactively. With the number of users exploding in an unprecedented way, the traditional “accommodation approach” begins to be inadequate. The image below indicates the change in demographics at the OSD in recent years. This pattern is characteristic of the change experienced by most post-secondary institutions.
The traditional “accommodations” approach to disability is an ad hoc process of retrofitting, repeated each semester, for each course, for each individual student making a request. The process in itself is a non-renewable use of resources and does not conform to McGill’s objectives in terms of sustainable development (Vision 2020). Universal Design, by focusing on modification to the environment, constitutes a sustainable approach to the management of the diverse needs of learners.
Complexity and diversity of diagnostic labels
The complexity and diversity of diagnostic labels makes “retrofitting” in the traditional way somewhat obsolete. Disabilities are increasingly varied and often “invisible” (Mental health issues, Learning Disabilities, Autism Spectrum Disorder, AD/HD). The assumption therefore that a Disability service provider unit might have the “answers” when addressing access to learning has had to be revisited. The pie chart below indicates the variety of conditions recorded in the OSD’s user base in 2010/11.
Most students reaching Higher Education have benefited from inclusive practices throughout their secondary education. The students have clear expectations with regards to inclusion. The idea of self-identifying, disclosing a diagnosis or requesting services outside of the class is foreign and unappealing to them. The Universal Design Model enables Higher Ed campuses to meet the inclusion expectations of the millennium learner.
The clinical lens is less and less applied to the Disabilities field. The social model is increasingly the framework adopted when addressing access. Within this perspective, a distinction is made between impairment which is a characteristic of the individual and a disabling situation which is the result of poor planning or inadequate design. For a more detailed explanation of the distinction between impairment and Disability, we recommend a short video which explains the social model in a nutshell.
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Judith Butler - Examined Life
General principles of Universal Design
Universal Design is therefore a framework which is increasingly appealing as it allows for legal imperatives surrounding access to be addressed on learners at large. Design and conception are the focus, rather than the individual or any specific impairment. Universal Design is originally and historically an architectural framework which includes 7 principles.
- PRINCIPLE ONE: Equitable Use
- The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities.
- PRINCIPLE TWO: Flexibility in Use
- The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities.
- PRINCIPLE THREE: Simple and Intuitive Use
- Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user’s experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level.
- PRINCIPLE FOUR: Perceptible Information
- The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user’s sensory abilities.
- PRINCIPLE FIVE: Tolerance for Error
- The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions.
- PRINCIPLE SIX: Low Physical Effort
- The design can be used efficiently and comfortably and with a minimum of fatigue.
- PRINCIPLE SEVEN: Size and Space for Approach and Use
- Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user’s body size, posture, or mobility.
Universal Design for Learning
Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a teaching approach which considers how curriculum, instruction and assessment can meet the learning needs of the greatest number and diversity of students while maintaining academic rigour. UDL encourages multiple means of representation, expression and engagement at all levels of the course; be it instruction, resources or evaluation. Our faculty page has more information specific to UD in the classroom.
Copyright CAST 2008
Exploring Universal Design
If you wish to learn more about the social model of Disability and Universal Design, and how they can be more specifically applied to the campus environment, several options are available to you: (i) we offer a UD workshop for students; (ii) SEDE/TLS workshops (Disability, Access and Universal Design) are available to McGill employee and Graduate Students, (iii) tailor-made workshops are available to faculty on request.