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Glossary of Maritime Law Terms, 2nd Ed., 2004

By William Tetley, Q.C.
Updated Weekly
(Not to be used without permission and attribution
Email: william [dot] tetley [at] mcgill [dot] ca


©William Tetley

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Professor of Law, McGill University; counsel to Langlois, Gaudreau & O'Connor. The author acknowledges with thanks the assistance of rwilkins [at] blgcanada [dot] com (Robert C. Wilkins), B.A., B.C.L., in the preparation and correction of this Glossary. An early version of the Glossary appeared in 1997 European Transport Law at pp. 275-339. The first edition was published in 2000.

Some of the terms listed in this Glossary have also been provided in Arabic. See Arabic Glossary .


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A.A.A. - The American Arbitration Association. Corporate Headquarters and Customer Service Centre, Email: Websitemail [at] adr [dot] org. International Center for Dispute Resolution, Email: AppelM [at] adr [dot] org (mailto:AppelM [at] adr [dot] org) Website: http://www.adr.org/

A.A.A. - See Association of Average Adjusters (infra).

Abandonment [Fr.: "délaissement"] [Span.: "abandono"] [Ital.: "abbandono"] [Gr.: "Abandonnierung"; "Aufgabe eines Rechtsanspruches"] - Abandonment is the giving up by the insured of the proprietary rights in insured property to the underwriter in consideration for payment of a constructive total loss (infra) or an actual total loss (infra). See Marine Insurance Act, 1906 (U.K.) sects. 61-63; see also Notice of abandonment (infra). See Tetley, Int'l M. & A. L., 2003 at p.612.

Abandonment ("abandon") is also the ancient principle of a shipowner having responsibility only up to the value of the ship and freight (infra) (but calculated after the collision (infra)). The principle was found in the 1924 Shipowners' Limitation Convention and is still found in the U.S. Shipowners' Limitation of Liability Act, 1851, 46 U.S. Code 30505(a) (formerly 46 U.S. Code Appx. 183). See Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 510-511, 517-518; Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 109-110; Tetley, Int'l. M & A. L., 2003 at pp. 20-21.

Abbott, Charles (Lord Tenterden) - A Treatise on the Law relative to Merchant Ships and Seamen, 1 Ed., 1802, London and 14 Ed.(B. Aspinall & H.S. Moore, eds.), 1901, Shaw, London.

Abecassis, D.W. - Marine Oil Pollution: the International Legal Regime relating to the Prevention of Marine-based Oil Pollution, 1976, University of Cambridge Department of Land Economy, Cambridge.

"Abus de droit" - [Span.: "abuso de derecho"] [Ital.: "abuso di diritto"] [Gr.: "Rechtsmißbrauch"]- A civil law principle of abuse of right due to a flagrant act of a creditor or the possessor of a thing. See Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at p. 675; Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at Chap. 28, pp. 1053-1089; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 54.

Acevedo, C.B. & Días, A.D. - Derecho del Transporte (2 vols.), 2002, Editorial Libromar Ltda., Valparaiso, Chile.

"Acta jure gestionis" - "Acts by right of management". Activities of a commercial nature carried out by a foreign State or one of its subdivisions or agencies, which acts are not immune from the jurisdiction (infra) and process of local courts under the modern doctrine of restrictive foreign sovereign immunity (infra). See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 1163 and 1184; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 441.

"Acta jure imperii" - "Acts by right of dominion". Activities of a governmental or public nature carried out by a foreign State or one of its subdivisions, which qualify for State immunity under the modern doctrine of restrictive foreign sovereign immunity (infra). See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 1163 and 1184; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 441.

Action in personam - See Writ in personam, infra.

Action in rem - See Writ in rem, infra.

Actual fault or privity [Fr.: "faute ou complicité réelle"] [Span.:"falta o complicidad real"] [Ital.: "colpa o connivenza reale"] [Gr.: "tatsächliches Verschulden"] - A faulty act or omission of a party, or his knowledge of or complicity with the faulty act or omission of another for whose conduct he is responsible. Under the Hague and Hague/Visby Rules (infra), the carrier (infra) wishing to avail himself of the exception from liability provided by art. 4(2)(q) must prove that the loss or damage has occurred without his actual fault or privity or the fault or neglect of his servants or agents. See also COGSA (see infra) s. 4(2)(q) (46 U.S. Code Appx. 1304). (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 1225-1243) Similarly, under the International Convention Relating to the Limitation of the Liability of Owners of Seagoing Ships of Oct. 20, 1957 (the Limitation Convention 1957, infra) art. 1(1), and national legislation based on that Convention, the owner of a seagoing ship may limit his liability in respect of certain claims, "unless the occurrence giving rise to the claim resulted from [his] actual fault or privity". The equivalent term in the American Shipowners' Limitation of Liability Act of 1851 is "privity or knowledge" (infra). See 46 U.S. Code 30505(b) (formerly 46 U.S. Code 183(a). See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 511, 517; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 284-286.

Actual Total Loss [Fr.: "perte totale réelle" or "perte totale et réelle"] [Span.: "pérdida total real"] [Ital.: "perdita totale reale"] [Gr.: "tatsächlicher Totalschaden"] - An actual total loss occurs when:
(1) the insured property is completely destroyed; or
(2) the assured is irretrievably deprived of the insured property; or
(3) cargo changes in character so that it is no longer the thing that was insured (e.g. cement becomes concrete); or
(4) a ship is posted "missing" at Lloyd's, in which case both the ship and its cargo are deemed to be an actual total loss.
See Marine Insurance Act, 1906 (U.K.) sect. 57. See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 606-606.

"Ad Valorem" - "according to value". For example, an ad valorem freight rate is one based on the value of the cargo, rather than on its weight or its cubic measurement.

Admiralty and Maritime Law Guide - An American website featuring annotated links to U.S. admiralty case digests, opinions and international maritime conventions. Website: http://www.admiraltylawguide.com/

AdmiraltyLaw.com- A Canadian maritime and admiralty law website, with many links to other sites, maintained by Chris Giaschi of Giaschi & Margolis, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Website: http://www.admiraltylaw.com/.

"ADMIRALTYPROFS"- An Email subscription list for professors of admiralty and maritime law and others interested in the discipline, including practicing lawyers and those studying or participating in shipborne transportation and commerce, the law of the sea, the exploitation or conservation of marine resources, and marine archaeology. Contact: John Paul Jones, The T.C. Williams School of Law, University of Richmond, Richmond, Virginia 23173, U.S.A. Tel.: (804) 289-8211; fax: (804) 289-8683. Email: jjones [at] richmond [dot] edu.

Admiralty Solicitors Group - The City of London Admiralty Solicitors Group (generally known as the "Admiralty Solicitors Group") is an organization devoted to promoting high standards in the practice of maritime law in London and to promoting the arbitration and mediation of maritime law disputes there. It also publishes various standard-form documents used by maritime law practitioners, particularly in collision and salvage cases. Website: http://www.admiraltysolicitorsgroup.com/main.htm.

Affreightment [Fr.: "affrètement"] [Span.: "fletamento"] [Ital.: "noleggio"] [Gr.:"Seefrachtgeschäft"] - In civil law jurisdictions, "affreightment" refers to a contract for the chartering of a ship or some principal part of it. In England, the term is used to refer to the contract for the carriage of goods in a ship, either under a bill of lading (infra) or a charterparty (infra). (Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at p. 248 note 7; Tetley, Int'l M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 128 note 28).

Allision- Allision is a primarily American term for collision (infra) of a ship with a fixed object, not a ship. See In re Superior Constr. Co., 445 F.3d 1334 at 1336, note 1, 2006 AMC 1038 at p. 1039, note 1 (11 Cir. 2006).

AMAC - See Association of Maritime Arbitrators of Canada (infra).

AMC- American Maritime Cases, Baltimore, Maryland. Maritime law decisions of American federal and state courts since 1923. An example of a citation for a District Court is 1970 AMC 123 (S.D. Fla. 1969), for the Court of Appeals is 1986 AMC 1130 (2 Cir. 1985) and for the U.S. Supreme Court is 1953 AMC 1210 (U.S.). Address: Mr. Marty Kappert, American Maritime Cases, Inc., 3600 Clipper Mill Road, Suite 208, Baltimore, MD, 21211, U.S.A. Tel: (410)-243-2426; Fax: (410)-243-2427. Email: amcrptr [at] mindspring [dot] com. Website: http://www.americanmaritimecases.com/.

Ambrose, C. & Maxwell, K., London Maritime Arbitration, 2 Ed., 2002, LLP, London.

American Maritime Cases - See AMC (supra).

American Rule - The general rule of American practice which precludes inclusion of attorney's fees in court costs. The American Rule dates back to the American Revolution, when, in the name of basic freedom, the revolutionaries reacted against the British practice of including generous barrister's and solicitor's fees in court costs. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 234-235.

"Amiables compositeurs" [Span.: "amigables componedores"] [Ital.: "compositori amichevoli"] [Gr.: "Schiedsrichter"] - Clauses in arbitration (infra) agreements allowing the arbitrators to act as "amiables compositeurs" permit the arbitrators to decide the dispute according to the legal principles they believe to be just, without being limited to any particular national law. The resulting arbitral awards are frequently based on equity (infra) or on the lex mercatoria (infra), the arbitrators being authorized, as "amiables compositeurs", to disregard legal technicalities and strict constructions which they would be required to apply in their decisions if the arbitration agreement contained no "amiable compositeur" clause. "Amiable compositeur" clauses in arbitration agreements are expressly permitted by art. 28(3) of the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration 1985 (infra), as well as in both domestic and international arbitration by the New Code of Civil Procedure (France), arts. 1474 and 1495, and the Québec Code of Civil Procedure, art. 944.10. In common law jurisdictions, conversely, "equity clauses" of any sort are often regarded as suspect. See Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 160, 414; Tetley, "The General Maritime Law - The Lex Maritima" (1994) 20 Syracuse J. Int. L. & Comm. 105-145 at pp. 137-138; reprinted in [1996] ETL 469-506 at pp. 499-500.

Anand, R.P. - Origin and Development of the Law of the Sea, 1982, Nijhoff, The Hague and Boston.

Anderson, Philip - ISM Code: A Guide to the Legal and Insurance Implications, 2nd edition, 2005, Informa Publishing, London.

Anti-fouling Systems (AFS) Convention 2001 - The International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, adopted by the IMO (infra) on October 5, 2001, and in force 17 September 2008.

Anti-suit injunction - An extraordinary procedure where a court issues an order to the effect that proceedings in a second jurisdiction should not proceed. The injunction is usually 1) based on the principle of forum non conveniens (infra); and requires 2) that the first court is more convenient to the parties; 3) a motion of forum non conveniens has been made in the second jurisdiction and has failed; and 4) that the complainant will not be unduly disadvantaged by proceeding in the first jurisdiction. Examples of the injunction are cases where real (immoveable) property in the first jurisdiction is involved or where there is a jurisdiction clause or arbitration clause calling for proceedings in the first jurisdiction or where a law of the first jurisdiction specifically forbids suit on a certain subject, e.g. claims for damages caused by asbestos produced in the first jurisdiction. See Amchem Products v. B.C. Workers Compensation Board [1993] 1 S.C.R. 897, (1993) 102 D.L.R. (4th) 96; Opron Inc. v. Aero Systems Engineering, [1999] R.J.Q. 757 (Quebec Superior Court); Donohue v. Armco Inc. [2002] 1 Lloyd's Rep. 425 (H.L.). See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 414-415. The Court of Justice of the European Communities, in Turner v. Grovit [2004] 2 Lloyd's 169 (E.C.J.), Case No. C159/02, held that the Brussels Convention 1968 on Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters is to be interpreted as precluding the grant of an injunction whereby a court of a Contracting State of that Convention prohibits a party to proceedings pending before it from commencing or continuing legal proceedings before a court of another Contracting State, even where that party is acting in bad faith with a view to frustrating the existing proceedings. N.B.: In consequence, English courts may no longer issue anti-suit injunctions to prohibit proceedings in courts of other Member States of the European Union.

Anton Piller Order - (Also referred to as Anton Pillar Order) An ex parte injunction used in U.K. and British Commonwealth jurisdictions, whereby the court authorizes a party to a civil action to enter and search premises and to inspect, photograph and/or remove property specified in the order which may be the subject-matter of, or be evidence in, the action. The order is only granted in exceptional circumstances. The name is derived from the English Court of Appeal's decision in Anton Piller KG v. Manufacturing Processes Ltd. [1976] Ch. 55. See Martin Dockray, Anton Piller Orders, Watson Hill, London, 1992; Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 1022-1025. Statutory authority for the Anton Piller order was provided in the United Kingdom by the Civil Procedure Act 1997, U.K. 1997, c.12, sect. 7, and the order is now referred to in the U.K. as a "search order". The specific rules on the issuance, service and execution of "search orders" are provided in the U.K. by the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (S.I. 1998/3132), in force April 26, 1999, Part 25 (Interim Remedies and Security for Costs) at Rule 25.1(1)(h) and Practice Direction Part 25 (Interim Injunctions) at paras. 7.1 to 7.5(13). For a Canadian example of an Anton Piller Order, see Nintendo of America, Inc. v. Coinex Video Games Inc. [1983] 2 F.C. 189 (Fed. Ct. of App.). See also Rule 377 of the Federal Court Rules, 1998, SOR 98/106, on motions for the preservation of property. See also Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 416.

Anuario de Derecho Marítimo - An annual Spanish-language periodical dealing with maritime law and the law of the sea since 1981, edited by I. Arroyo Martínez. Email: ramosyarroyo [at] bcn [dot] servicom [dot] es. The periodical has been published since 1983 by Librería Bosch in Barcelona, Spain. Website: http://www.libreriabosch.com/. Email: info [at] libreriabosch [dot] es.

Appraisement - The evaluation of a ship by a qualified, court-appointed evaluator before its judicial sale. This practice permits the court to make an informed judgment as to whether the judicial sale price is fair and proper. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 1105-1106.

Arbitral award - The decision reached by arbitrators in an arbitration (infra).

Arbitral tribunal - The panel of arbitrators or the single arbitrator charged with hearing and rendering an arbitral award (supra) in order to decide an arbitration (infra).

Arbitration - The settling of disputes between parties who agree not to go before courts, but rather to accept as final the decision of experts of their choice, in a place of their choice, usually subject to laws agreed upon in advance and usually under rules which avoid much of the formality, niceties, proof and procedure required by the courts. See Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 389-419; Int'l M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 441-443.

Arbitration agreement - The agreement concluded between parties to an arbitration (supra), providing for the submission of their dispute to arbitration, the appointment of arbitrators and the rules of procedure governing the arbitration.

Arbitration clause - A clause in a bill of lading (infra), a waybill (infra) or a charterparty (infra), providing that any dispute arising under the contract evidenced by that document shall be submitted to arbitration (supra) before one or more arbitrators, in the place and according to the laws and rules specified in the clause. See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 1413-1496. For a suggested arbitration clause, see Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at p. 411; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 108-109.

Arbitration Exception - An exception to the principle of foreign sovereign immunity in the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of the United States (28 U.S. Code 1330, 1332(a), 1391(f), 1441(d), 1602-1611 (1976)), whereby a foreign sovereign is not immune from jurisdiction in any case in which an action is brought to confirm an arbitral award if the arbitration agreement or the arbitral award is or may be governed by a treaty or other international agreement in force for the United States calling for the recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards. See 28 U.S. Code 1605(a)(6)(B)).

Arnould's Law of Marine Insurance and Average - Editors: Mustill, Gilman, 16 Ed., 1981, Stevens & Sons, London, with Supplement and vol. 3, 1996, Sweet & Maxwell, London.

Arrest - The procedure whereby, in common law jurisdictions, a ship (and sometimes cargo and/or freight) may be seized by an admiralty court at the institution of or during an action in rem (infra) to provide pre-judgment security for the plaintiff's maritime claim. Arrest is governed in the United Kingdom by paras. 5.1 to 5.7 of Practice Direction 61 (Admiralty Claims), promulgated under Part 61 (Admiralty Claims) at Rule 61.5 of the U.K. Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (S.I. 1998/3132) as amended with effect from March 25, 2002; in the United States by Supplemental Rule C of the Supplemental Rules for Certain Admiralty and Maritime Claims (infra); and in Canada by Rule 481 et seq. of the Federal Court Rules, 1998, SOR 98/106. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 958-985. In the People's Republic of China, although the action in rem does not exist, arrest of ships is nevertheless provided for by arts. 21 to 43 of the Chinese Maritime Procedure Code 2000 (infra), which came into force July 1, 2000, which provisions largely reflect the Arrest Convention 1999 (infra). See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 429-430. See also Sister-ship arrest.

Arrest Convention 1952 [Fr.: "Convention de Bruxelles de 1952"] - International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to the Arrest of Seagoing Ships, adopted at Brussels on May 10, 1952 and in force as of February 24, 1956 (see CMI infra). See text in Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 958-962, Appendix D at pp. 1439-1448; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 418-419.

Arrest Convention 1999 - International Convention on Arrest of Ships, 1999, adopted at Geneva, March 12, 1999 (not in force) (Doc. no. A/CONF. 188.6). See Tetley, Int'l M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 419-421.

Artificial General Average - is a term coined by Leslie J. Buglass to refer to general average claimed under the York/Antwerp Rules, despite the absence of one of the basic historic characteristics of general average, e.g. "peril". (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 1796-1806; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 378-383.)

Ashburner, Walter - The Rhodian Sea-Law, 1909, reprinted by Scientia Verlag, Aalen, 1976 and by Lawbook Exchange Ltd., 2001.

Assignment - The transfer by a creditor (the "assignor") to another party (the "assignee") of a debt or right of action which the ceditor has against a third party(the "debtor"). The assignment of debts and rights of action is generally permitted in both civil law and common law jurisdictions, subject to certain formalities. The assignment of maritime liens (infra) is permitted expressly by the Maritime Liens and Mortgages Conventions 1967 (infra) (art. 9) and 1993 (infra) (art. 10), as well as in France and the United States. In England and Canada, however, the assignment of maritime liens notably for seamen's wages, is more complicated. (See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 1211-1240; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 505).

"Assistance" [Span.: "salvamento"] [Ital.: "assistenza e salvataggio"] [Gr.: "Hilfsleistung"]- A French term, reflecting the civilian equivalent of salvage (infra), based on the Roman law concept of negotiorum gestio (infra) (management of the business of another), whereby the "assistant" is remunerated for his efforts to save ship and cargo, regardless of whether or not those efforts are successful. In French internal law, "assistance", referring to salvage of a ship, cargo, and/or persons in peril at sea, is distinguished from "sauvetage", referring to the salvage of wreck ("sauvetage des épaves") [Ital.: "ricupero"]. Under the Salvage Convention 1910 (infra) (art. 1), however, no distinction is to be made between "assistance" and "salvage", although both terms were used in the title of the Convention. The Salvage Convention 1989 (infra) refers only to "salvage" (in French, "assistance") in respect of the ship and cargo, using the French word "sauvetage" only in respect of life salvage (art. 16). See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 333-336; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 322-324.

Association Française du Droit Maritime (A.F.D.M.) - The French Maritime Law Association. Website: http://www.comitemaritime.org/memass/europe/france.html. Email: Madame Françoise Moussu-Odier, President- f [dot] odier [at] noos [dot] fr

Association Internationale de Dispacheurs Européens - see International Association of Average Adjusters (Association Mondiale de Dispacheurs)

Association of Average Adjusters - The organization of average adjusters in the United Kingdom. Secretary: David Taylor. Website: http://www.average-adjusters.com Email: aaa [at] balticexchange [dot] com.

Association of Average Adjusters of Canada - Secretary: Rui M. Fernandes. Website: http://www.averageadjusterscanada.com/. Email: rui [at] fernandeshearn [dot] com.

Association of Average Adjusters of the United States- Secretary: Eileen M. Fellin. Website: http://www.usaverageadjusters.org/ Email: averageadjusters [at] aol [dot] com.

Association of Maritime Arbitrators of Canada (AMAC) - website: http://www.amac.ca/. Members of the Executive: President: John Weale, Fednav Limited, 1000 rue de la Gauchetière ouest, Suite 3500, Montreal, Quebec H3B 4W5, Canada. Tel.: (514) 878-6676; fax: (514) 878-6508; e-mail: jweale [at] fednav [dot] com. Secretary-Treasurer: Donald Pinkerton, c/o Fednav Limited, 1000 rue de la Gauchetière ouest, Suite 3500, Montreal, Quebec H3B 4W5, Canada.. Tel.: (514) 878-6439; fax: (514) 878-7670; e-mail: dpinkerton [at] fednav [dot] com.

Association of Ship Brokers and Agests (U.S.A.) Inc. - Website: http://www.asba.org/. Email: asba [at] asba [dot] org.

Asp. M.L.C. - Aspinall's Maritime Law Cases. English maritime cases from 1870-1940. An example of a citation is (1872) 1 Asp. M.L.C. 123.

Athanassiou, Garifalia, Aspects juridiques de la concurrence maritime: étude comparative à partir du droit communautaire, 1996, Éditions A. Pedone, Paris.

Athens Passenger Convention 1974 - The Convention Relating to the Carriage of Passengers and Their Luggage by Sea, adopted by the CMI and IMO at Athens on December 13, 1974 and in force as of April 28, 1987, with Protocol, adopted at London on November 19, 1976 and in force as of April 10, 1989, a Protocol, adopted at London on March 29, 1990 (not yet in force) and a Protocol adopted at London, November 1, 2002 (not in force). See text in Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 703-714.

Attachment [Span.: "detención" or "inmovilización"] [Ital.: "sequestro"] [Gr.: "Beschlagnahme"] - The term used in the United States for the procedure known in French in civil law jurisdictions as the "saisie conservatoire" (infra). See for example, Swift & Co. Packers v. Compania Colombiana Del Caribe S. A., 339 U.S. 684, 1950 AMC 1089 (1950). See Supplemental Rule B of the Supplemental Rules for Certain Admiralty and Maritime Claims (infra)and the "general maritime law" (infra) of the United States. In the U.S., Rule B attachment, joined to an action in personam, permits specified assets of the defendant (real or personal, moveable or immoveable) to be seized by the court at the beginning of the saisie conservatoire or during a suit, as security for the plaintiff's claim, in cases where the defendant cannot be found in the judicial district concerned. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 938-941; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 408-409.

The attachment has also existed under Roman-Dutch law in South Africa since November 1, 1983. See Shipping Corp. of India v. Evdomon Corp. 1994 (1) SA 550 (App. Div.).

"Audi alteram partem" - "Hear the other party", the principle of natural justice requiring that the parties to a dispute be given adequate notice and an opportunity to be heard. See Porto Seguro Companhia de Seguros Gerais v. Belcan S.A. [1997] 3 S.C.R. 1278, (1997) 153 D.L.R.(4th) 577, (1997) 220 N.R. 321 (Supr. Ct. of Can.).

Avoidance of the law - In the conflict of laws, the intentional arrangement of connecting factors (contacts) (see infra) in an agreement, usually by equal bargaining parties, for a legitimate purpose, in order to ensure the applicability to the agreement of a particular law or jurisdiction. The opposite of evasion of the law ("fraude à la loi"), infra. See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 146, 172.

Award-The arbitral award (supra) which embodies the decision of an arbitral tribunal (supra). See the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration 1985 (infra), arts. 28-36. See also the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules (see UNCITRAL, infra), art. 31, and the New York Convention 1958 (infra), art. I(2). The term "award" is also used to designate the decision of arbitrators determining the quantum of a salvage reward (infra) and ordering the payment of that reward to the salvor(s). See the Salvage Convention 1989 (infra), art. 26. See also Tetley, Int'l M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 347-352.

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Baena, P.J.B., - Privilegios, Hipotecas y Embargos Preventivos sobre el Buque y la Aeronave, 2002, Marcial Pons, Ediciones Jurídicas y Sociales, S.A., Madrid.

Baer, Herbert R.- Admiralty Law of the Supreme Court, 3 Ed., 1979 (with 1985 Supplement), Michie Co., Charlottesville, Virginia.

Bail - Personal security provided by a defendant to the court to prevent the arrest of a ship or to secure its release from arrest. The security takes the form of a bail bond, in which the sureties submit to the jurisdiction of the court and undertake that if the defendants does not pay what may be adjudged against them or what is agreed by settlement, execution may issue against them as sureties for the amount due. Bail is ordinarily set at whatever sum is sufficient to cover the plaintiff's reasonably arguable best case, with interest and costs, but not exceeding the value of the ship or other res. See The Moschanthy [1971] 1 Lloyd's Rep. 37 at p. 44; The Tribels [1985] 1 Lloyd's Rep. 128 at p. 130. The bail represents the ship and, once released upon bail, the ship is released from the action. A bank guarantee is frequently substituted for a bail bond today. Moreover, security is today usually provided by a letter of undertaking (LOU), infra, which is a form of security provided to the seizing creditor, rather than to the court. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 1111-1118; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 433, 511.

Bail bond - See "bail" (supra).

Baltic and International Maritime Council - See BIMCO (infra).

Baltic Exchange- Established in 1744, the Baltic Exchange is the world's oldest shipping market. A large part of the world's open market bulk cargo chartering is negotiated by some members of the Baltic Exchange and much of the world's sale and purchase business is transacted through its brokers. It publishes a daily dry cargo index that is the basis of the freight futures market and is used in order to hedge against movements in freight rates. The Baltic Exchange also publishes a monthly magazine. Address: St. Mary Axe, London, EC3A 8BH. Website: http://www.balticexchange.com/. The present Chief Executive and Secretary of the Baltic Exchange is Jeremy Penn. Email: enquiries [at] balticexchange [dot] com (enquiries [at] balticexchange [dot] com.)

Baltime 1939 - See time charterparty, (infra).

Bank guarantee - See bail (supra).

Bareboat charterparty - See charterparty by demise, infra.

Barecon '89/Barecon 2001 - See charterparty by demise, infra.

Barratry [Fr.: "baraterie"] [Span.: "baratería"] [Ital.: "baratteria"] [Gr.: "Barraterie"] - Loss or damage caused to the ship or cargo by the wilful act of the master or seamen. See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 1237, 1317-1318; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 593.

Basilica - A ninth century A.D. codification of Byzantine law, compiled under the direction of Emperor Basil I, the Macedonian. The Basilica was intended to be a recodification of the Digest of Justinian. Book 53 contains considerable maritime law. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at p. 11.

Baughen, Simon - Shipping Law, 3 Ed., 2004, Cavendish Publishing Limited, London and Portland, Oregon.

Bearer bill of lading - See "Bills of Lading & Related Documents" (infra).

Beaufort Wind Force Scale - A table describing wind forces in numbers (from 1 to 17), ranging from calm to hurricane conditions and providing specifications for each such wind force at sea and on land, giving equivalent mean speeds in knots, statute miles per hour, meters per second and mean wind force in pounds per square foot at standard density. (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 2806-2807)

Begines, J.L. Pulido - Los Contratos de Remolque Marítimo, 1996, José Maria Bosch Editor, Barcelona.
Begines, J.L. Pulido, Seguro de Mercancías y Seguro de Responsabilidad del Porteador Terrestre, 2001, José Maria Bosch Editor, Barcelona.

Benedict on Admiralty - 7 Ed. (rev.), in 33 volumes updated regularly, Matthew Bender, New York: The leading compilation of American and international laws and conventions on maritime law, with commentary.

Beneficial owner [Fr.: "véritable propriétaire"]- A term usually referring to the registered shipowner, but which may also designate another party having the equitable ownership of the vessel where it is operated under the cloak of a trust. See The I Congreso del Partido [1977] 1 Lloyd's Rep. 536, [1978] Q.B. 500. The term may designate some party behind the registered owner, such as a parent corporation or holding company, having some legal or equitable interest in the vessel, including a right to dispose of it. But it does not encompass a demise charterer, despite the latter's full possession and control of the ship during the term of the demise charterparty. See Mount Royal/Walsh Inc. v. The Jensen Star [1990] 1 F.C. 199 (Fed. Ct. of App.). The beneficial owner who is personally liable on certain types of maritime claims at the time they arise may render the ship liable in rem in England and Canada. See the Supreme Court Act 1981, U.K. 1981, c. 54, sects. 20(4)(b)(i) and the Federal Court Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. F-7, sect. 43(3). See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 573-575, 581-582, 586-587, 1033-1036, 1039-1041, 1043-1045; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 432, 436, 492-493.

Bennett, Howard N. - The Law of Marine Insurance, 2 Ed., 2006, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Bennett, W.P. - The History and Present Position of the Bill of Lading as a Document of Title, 1914, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Berlingieri, Francesco - Arrest of Ships: A Commentary on the 1952 and 1999 Arrest Conventions, 4 Ed., 2006, LLP Limited, London. See also Il Diritto Marittimo (infra).

Bigham clause - A clause inserted into most non-separation agreements (infra), whereby the cargo owner's share of any general average contribution (infra) payable under such an agreement may not exceed the cost that the cargo owner would have incurred had his cargo been delivered to him at the port of refuge and then been forwarded to destination at his expense.

Bills of Lading & Related Documents

a) Bill of lading [Fr.:"connaissement"] [Span.: "conocimiento de embarque"] [Ital.: "polizza di carico"] [Gr.: "Konnossement"] - Originally called a "bill of loading", a bill of lading is not necessarily the complete contract of carriage of goods but is usually the best evidence of the contract. It is, as well, a receipt signed by the master or on his behalf indicating in what apparent order and condition the goods have been received on board. Finally, it is also a document of title and thus a document of transfer, but not a negotiable instrument. It is usually a standard form contract, prepared and issued by the carrier (infra) or his agent. (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 523-539, 550-552; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 65-68, 71-77). There are many standard forms of bill of lading, including, for example, the "BIMCO Liner Bill of Lading" (Code Name: "Conlinebill 2000") of BIMCO infra, which is reproduced in Tetley, Int'l M. & A. L, 2003, Appendix "P" at pp. 861-862.

i) Bearer bill of lading [Fr.: "connaissement au porteur"] [Span.: "conocimiento al portador"] [Ital.: "polizza di carico al portatore"] [Gr.: "Inhaberkonnossement"] - A bill of lading (supra) providing for the delivery of the goods to whomever holds the bill. The bill is a bearer bill of lading if: i) it is explicitly identified as such; ii) it names the consignee (infra) as "bearer"; iii) it is an order bill of lading (infra) which fails to mention to whose order it is; or iv) it is an order bill of lading endorsed in blank. A bearer bill is negotiable by its mere delivery. (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 450, 488, 494, 505, 471; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 67).

ii) Clean bill of lading [Fr.: "connaissement sans réserves" or "connaissement net"] [Span.: "conocimiento sin reservas", "conocimiento limpio" or "conocimiento neto"] [Ital.: "polizza di carico netta"] [Gr.: "reines Konnossement"] - The face of a clean bill of lading bears no notation of the bad or questionable order of the goods. It means that the goods have been received on board in apparent good order and condition and stowed under deck. (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 1569-1570; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 75-77).

iii) Long form bill of lading [Fr.: "connaissement intégral"] [Span.: "conocimiento completo"] [Ital.: "polizza di carico integrale"] - A form of bill of lading (supra) issued by the carrier (infra) setting forth all the terms of the contract of carriage. The long form bill of lading can usually be obtained at the carrier's head office, and its terms are incorporated by reference in the carrier's short form bill of lading (infra). (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at p. 552-553; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 67-68).

iv) Multimodal or combined transport bill of lading [Fr.: "connaissement de transport multimodal", "connaissement de transport combiné"] [Span.: "conocimiento (de transporte) multimodal", "conocimiento (de transporte) combinado"] [Ital.: "polizza di carico per trasporto multimodale o combinato"] [Gr.: "Multimodales oder Kombiniertes Transport Konnossement"]- A through bill of lading (infra) which involves at least two different modes of transport - road, rail, air and sea. (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 2261-2262.)

v) Named (nominate) bill of lading [Fr.: "connaissement à personne dénommée" or "connaissement nominatif"] [Span.: "conocimiento nominativo"] [Ital.: "polizza di carico nominativa"] [Gr.: "Namenskonnossement"] - A bill of lading (supra) providing for the delivery of the goods to a named person, without also specifying "to order or assigns". The named consignee (infra) obtains delivery of the goods by surrendering one of the originals of the bill to the carrier (infra) or his agent. Although a document of title, the nominate bill of lading is not negotiable. (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at p. 446-449; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 66-67).

vi) Ocean through bill of lading [Fr.: "connaissement de bout en bout"] [Span.: "conocimiento directo"] [Ital.: "polizza di carico diretta"] [Gr.: "Durchkonnossement"] - A bill of lading (supra) invoking a series of contracts to carry goods to a final destination by two or more successive ocean carriers (infra). A "pure" ocean through bill of lading is a bill of lading whereby the issuer undertakes to be responsible for the carriage of goods by successive ocean carriers from the point of reception to final destination. (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 2261, 2262-2269).

vii) Order bill of lading [Fr.: "connaissement à ordre"] [Span.: "conocimiento a la orden"] [Ital.: "polizza di carico all'ordine"] [Gr.: "Orderkonnossement"] - A bill of lading (supra) providing for delivery of the goods to the order of a specified person, by words such as "consigned to XYZ Co. Ltd. or to order or assigns". An order bill is negotiable by endorsement and delivery of the document to the endorsee (infra) ((Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at p. 450). In the United States, under the Pomerene Act of 1916, recodified in 1994 (49 U.S. Code 80101-80116)) (infra), an order bill of lading may be negotiated by endorsement (49 U.S. Code 80104(a)) or by transfer (i.e. by its delivery, accompanied by an agreement specifying that title to the goods is being transferred thereby) (49 U.S. Code 80106(a)). (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at p. 450). Note: The 1994 recodification of the Pomerene Act changed the term "order bill of lading" to "negotiable bill of lading". See 49 U.S. Code sect. 80103(a).

viii) Received for shipment bill of lading [Fr.: "connaissement reçu pour embarquement"] [Span.: "conocimiento recibido para embarque"] [Ital.: "polizza di carico ricevuto per l'imbarco"] [Gr.: "Übernahmekonnossement"]- A bill of lading (supra) issued when goods have been received for shipment by a carrier (infra) or his agent but have not yet been loaded aboard the ship. (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 552, 2264; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 67.)

ix) Shipped bill of lading [Fr.: "connaissement embarqué"] [Span.: "conocimiento embarcado"] [Ital.: "polizza di carico a bordo"] [Gr.: "Bordkonnossement"] - A bill of lading (supra) issued when goods have been loaded aboard the ship. (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at p. 552; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 67; Hague and Hague/Visby Rules (infra) art. 3(7); Hamburg Rules (infra) art. 15(2)).

x) Short form bill of lading [Fr.: "connaissement abrégé" [Span.: "conocimiento abreviado"] [Ital.: "polizza di carico abbreviata"] - A form of bill of lading (supra) issued by the carrier (infra) incorporating by reference the terms of the contract of carriage set forth in the carrier's long form bill of lading (supra). (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 552-553; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 67-68).

xi) Straight bill of lading - A non-negotiable bill of lading (supra) as described in the United States Pomerene Actof 1916 (49 U.S. Code Appx. 81-124, recodified in 1994 as 49 U.S. Code 80101-80116) (infra). A "straight bill" states that the goods are consigned or destined to a specified person. It is marked "nonnegotiable" or "not negotiable" on its face. It may be transferred by its holder by delivery, accompanied with an agreement (express or implied) to transfer the title to the bill or to the goods it represents. A straight bill cannot be negotiated free from existing equities; its endorsement confers no additional rights on the transferee. (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 468, 2307-2308, 2368-2369). Note: The 1994 recodification of the Pomerene Act changed the term "straight bill of lading" to "nonnegotiable bill of lading". See 49 U.S. Code 80103(b). See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 129. The term "straight bill is also sometimes used outside the United States. See The Brij [2001] 1 Lloyd's Rep. 431 at p. 434 (Hong Kong High Ct.). It has been held that a "straight" (also sometimes called a "straight consigned") bill of lading is a document of title subject to the Hague Rules and the Hague/Visby Rules. See The Rafaela S. [2005] 1 Lloyd's Rep. 347, 2005 AMC 913 (H.L.).

xii) Through bill of lading - A bill of lading (supra) providing for the carriage of goods by water, from their point of origin to their final destination, either by successive ocean carriers (see ocean through bill of lading (supra)) or by more than one mode of transportation (see multimodal or combined transport bill of lading (supra)). (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 2259-2262).

b) Waybill (Sea waybill) [Fr.: "lettre de transport maritime"] [Span.: "carta de porte marítima"] [Ital.: "lettera di trasporto marittima"] [Gr.: "Seefrachtbrief"] - A waybill is a non-negotiable receipt issued after receipt of the goods by the carrier (infra). It is clearly marked "non-negotiable". It is usually employed in the container trade for normal shipments with consent of the shipper (infra) who does not insist on being issued a negotiable bill of lading (supra). It is not a document of title, so that delivery of the goods shipped is made, not by presentation of a document, but by the consignee (infra) nominated on the waybill identifying himself. Only one original waybill is usually issued to the shipper. Although it is not a document of title, it is a contract of carriage. The Hague or Hague/Visby Rules (infra) do apply to a waybill in virtue of the waybill's terms and conditions and also because, when it is used in ordinary commercial shipments, art. 6 of the Hague or Hague/Visby Rules does not exclude it from the application of the Rules. (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 2297-2316; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 68, 80.)

A waybill is useful in these times of speedy carriage where cargo often arrives before the documents. It is also useful for transactions where the shipper (infra) and consignee (infra) are related or are subsidiaries of one another and where the rigid production of banking documents is unnecessary. Waybills are also used in large, long-term transactions in which the shipment is only part of a major, well-secured, long-term agreement between the shipper and consignee. Generally waybills are useful wherever financing is not provided in exchange for documents, e.g. open account sales. (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 2285-2377). There are many standard forms of waybill, including, for example, the "Non-Negotiable Liner Sea Waybill" (Code Name: "Linewaybill") of BIMCO (infra), which is reproduced in Tetley, Int'l M. & A. L., 2003, Appendix "Q" at pp. 863-864.

c) Ship's delivery order - The U.K. Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1992 (U.K. 1992 c. 50) at sect. 1(4) provides for ship's delivery orders as follows:

"References in this Act to a ship's delivery order are references to any document which is neither a bill of lading nor a sea waybill but contains an undertaking which:

a) is given under or for the purposes of a contract for the carriage by sea of the goods to which the document relates, or of goods which include those goods; and

b) is an undertaking by the carrier to a person identified in the document to deliver the goods to which the document relates to that person."

d) Electronic document: an electronic carriage of goods by sea document proposed but not adopted in the United Kingdom. See the U.K. Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1992, U.K. 1992, c. 50, sects. 1(5) and (6) and 5(1), (infra). Australia, however, has enacted legislation contemplating the use of electronic documents as "sea carriage documents". See Australia's Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1991, No. 160 of 1991 (Cth.) as amended, at Schedule 1A (Schedule of Modifications) enacted by the Carriage of Goods by Sea Regulations 1998, Statutory Rules 1998, No. 174, at art. 1(1)(ba) and 1(1)(h) and art. 1A.

Bills of Lading Act, 1855, 18 & 19 Vict., c. 111 - The United Kingdom statute which, amongst other stipulations, conferred upon consignees (infra) and endorsees (infra) of bills of lading (supra) the right to sue the carrier (infra) in contract for loss or damage to the goods covered by such bills, provided that the ownership of the goods concerned passed to the consignee or endorsee of the bill upon or by reason of its consignment or endorsement. The Bills of Lading Act, 1855 was repealed and replaced by the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1992, U.K. 1992 c. 50 (infra).

Bills of Lading Act, R.S.C. 1985, c. B-4 - The Canadian statute, virtually identical to the U.K.'s Bills of Lading Act, 1855 (supra), similarly conferring rights of suit in contract upon consignees (infra) and endorsees (infra) of bills of lading (supra) to whom ownership in the goods pass upon or by reason of such consignment or endorsement.

BIMCO - The Baltic and International Maritime Council (BIMCO) is based in Copenhagen and has been in operation since 1905. It is a group of shipowners, brokers, agents, clubs and others interested in carriage by sea and unites them in promoting proper shipping practices and in opposing objectionable and unfair import charges, claims, etc. BIMCO prepares and distributes excellent b/l and c/p forms. Its address is: 161 Bagsvaerdvej, DK-2880 Bagsvaerd, Denmark. Tel.: +45 44 36 68 00; fax: +45 44 36 68 68; Email: mailbox [at] bimco [dot] dk; web site: http://www.bimco.dk/. Secretary-General: Mr. Truls W. L'orange.

Black Book of the Admiralty - A collection of medieval and early modern maritime law compilations, published in four volumes by Sir Travers Twiss between 1871 and 1876. See the contents listed in Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 31-32.

Blacke Booke of the Admiralty - The name given by Sir Travers Twiss to the first volume of his four-volume collection (see Black Book of the Admiralty, supra), containing a variety of medieval maritime law materials, probably first compiled in the mid-fifteenth century during the reign of King Henry VI. In particular, the Blacke Booke of the Admiralty contains a version of the Rôles of Oléron (infra). See Twiss, vol. 1 at pp. 88-131. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 31-32.

Blacking - A practice used by certain seafarers' trades union against flag-of-convenience shipowners to compel them, by measures causing economic duress (e.g. refusing to load or discharge ships or to allow them to set sail), to sign collective labour agreements with unions with the trade union doing the "blacking". See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 234-236.

Bonassies, Pierre, Études de droit maritime à l'aube du XXIe siècle (Mélanges offerts à Pierre Bonassies), 2001, Éditions Moreux S.A., Paris.

Bonassies, Pierre, and Scapel, Christian - Droit Maritime, 2006, Librairie Générale de Droit et de Jurisprudence, Paris.

Booking note [Fr.: "note d'engagement de fret" or "arrêté de fret"] [Span.: "nota de reserva"] [Ital.: "nota impegnativa di prenotazione"] [Gr.: "Buchungsnote"] - An undertaking whereby a carrier (infra) notifies a shipper (infra) that space has been reserved for the carriage of the shipper's goods aboard a particular vessel. See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 69.

Bolanca, Dragan - Pravni Status Morskih Luka Kao Pomorskog Dobra U Republici Hrvatskoj, 2003, Split, Croatia.

Bools, Michael D. - The Bill of Lading: A Document of Title to Goods - An Anglo-American Comparison, 1997, LLP Limited, London.

"Both to blame" clause - A clause inserted into some U.S. bills of lading (supra), which required that in the event of a ship collision (infra) for which both vessels were at fault, cargo indemnify its carrying vessel for any amount which that vessel had had to pay to the colliding vessel in respect of any claim made by cargo against the colliding vessel. The clause was declared invalid under COGSA by the U.S. Supreme Court in United States v. Atlantic Mutual Insurance Co. (Esso Belgium -- Nathaniel Bacon) 343 U.S. 236, 1952 AMC 659 (1952), although it has been upheld in private carriage (infra) contracts and some other cases. See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 1509, 1515-1516, 1651, 2085, 2103-2105; Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 485-486; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 249-250.

Bottomry [Fr.: "prêt à la grosse"] [Span.: "préstamo a la gruesa"] [Ital.: "prestito con nave a garanzia"] [Gr.: "Bodmerei"] - A primitive form of ship mortgage (infra), whereby the master, while away from the ship's home port, by signing a "bottomry bond", borrowed money on the credit of the vessel to pay for goods or services needed to preserve the ship or complete the voyage. The creditor's security was extinguished, however, if the ship was lost or destroyed. Although a maritime lien (infra) still exists for bottomry in U.K. and British Commonwealth maritime law, modern means of communications have made bottomry virtually obsolete. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 419, 422-423, 473, 517; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 482 footnote 60..

Bow Wave - A Weekly News and Views Report on Trade, Transport, Insurance and Risk. Website: http://www.wavyline.com/.

Bowtle, G. & McGuiness, K. - The Law of Ship Mortgages, 2001, LLP, London.

Braën, André - Le droit maritime au Québec, 1992, Wilson & Lafleur Ltée, Montreal, Québec, Canada; and "De l'effet relatif du contrat maritime ou de la relative uniformité du droit maritime canadien" (2001) 31 Revue Générale de Droit 473-513.

Break Bulk - Carriage of goods other than by container, infra.

Brice, Geoffrey - Maritime Law of Salvage, 4 Ed. (J. Reeder, ed.), Sweet & Maxwell, London, 2003.

British International Freight Association (BIFA) -Website: http://www.bifa.org/. Email: bifa [at] bifa [dot] org.">bifa [at] bifa [dot] org. See also I.F.F., infra.

British Maritime Law Association (BMLA) - Website: http://www.bmla.org.uk/.

British Shipping Laws - A 14-volume compilation of British and international shipping laws by McGuffie, Carver, Mardsen, Sassoon, Colinvaux, Steel and Ricks, Lowndes and Rudolf, Singh, Arnould, Temperley, Kennedy, Singh and Colinvaux, and Thomas, Stevens & Sons, London.

Brodie, Peter - Dictionary of Shipping Terms, 4 Ed., 2003, LLP Limited, London.

Browne, Arthur - A Compendious View of the Civil Law and the Law of Admiralty, vol. II, 1802, Dublin; 1840, New York. Reprinted by The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd., 2000.

Brussels Convention 1968 - The Convention on Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, adopted at Brussels on September 27, 1968 and in force as of February 1, 1973. This Convention provides uniform rules on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement judgments for all States of the European Union (infra). The official text of the Convention, of its Protocol of Interpretation of June 3, 1971 (in force as of September 1, 1975) and of the 1978 Accession Convention, adopted at Luxembourg on October 9, 1978 (whereby the United Kingdom, Denmark and Ireland became parties to the Convention) may be found in O.J.E.C. 1978 L 304/77 of October 30, 1978. The Brussels Convention 1968 was also amended by the Greek Accession Convention of October 25, 1982 (O.J.E.C. 1983 L 388/1 of December 31, 1982) and by the Spanish and Portuguese Accession Convention (the San Sebastian Convention) of May 26, 1989 (O.J.E.C. 1989 L 285/1 of October 3, 1989). See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 805-808 and 848-856. As of March 1, 2002, the Brussels Convention 1968 was replaced, for all Member States of the European Union except Denmark, by E.C. Regulation 44/2001 on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters, infra.

Bucknill, Sir Alfred T. - The Law relating to Tug and Tow, 2 Ed., 1927, Stevens & Sons, Ltd., London.

Buglass, Leslie J. - Marine Insurance and General Average in the United States, 3 Ed., 1991, Cornell Maritime Press, Centreville, Maryland.

Bullock order - A discretionary order of a court regarding costs, granted in a case where a plaintiff has acted reasonably in suing more than one defendant but has not been successful against all of them. The order requires the plaintiff to pay the costs of the successful defendant(s) but also permits him to include those costs in the costs he recovers from the unsuccessful defendant(s). The Bullock order derives its name from the decision in Bullock v. London General Omnibus Co. [1907] 1 K.B. 264 (C.A.). For an example in Canadian maritime law, see Canadian Klockner Ltd. v. D/S A/S Flint (The Mica) [1973] 2 Lloyd's Rep. 478 at p. 484 (Fed. C. Can.).

The Bullock order is similar to the "Sanderson order", whereby the court, in its discretion, may order the unsuccesful defendant(s) to pay the costs of the successful defendant(s) directly. The Sanderson order derives its name from the decision in Sanderson v. Blyth Theatre Co. [1903] 2 K.B. 533 (C.A.).

Bundock, Michael - Shipping Law Handbook, 3 Ed., 2003, LLP, London.

Bunker Pollution Convention 2001 - The International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage, adopted by the IMO (infra) at London on March 23, 2001, and in force 21 November 2008.

Byzantine/Rhodian Sea-Law - A maritime code derived from custom, prepared at Byzantium (Constantinople) in the seventh or eighth century A.D., referred to as the "Rhodian Sea-Law" by Ashburner, The Rhodian Sea-Law (1909), but better termed the "Byzantine/Rhodian Sea-Law" to avoid confusion with the Rhodian Law (infra) of c. 800 B.C. It contained provisions on maritime liens (infra) and ship mortgages (infra) and influenced the compilation of the Basilica. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 10-11; Tetley, "The General Maritime Law - The Lex Maritima" (1994) 20 Syracuse J. Int'l. Law 105-145 at p. 109; reprinted [1996] ETL 469-506 at p. 473; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 10. See also "Rhodian Law" (infra).

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Cabotage [Span.: "cabotaje"] [Ital.: "cabotaggio"] [Gr.: "Kabotage"] - A French term, also used in English, to refer to the coasting trade. Cabotage is often governed by statutes, requiring, for example, that only ships flying the flag of the coastal state concerned may engage in the coasting trade between ports of that state, unless "waivers" are obtained from the government of the state.

Canadian Board of Marine Underwriters (CBMU) - Website: http://www.cbmu.com/. Email: cbmu [at] cbmu [dot] com

Canadian International Freight Forwarders Association (CIFFA) - Website: http://www.ciffa.com/. Email: admin [at] ciffa [dot] com.

"Canadian maritime law" - The Supreme Court of Canada, in The Buenos Aires Maru (ITO -International Terminal Operators v. Miida Electronics) [1986] 1 S.C.R. 752, defined "Canadian maritime law" as having two major components: 1) the admiralty law of England received into Canada in 1934, upon the adoption of Canada's Admiralty Act, S.C. 1934 c. 31, as subsequently developed by Canadian statutes and jurisprudence; and 2) that body of law which would have been administered by the former Exchequer Court of Canada (now the Federal Court of Canada) on its admiralty side, if that Court had had an "unlimited jurisdiction in relation to admiralty and maritime matters" (ibid. at p. 774). The first branch of "Canadian maritime law" was held to be "a body of federal law encompassing the common law principles of tort, contract and bailment" (ibid. at p. 779) and to be "uniform throughout Canada" (ibid. at p. 779) and "... not the law of any province of Canada" (ibid. at p. 779). The second branch of "Canadian maritime law" was to be interpreted as including matters falling "within the modern context of commerce and shipping" and to be "... limited only by the constitutional division of power in the Constitution Act, 1867" (ibid. at p. 774). The above definition has led to a major expansion of the scope of both "Canadian maritime law" and the admiralty jurisdiction of the Federal Court of Canada under sect. 2(1) and 22 of the Federal Court Act, R.S.C. 1985 c. F-7. See Tetley, "A Definition of Canadian Maritime Law" (1996) 30 U. British Columbia L. Rev. 137-164; Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 44-53; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L. 2003 at pp. 434-435. See also Ordon Estate v. Grail [1998] 3 S.C.R. 437 ; (1998) 166 D.L.R. (4th) 193 ; (1998) 232 N.R. 201 ; (1998) 115 O.A.C. 1 ; (1998) 40 O.R. (3d) 639. (Supr. Ct. of Can.). See also André Braën, Le droit maritime au Québec, Wilson & Lafleur Ltée, Montreal, 1992; André Braën, "De l'effet relatif du contrat maritime ou de la relative uniformité du droit maritime canadien" (2001) 31 Revue Générale de Droit 473-513.

Canadian Maritime Law Association (CMLA) - Website: http://www.cmla.org/. Email: cmla [at] cmla [dot] org.

Canadian Sailings Website: http://canadiansailings.com/. Email: subscription [at] canadiansailings [dot] ca/">subscription [at] canadiansailings [dot] ca.

Canadian Shipowners' Association/Association des armateurs canadiens - Website: http://www.shipowners.ca/. Email: csa [at] shipowners [dot] ca.

Carbone, Sergio - Il Diritto Marittimo, 2002, G. Giappichelli Editore, Turin.

Carbonneau, Thomas E. - Alternative Dispute Resolution, 1989, University of Illinois Press, Chicago.
Carbonneau, Thomas E. - Cases and Materials on Commercial Arbitration, 1997, Juris Publishing, Yonkers, New York.
Carbonneau, Thomas E., ed. - Lex Mercatoria and Arbitration: A Discussion of the New Law Merchant, Rev. Ed., 1998, Juris Publishing, Yonkers, New York; Kluwer Law International, Cambridge, Mass.
Carbonneau, Thomas E. - The Law and Practice of Arbitration, 2004, Juris Publishing, Huntington, New York.
Carbonneau, Thomas E., ed. - Cases and Materials on International Litigation and Arbitration, 2005, West Group, St. Paul., Minnesota.

Carmack Amendment- An amendment to the American Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 made by the Act of June 29, 1906, ch. 3591, 34 Stat. 584, and now found at 49 U.S. Code 11706 and at 49 U.S. Code 14706, which establishes a uniform regime for the liability of interstate common carriers by rail and road, as well as for freight forwarders, who are subject to the jurisdiction of the U.S. Surface Transportation Board (formerly the Interstate Commerce Commission), for loss or damage occurring within the United States to cargo carried under their own bills of lading or receipts in interstate or international trade. The Carmack Amendment permits shippers to recover for the "actual" losses to their property (i.e. the loss of fair market value) caused by carriers involved with the shipment (including the "receiving carrier", the "delivering carrier" and any other carrier over whose line or route the property is transported in the United States). See Gordon v. United Van Lines, Inc. 130 F.3d 282 at p. 286 (7 Cir. 1997). The plaintiff must first establish a prima facie case, by proving that: 1) the goods were delivered to the carrier in good condition; 2) the goods arrived at their final destination in a damaged or diminished condition; and 3) the amount of the damages. See Missouri Pacific R.R. Co. v. Elmore & Stahl 377 U.S. 134 at pp. 137-138 (1964); Camar Corp. v. Preston Trucking Co. 221 F.3d 271 at p. 274 (1 Cir. 2000). Once that prima facie case is made, the carrier is then liable, unless it can show that it is free from negligence and that the loss or damage was caused by an act of God, the public enemy, the act of the shipper himself, public authority, or the inherent vice or nature of the goods. See Missouri Pacific R.R. Co v. Elmore & Stahl 377 U.S. 134 at p. 137 (1964); Allied Tube & Conduit Corp. v. Southern Pac. Transp. Co. 211 F.3d 367 at p. 369, note 2 (2 Cir. 2000); Project Hope v. M/V. IBN SINA 2001 AMC 1910 at p. 1916, note 6 (2 Cir. 2001).The carrier's liability may be limited to the value of the goods declared in writing by the shipper or specified under a written agreement between the shipper and the carrier, in accordance with the rates for transportation of property established by the carrier. The Carmack Amendment does not apply to the land leg in the U.S. of a combined transport by sea and land, unless a separate bill of lading or receipt is issued by the U.S. common carrier for the land leg of the journey. See Jessica Howard v. M/V Sky Light 2002 AMC 798 at pp. 802-804 (S.D. N.Y. 2002).

Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, 1924 (U.K. 14 & 15 Geo. 5, c. 22) - The Act giving effect in the United Kingdom to the Hague Rules 1924 (infra). It was repealed effective June 23, 1977 with the coming into force of the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971, infra.

Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1971 (U.K. 1971 c. 19) - The United Kingdom statute giving effect to the Hague Rules 1924(infra) as amended by the Visby Protocol 1968 (see Visby Rules, infra). The Act came into force June 23, 1977. The Visby S.D.R. Protocol 1979 (see Visby Rules, infra) was given the force of law in the U.K. by the Merchant Shipping Act 1981 (U.K. 1981 c. 10), in force Feb. 14, 1984. (See text in Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at p. 2745 et seq.).

Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1992 (U.K. 1992 c. 50) - The curiously named U.K. Bills of Lading Act. It is a statute which covers bills of lading, sea waybills, ship's delivery orders and, in the future, electronic documents (supra). It replaced the U.K. Bills of Lading Act, 1855, 18 & 19 Vict. c. 111 (supra) and came into force September 16, 1992. (See text at [1994] JMLC 143). It might have been better titled the "Carriage of Goods by Sea Documents Act."

Carriage of Goods by Water Act (S.C. 1993, c. 21) ("Loi sur le transport des marchandises par eau") - The Canadian statute implementing the Hague/Visby Rules (infra) (effective May 6, 1993). It also adopts the Hamburg Rules (infra), which could go into force at some future time, replacing the Hague/Visby Rules (infra). The Carriage of Goods by Water Act of 1993 was repealed and replaced by the Marine Liability Act, S.C. 2001, c. 6, (infra) in force August 8, 2001, which also gave the force of law to the Hague/Visby Rules and provides for the eventual coming into force in Canada of the Hamburg Rules.

Carrier - A party who contracts to carry goods or passengers by water (the "contracting carrier"), or the party who actually performs such carriage in whole or part (the "actual carrier"). See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 1355-1356, and particularly at pp. 1356-1361; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 104-105.

Carver, T.G. - Carver on Bills of Lading (Sir G.H. Treitel & F.M.B. Reynolds, eds.), 2 Ed., Sweet & Maxwell, London, 2005.

C.A.M.P. - Chambre Arbitrale Maritime de Paris. Website: http://www.arbitrage-maritime.org/. Email: contact [at] arbitrage-maritime [dot] org. See P. Raymond, "The Chambre Arbitrale Maritime de Paris", DMF 1996, 581.

Centre de Droit Maritime et des Transports de la Faculté de Droit d'Aix-en-Provence - Website: http://www.cdmt.droit.u-3mrs.fr/. Email: info [at] scuio [dot] u-3mrs [dot] fr.

Centre de Droit Maritime et Océanique (Maritime and Oceanic Law Center) - A research institution of the University of Nantes, France, Faculty of Law. It offers courses towards obtaining a post-graduate diploma in maritime law. It has also published since 1974 a French-language maritime law journal - l'Annuaire de Droit Maritime et Océanique. Website: http://www.droit.univ-nantes.fr/labos/cdmo/centre-droit-maritime-oceanique/cdmo/cdmo/cdmo.php Email: cdmo44 [at] yahoo [dot] fr.

Centre National de la Mer - Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. Website: http://www.nausicaa.fr/. Email: documentation [at] nausicaa [dot] fr.

CERCLA - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980, Act of 11 December 1980, Public Law No. 96-510, 94 Stat. 2767, 42 U.S. Code 9601-9675. An American federal statute providing for environmental clean-up, compensation and liability in respect of pollution caused by hazardous substances other than petroleum, natural gas or related products. See Tetley, Int'l M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 462.

"Cessante ratione legis, cessat ipsa lex" - A Latin maxim, meaning "When the reason for the law ends, the law itself lapses". See Schorsch-Meier GmbH v. Hennin [1975] Q.B. 416 at p. 425 (C.A. per Lord Denning, M.R.).

Cesser clause - A clause in a charterparty (infra) which releases the charterer from his personal liability to the shipowner and substitutes the bill of lading (supra) holder as the debtor. The substituted bill of lading holder thus becomes personally liable for the charges and the shipowner waives his rights against the charterer. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1988 at pp. 757, 774; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 142.

Chamber of Maritime Commerce Website: http://www.cmc-ccm.com/. Email: info [at] cmc-ccm [dot] com

Chamber of Shipping- Website: http://www.british-shipping.org/. Email: postmaster [at] british-shipping [dot] org. Formerly the General Council of British Shipping.

Chamber of Shipping of British Columbia Website:http://www.chamber-of-shipping.com/. Email: csbc [at] chamber-of-shipping [dot] com.

Characteristic performance - The essential contact of the rebuttable presumption (infra) in art. 4(2) of the Rome Convention, 1980 (infra), to the effect that the most closely connected country is the one in which the party who is to carry out the characteristic performance has his habitual residence or its central administration and, in some cases, its principal place of business. See also art. 3113 Québec Civil Code and Tetley, Int'l C . of L., 1994 at pp. 299-301; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 177.

Charterparty [Fr.:"charte-partie"] [Span.: "fletamento"] [Ital.: "noleggio"] [Gr.: "Chartervertrag"] - A charterparty is a contract of lease of a ship in whole or in part for a long or short period of time or for a particular voyage. It has been said that its origin lies in the mediaeval Latin "carta partita" or "charta partita" or "charta divisa", where an agreement was torn into two pieces and one half was given to each party. Proof of the whole contract was no doubt difficult if one party was obstinate - modern methods of photocopying the contract for each party seem preferable. A charterparty is part contract of hire (affreightment (supra)) and part contract of transport (carriage). The proportion of "affreightment" decreases as one moves from a demise charter, to a time charter and then to a voyage charter, while the proportion of "carriage" increases from a demise charter through a time charter to a voyage charter. Affreightment is essentially placing a ship at the disposal of another party, while transport is essentially the carrier (supra) taking charge of goods. Hire (infra) is the consideration paid under demise and time charterparties; freight (infra) is the consideration paid under voyage charterparties and bills of lading (supra).

a) Charterparty by demise [Fr.: "contrat d'affrètement coque-nue"] [Span.: "fletamento (arrendamiento) con cesión de la gestión náutica"] [Ital.: "noleggio con cessione della gestione nautica"] [Gr.: "Chartervertrag für ein Schiff ohne Besatzung"] - A charterparty by demise is a contract by which the lessor (shipowner) places a ship in the hands of the lessee (the demise charterer) who assumes possession and control. The consideration paid by the charterer is "hire" (infra), which is payable at specified intervals during the term of the charter. Under a demise charterparty, the shipowner appoints the master and the crew, although they are paid and controlled by the demise charterer. See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 160-172.

A bareboat charter (also sometimes called a "net charter") is a demise charter whereby the bareboat charterer names, pays and controls the master and the crew. See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 249-250.

Among the most common forms of demise charter are the "Baltic and International Maritime Council Standard Bareboat Charter" (Code Name: "Barecon '89"); and the "BIMCO Standard Charter" (Code Name: "Barecon 2001") forms of BIMCO and the SHELLDEMISE form of demise charterparty. Barecon 2001 is reproduced in Tetley, Int'l M. & A. L., 2003, Appendix "U" at pp. 887-898.

b) Consecutive voyage charter [Fr.: "contrat d'affrètement pour voyages successifs"] [Span.: "fletamento por viajes consecutivos"] [Ital.: "noleggio per viaggi consecutivi"] [Gr.: "Fortlaufende Reisecharter"] - A consecutive voyage charter party is a voyage charterparty for a determined number of consecutive voyages.

c) Slot charter - A charterparty whereby the shipper (infra) leases one or more "slots," each capable of holding a 20-foot container, aboard a container ship.

d) Space charter [Fr.: "contrat de tonnage"] [Span.: "COA"] [Ital.: "contratto di trasporto di carico parziale"] [Gr.: "Raumchartervertrag"] - A space charter, or a "contrat de tonnage" as it is known in French (sometimes confusingly called a "contract of affreightment" (COA) in English), depends, like any contract, on its terms. It can resemble a charterparty (i.e. a lease of a ship or ships) or a contract of carriage. It is a contract whereby a capacity of carriage is put at the disposal of the shipper (infra) for the carriage of his goods during a period of time under particular terms and conditions. Whether it is a contract of hire or a contract of carriage or even a contract of agency like a freight forwarder's (infra) contract, depends on its terms. (For charterparties under law, Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 247-252).

e) Time charterparty [Fr.: "contrat d'affrètement à temps"] [Span.: "contrato de fletamento por tiempo"] [Ital.: "noleggio a tempo"] [Gr.: "Zeitchartervertrag"] - A time charterparty is a contract whereby the lessor (the shipowner or demise charterer) places a fully equipped and manned ship at the disposal of the lessee (the time charterer) for a period of time for a consideration called "hire" (infra) payable at specified intervals during the term of the charter. Among the most common forms of time charterparty are the New York Produce Exchange (NYPE) and NYPE '93 forms, issued by the Association of Ship Brokers and Agents (U.S.A.) Inc., the "BIMCO Uniform Time-Charter (As Revised 2001)" (Code Name: "Baltime 1939") form of BIMCO and SHELLTIME. See NYPE '93 reproduced in Tetley, Int'l M. & A. L, 2003 Appendix "T", at pp. 875-886, and Baltime 1939 (Revised 2001), reproduced (ibid.), Appendix "S", at pp. 869-873. A "time charter for a trip" is a time charter for a particular voyage or voyages, rather than for a period of years, days or months, with hire (infra) payments made at periodic intervals (as under a time charterparty), rather than "freight" (infra) being payable, at the completion of the voyage, on the quantity of cargo carried (as under a voyage charterparty). See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 145-159.

f) Voyage charterparty [Fr.: "contrat d'affrètement au voyage"] [Span.: "contrato de fletamento por viaje"] [Ital.: "noleggio a viaggio"] [Gr.: "Reisechartervertrag"] - A voyage charterparty is a contract whereby the lessor (the shipowner or demise or time charterer) places all or part of the carrying capacity of a ship at the disposal of the lessee (the voyage charterer) for the transport of goods agreed upon, on one or more voyages, for a consideration called "freight" (infra), based on the quantity of cargo carried and is payable as provided for in the charterparty. Among the most commonly used forms of voyage charterparty are the "Asbatankvoy" form of tanker charter of the Association of Ship Brokers and Agents (U.S.A.) Inc., and the "Baltic and International Maritime Council Uniform General Charter (As Revised 1922, 1976 and 1994)" (Code Name: "Gencon") form of BIMCO. See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 134-144 and the Gencon form, reproduced (ibid.), Appendix "R" at pp. 865-868. .

Chinese Maritime Code, 1993 (adopted Nov. 7, 1992) - It entered into force July 1, 1993. English translations by: (1) The Legislative Affairs Commission of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, and (2) Sharpe and Liu (1993).

Chinese Maritime Procedure Code, 2000(adopted December 25, 1999) - It entered into force July 1, 2000.

Chirographic creditor - An unsecured creditor. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 557, 577, 896, 1129, 1136, 1154 and 1155.

Choice of jurisdiction - In the conflict of laws, the rules and principles applied by courts in order to determine the proper jurisdiction for instituting legal proceedings.

Choice of law - In the conflict of laws, the rules and principles applied by courts in order to determine law applicable to one or more of the legal issues.

Christodoulou, Dimitrios Ph. - The Single Ship Company: The Legal Consequences from its Use and the Protection of its Creditors, 2000, Ant. N. Sakkoulas Publishers, Athens.

C.I.F. (named port of destination) [Fr.: "C.A.F. - coût, assurance, fret"] [Span.: "coste, seguro, flete"] [Ital.: "costo-assicurazione-nolo"] [Gr.: "Kosten, Versicherung und Fracht (benannter Bestimmungshafen)"] - C.I.F., or cost, insurance, freight, is a term of the contract of sale whereby the seller undertakes to pay the cost of the insurance and transport of the goods to the named port of destination. Legal delivery occurs when the goods cross the ship's rail in the port of shipment. The purchaser takes actual delivery (possession) of the goods at the quay or other place named in the contract, as the place of destination. (The insurance premium and freight (infra) charges are included in the price of the goods.) The risk is with the purchaser and his insurance underwriters from the moment the transportation begins (e.g. from the time the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment). A C.I.F. sale has sometimes been understood as a sale of documents, rather than as a sale of goods, but the prevalent view today is that both goods and documents conforming to the contract must be delivered under a C.I.F. sale. Incoterms 2000 (infra) gives the following description (in part) of C.I.F.:

"Cost, Insurance and Freight" means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment.

The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time of delivery, are transferred from the seller to the buyer. However, in CIF the seller also has to procure marine insurance against the buyer's risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage.

Consequently, the seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. The buyer should note tht under the CIF term the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum cover. Should the buyer wish to have the protection of greater cover, he would either need to agree as much expressly with the seller or to make his own extra insurance arrangements.

The CIF term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.

This term can be used only for sea and inland waterway transport. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship's rail, the CIP [carriage and insurance paid to] term should be used."

C.F.R.: Cost & Freight (named port of destination) [Fr.: "Coût et fret"] [Span.: "coste y flete"] [Ital.: "costo e nolo"] [Gr.: "Kosten und Fracht (benannter Bestimmungshafen)"]. Incoterms 2000 (infra) gives the following description (in part) of C.F.R.:

"Cost and Freight" means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment.

The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time of delivery, are transferred from the seller to the buyer.

The CFR term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.

This term can be used only for sea and inland waterway transport. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods acrtoss the ship's rail, the CPT [carriage paid to] term should be used."

Churchill, R.R. & Lowe, A.V. - The Law of the Sea, 3 Ed., 1999, Juris Publishing, Yonkers, New York and Manchester University Press, Manchester, England.

Circular Indemnity Clause - In such a clause, the cargo owner stipulates that no claim will be made against the carrier's (supra) agents, servants, stevedores, terminal operators and subcontractors and that if a claim is made, the cargo owner will indemnify the carrier against all consequences. (See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 1890-1894.) The circular indemnity clause is sometimes combined with a "Himalaya clause" (see infra).

City of London Admiralty Solicitors Group - See Admiralty Solicitors Group (supra).

Civil Jurisdiction Convention 1952 - The International Convention on Certain Rules Concerning Civil Jurisdiction in Matters of Collision, adopted at Brussels on May 10, 1952 and in force as of September 14, 1955. See CMI (infra).

Civil law - Civil law may be defined as that legal tradition which has its origin in Roman law, as codified in the Corpus Juris Civilis of Justinian (528 to 534 A.D.), and as subsequently developed in Continental Europe and around the world. Civil law eventually divided into two streams: the codified Roman law (as seen in the French Civil Code of 1804 and its progeny and imitators - Continental Europe, Québec, and Louisiana being examples) - and uncodified Roman law (as seen in the Scots law of Scotland and the Roman-Dutch law of South Africa). Civil law is highly systematised and structured and relies on declarations of broad, general principles, often ignoring the details. Professor René David has said that the civil law "... consists essentially of a 'style': it is a particular mode of conception, expression and application of the law, and transcends legislative policies that change with the times in the various periods of the history of a people." See Tetley, Mixed Jurisdictions: common law vs. civil law (codified and uncodified) (Part I) (1999-4) Uniform Law Review 591-619 at p. 596; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 8. See also common law (infra).

Civil Liability Convention 1969 (CLC 1969) - The International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, adopted by IMO at Brussels on November 29, 1969 and in force June 19, 1975, with its 1976 Protocol, adopted at London, November 19, 1976, in force April 8, 1981; its 1984 Protocol, adopted at London, May 25, 1984 which never came into force; and its 1992 Protocol, adopted at London, November 27, 1992, in force May 30, 1996. See CLC 1992 (infra).

Civil Liability Convention 1992 (CLC 1992) - The International Liability Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1992, being arts. I to XII ter of the Civil Liability Convention 1969 (CLC 1969), as amended by the 1992 Protocol to that Convention.

Clarke, Malcolm Alistair - Aspects of the Hague Rules: A Comparative Study in English and French Law, 1976, Nijhoff, The Hague.
Clarke, Malcolm Alistair - Shipbuilding Contracts: A Comparative Analysis of Contracts in the Major Maritime Jurisdictions, 2 Ed., 1992, Lloyd's, London.
Clarke, Malcolm Alistair - The Law of Insurance Contracts, 4 Ed., 2002, LLP, London.
Clarke, Malcolm Alistair - International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law, Vol. III (Private International Law), Chapter 26 (Transport by Sea and Inland Waterways), 1996.

Classification societies- Classification societies are institutions (often non-profit) which inspect, study and report on the seaworthiness and the general and particular condition of individual ships. They also often perform port state control inspections. Finally, they may provide surveying services to national maritime administrations by contract with the governments of those countries. They issue a certificate of “class” of the ship. The leading societies and members of the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) are: American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) (website: http://www.eagle.org/; Email: abs-worldhq [at] eagle [dot] org); Bureau Veristar (BV) (website: http://www.veristar.com/; Email: veristarinfo [at] bureauveritas [dot] com (veristarinfo@ bureauveritas.com)); China Classification Society (CCS) (website: http://www.ccs.org.cn/en/index.htm; Email: ccs [at] ccs [dot] org [dot] cn); Det Norske Veritas (DNV) (website: http://www.dnv.com/; Email: iacs [at] dnv [dot] com); Germanischer Lloyd (GL) (website: http://www.gl-group.com/; Email: headoffice [at] gl-group [dot] com); Korean Register of Shipping (KR) (website: http://www.krs.co.kr/; Email: krsiacs [at] krs [dot] co [dot] kr; Lloyd’s Register website: http://www.lr.org/; Email: Lloydsreg [at] lr [dot] org); Nippon Kaiji Kyokai (NK) (website: http://www.classnk.or.jp/hp/en/index.aspx; Email: mpd [at] classnk [dot] or [dot] jp); Registro Italiano Navale (RINA) (website: http://www.rina.org/; Email: info [at] rina [dot] org); and Russian Maritime Register of Shipping (RS) (website: http://www.rs-head.spb.ru/; Email: 004 [at] rs-head [dot] spb [dot] ru). There are also two "associates", namely, the Croatian Register of Shipping (CRS) (website: http://www.crs.hr/; Email: tech [dot] coord [at] crs [dot] hr); and the Indian Register of Shipping (IRS) (website: http://www.irclass.org/; Email: ho [at] irclass [dot] org). . There are many other deemed “lesser” classification societies.

The Comité Maritime International (CMI) has attempted to bring about an international convention on the responsibility of classification societies without success so far. In 1992 the CMI set up a Joint Working Group on Class Societies (CSJWG) to consider legal rights, duties, and liabilities of classification societies. In May 1998, the CMI Assembly adopted "Principles of Conduct for Classification Societies". These principles imposed certain duties and procedures and outlined standards of practice and performance for societies which adopt them. A year later, the CMI Assembly adopted "Model Contractual Clauses for Use in Agreements between Classification Societies and Governments and Classification Societies and Shipowners", which define and clarify, subject to national law, the circumstances under which civil liability of the classification societies and their employees and agents should be regulated or limited. The Model Clauses are suggested for (I) inclusion in agreements between societies and governments and (II) inclusion in the rules of the societies (which contain the terms of agreements between societies and shipowners). As to the latter, the clauses impose certain duties on both the societies and shipowners. The limits of liability, however, have not yet been agreed upon. The classification societies have been in serious negotiation with European Union (EU) authorities to produce, if possible, a mutually acceptable directive on liability of classification societies. As of 2003, no agreement has been reached.

The International Safety Management Code or ISM Code (The International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention, which is Annex IX to the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention 1974 as amended) obliges shipowners and ship operators to maintain a high standard of management of their ships and this has increased the extent of classification society duties and reports.

Port state control is the procedure whereby governments examine a percentage of ships, which visit their shores, in order to ensure that those ships meet international safety and environmental standards. Such examination is often conducted by classification societies under contract with the state concerned. Other states, however, have government inspection agencies which inspect visiting ships. Many states take note of the number of detentions by them of ships already inspected and classed by each classification society. For example see the tabulations of the Australian Maritime Safety Authority which carries out port state control in Australia and the Paris MOU (Memorandum of Understanding). (See Port State Control)

Clean bill of lading- See "Bills of Lading & Related Documents" (supra).

Clean hands- A principle of the court of equity, whereby a claimant may not seek equitable relief, if he himself has acted improperly in respect of the same matter. The principle has, on occasion, been adopted by other courts.

Club letter - See "Letter of undertaking" (infra).

CMI- The Comité Maritime International (CMI) was established in 1897 in Antwerp as a committee of the International Law Association (infra). It is a private organization of over 40 national maritime law associations and has been instrumental in the adoption of many important international conventions including:

1) Collisions between Vessels, 1910.

2) Assistance and Salvage at Sea, 1910.

3) Limitation of the Liability of Owners of Sea-going Vessels, 1924.

4) The Hague Rules 1924, (Bills of Lading).

5) Maritime Liens and Mortgages, 1926.

6) Immunity of State-owned Ships, 1926 and the Additional Protocol, 1934.

7) Penal Jurisdiction in Matters of Collision or other Incidents of Navigation, 1952.

8) Civil Jurisdiction in Matters of Collision, 1952.

9) Arrest of Sea-going Ships, 1952.

10) Limitation of the Liability of Owners of Sea-going Vessels, 1957. (This Convention is designed to replace the 1924 Convention.)

11) Stowaways, 1957 (not yet in force).

12) Carriage of Passengers by Sea, 1961.

13) Liability of Operators of Nuclear Ships, 1962.

14) Carriage of Passengers' Luggage by Sea, 1967 (not yet in force).

15) The 1967 Protocol amending the Assistance and Salvage at Sea Convention of 1910.

16) Maritime Liens and Mortgages, 1967 (not yet in force).

17) Vessels under Construction, 1967 (not yet in force).

18) Protocol to the Hague Rules (The Visby Rules) 1968.

19) International Carriage of Goods, 1969 (The Tokyo Rules. This is the CMI proposed multimodal convention (not yet in force).

20) Protocol to the Hague Rules, 1979 (The Visby S.D.R. Protocol).

21) York/Antwerp Rules 1974, 1990, 1994 (Not an international convention).

N.B. Many of these conventions are also referred to as "Brussels Conventions", because the diplomatic conferences at which they were adopted were held in Brussels and the Belgian Government acted as depositary of the Conventions and of the related instruments of ratification, accession and denunciation.

The CMI has also produced the following documents:

1) CMI Uniform Rules for Sea Waybills (1990) (see text at (1991) 22 JMLC 617-619);

2) CMI Rules for Electronic Bills of Lading (1990) (see text at (1991) 22 JMLC 620-625);

3) Charterparty Laytime Definitions 1980 (prepared jointly with BIMCO, FONASBA and the GCBS (see text at (1981) 12 JMLC 421-426).

4) Voyage Charterparty Laytime Interpretation Rules 1993 (“Voylayrules 93”) (prepared jointly with BIMCO, FONASBA and Intercargo) (see text in John Schofield, Laytime and Demurrage, 5 Ed., LLP, London, 2005, infra, Appendix. Voylayrules 93 superseded the Charterparty Laytime Definitions 1980 (supra).

Other Conventions drafted by the CMI adopted or in the process of adoption by IMO, UNCITRAL, etc, include:

a) International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Regarding the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Matters of Collision;

b) A Convention on Off-Shore Mobile Craft;

c) A Convention relating to the International Carriage of Passengers and their Luggage by Sea and by Inland Water-Way in Air-Cushion Vehicles;

d) A Convention on Salvage - Montreal, 1981 (now the Salvage Convention 1989, adopted under the auspices of IMO). On the basis of the CMI draft the Legal Committee of IMO prepared a draft convention on salvage. As a result of these preparatory works, an International Convention on Salvage was adopted in 1989 under the auspices of IMO (see reference to IMO).

e) A Convention on Maritime Liens and Mortgages - Lisbon, 1985 (now the UN/IMO Convention on Maritime Liens and Mortgages 1993). On the basis of the CMI draft, an IMO -UNCTAD Joint Intergovernmental Group prepared a draft convention on maritime liens and mortgages. As a result of these preparatory works, an International Convention on Maritime Liens and Mortgages was adopted in 1993 by a Conference convened under the auspices of the UN and IMO (see reference to IMO).

f) A Convention on Arrest of Ships - Lisbon, 1985. The IMO-UNCTAD Joint Intergovernmental Group of Experts on Maritime Liens and Mortgages and Related subjects is at present considering a draft arrest convention prepared on the basis of the CMI draft.

Website: http://www.comitemaritime.org/. Email: admini [at] cmi-imc [dot] org.

CMLA- See Canadian Maritime Law Association (supra).

C.M.R.- [Fr.: "Convention relative au contrat de transport international des marchandises par route"]. (The Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road, Geneva, 1956).

Coasting Trade- Trade carried on between neighbouring ports of the same country by way of water. This is contrary to foreign trade.

Code de Commerce- The French Commercial Code, promulgated by Emperor Napoléon Bonaparte in 1807. Book II dealt with maritime law. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at p. 25. A new Code de commerce was enacted in France as a schedule to Ordonnance no 2000-912 du 18 septembre 2000 relative à la partie Législative du code de commerce (J.O. September 21, 2000, p. 14,783). Ordonnance 2000-912 was adopted pursuant to Law No. 99-1071 of December 16, 1999 (J.O. December 22, 1999, p. 10,090), which authorized the French Government to adopt the legislative parts of certain codes by ordonnance. The new Code de commerce was among the codes contemplated by that enabling legislation (see art. 1(4) of Law No. 99-1071). For the text of the new Code of Commerce on-line, see http://http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/WAspad/UnCode?commun=&code=CCOMMERL.rcv. The Code de commerce 2000 does not govern maritime law, although certain of its provisions (e.g. the provisions on commissionnaires de transport (arts. L-132-4 to L.132-6) are relevant to the carriage of goods by water involving freight forwarders.

COGSA - Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, 1936, 46 U.S. Code 1301 et seq. The American statute enacting the Hague Rules (infra). See text: Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 2719-2729. See also Senate COGSA '99, (infra)).

Coles, Richard - Ship Registration: Law and Practice, 2002, LLP, London.

Collision [Fr.: "abordage"] [Span.: "abordaje"] [Ital.: "urto" or "collisione"] [Gr.: "Kollision"] - "any accident involving two or more vessels which causes loss or damage even if no actual contact has taken place" (see Lisbon Rules 1987, infra). Contact between a vessel and an object other than another vessel is an "allision" (supra). See Tetley, Int'l M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 215-265.

Collision Convention 1910- The International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law with Respect to Collision Between Vessels, adopted at Brussels, September 23, 1910 and in force as of March 1, 1913. See CMI (supra).

Collision Regulations 1972 (COLREGS)- The International Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea, annexed to the Convention on the International Regulations for the Prevention of Collisions at Sea, adopted by the IMO (infra) at London, October 20, 1972. Most countries of the world are party to the "COLREGS", which are also often referred to as the "Rules of the Road" (infra). See CMI (supra).

Comité Maritime International - See CMI (supra).

Comity- The doctrine requiring courts of one state to recognize the laws of foreign states and judgments of competent courts of such states, in order to secure the reciprocal recognition by that foreign state of the laws of the first state and the judgments of its courts. See for example, Hilton v. Guyot, 159 U.S. 113 at pp. 163-164 (1895); Morguard Investments Ltd. v. De Savoye, [1990] 3 S.C.R. 1077, (1990) 76 D.L.R. (4th) 256; Beals v. Saldanha, [2003] 3 S.C.R. 416, (2003) 234 D.L.R. (4th) 1. See also Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 1095-1097; Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 9 and 320; Tetley, Int'l M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 414.

Common (public) carriage - Carriage performed by a "common carrier", who undertakes to transport the public's goods from and to places advertised and at times advertised, usually on regular, "liner" (infra) routes and under "liner" bills of lading, in consideration of the payment of freight (infra) by the shipper (infra). Common carriage is the opposite of private carriage (infra). See Tetley, "Tug and Tow" (1991) Il Diritto Marittimo 893 at p. 898; Tetley,M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 14-15, 75; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 65- 116.

Common law- Common law is the legal tradition which evolved in England from the 11th century onwards. Its principles appear for the most part in reported judgments, usually of the higher courts, in relation to specific fact situations arising in disputes which courts have adjudicated. The common law is usually much more detailed in its prescriptions than the civil law (supra). See See Tetley, Mixed Jurisdictions: common law vs. civil law (codified and uncodified) (Part I) (1999-4) Uniform Law Review 591-619 at p. 597; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 7-8.

Common venture- A basic theme in maritime law, reflecting the understanding of maritime commerce as a joint undertaking on the part of shippers (infra), carriers (supra) and consignees (infra); shipowners and charterers; and their respective insurers, who (directly or indirectly) confront the perils of the sea together, and who should therefore share both the profits and the risks attendant upon their combined operation. The common venture principle is evident in fields such as the carriage of goods (the Hague, Hague/Visby and Hamburg Rules (infra) all providing for the sharing of risks of seagoing transportation as between shippers and consignees, on the one hand, and carriers on the other), as well as in general average (infra) and marine insurance. The old Admiralty rule requiring damages to be divided equally in the event of a ship collision (supra), was also founded upon the common venture concept. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 440, 473; Int'l C. of L., 1994 at p. 478; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 53-54.

Company of Master Mariners of Canada (The) - Website: http://www.mastermariners.ca/. Email: shipmaster [at] shaw [dot] ca.

Comparative fault - See proportionate fault (infra).

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act - See CERCLA, supra

Concursus- The rule that after a shipowner's limitation fund (infra) has been duly constituted, other legal proceedings in respect of the casualty concerned must be stayed and all claims resulting from the casualty must be filed against the limitation fund and disposed of in a single "limitation proceeding". See the Limitation Convention 1957 (infra) art. 2(4); the Limitation Convention 1976 (infra) art. 13(1); the Merchant Shipping Act 1995, U.K. 1995 c. 21, Schedule 7 Part II, para. 8(3); Law no. 67-5 of January 3, 1967, art. 62 third para. (France); Supplemental Rule F(3) of the Supplemental Rules for Certain Admiralty and Maritime Claims (infra) (U.S.); Marine Liability Act, S.C. 2001, c. 6, sect. 33(1)(c) (Canada). See Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 518 and 528.

Condition- A term of a contract, the breach of which will allow the offended party to demand rescission of the contract (along with damages). See also indeterminate term (infra) and warranty (infra).

Conflict of Laws, also known as "Private International Law", was a term first coined by Joseph Story in his 1st Edition, 1834 of that name. (See Tetley, Intl. C. of L., 1994 at p. 9). There are three classic categories of conflicts: 1) choice of law; 2) choice of jurisdiction, and 3) recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments. Histocially conflict theories have been based on four approaches: 1) single concepts; 2) multiple numbered rules; 3) general texts; 4) national laws and international conventions (see Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at p. 7). I have proposed a fifth approach - a methodology to solve every conflict problem (Tetley, ibid. at p. 37 et seq.).

Conlinebill 2000 - See bill of lading (supra).

Connecting factors (contacts)- In a conflict of laws case, connecting factors, or contacts, are facts which tend to connect a transaction or occurrence with a particular law or jurisdiction (e.g. the domicile, residence, nationality or place of incorporation of the parties; the place(s) of conclusion or performance of the contract; the place(s) where the tort or delict was committed or where its harm was felt; the flag or country of registry of the ship; the shipowner's base of operations, etc.). Connecting factors are often taken into consideration and weighed by courts and arbitrators, in determining the proper law (see infra) to apply to decide the case. See for example, Spar Aerospace Ltd. v. American Mobile Satellite Corp. [2002] S.C.J. No. 51 and Morguard Investments Ltd. v. De Savoye [1990] 3 S.C.R. 1077. See Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 41, 195-196.

Consignee- The party to whom delivery of the goods is to be made under a contract for the carriage of goods by water.

"Consolato del Mare"- A compilation of maritime law customs applied by consuls in the Western Mediterranean (e.g. Barcelona, Valencia, Marseilles) in the late medieval and early modern period. The Consolato is contained in the Book of the Consulate, the earliest printed edition of which, dating from 1494, is in Catalan. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 21-23; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 13. Earlier manuscript editions of the Book exist, however.

Constructive total loss [Fr.: "perte réputée totale" or "perte totale et implicite"] [Span.: "pérdida reputada total"] [Ital.: "perdita totale da abbandono"] [Gr.: "Fingierter Totalschaden"] - A constructive total loss occurs when:

1) the insured property is reasonably abandoned on account of its actual total loss appearing to be unavoidable, or because it could not be preserved from actual total loss without an expenditure which would exceed its value;
2) where the insured is deprived of the possession of the insured property by a peril insured against and it is either unlikely that he can recover it or too costly to attempt to do so; or
3) where repairing the damage to the insured property would be too costly.

See Marine Insurance Act, 1906 (U.K.) sect. 60. See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 607-609.

Containers - Steel boxes, usually 20 feet or 40 feet in length, used to carry cargo aboard specially-designed container ships, as well as on trucks and rail cars. Containers can be filled, sealed, transported by truck or rail and loaded onto container ships quickly, securely and much more cheaply than by the traditional break bulk, supra, method. Containers were invented by an American, Malcom McLean (1914-2001), owner of Pan Atlantic Steamship Co. (which later became Sea-Land Service). They were first used aboard a converted tanker, the SS IDEAL-X, whose maiden voyage, from Newark, New Jersey, to Houston, Texas, occurred in April 1956. See Jim Wilson, “What if there were no boxes?”, Fairplay magazine, April 27, 2006 at p. 40. The use of containers in intermodal carriage soon spread, touching off the container revolution in the transportation of goods around the world.

Container revolution - See containers, supra. For further information on the “container revolution”, see Marc Levinson, The Box, How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger, Princeton University Press, 2006; Brian J. Cudahy, Box Boats: How Container Ships Changed the World, Fordham University Press, 2006. See also Dr. Salvatore R. Mercogliano, “The Container Revolution”, on-line at: http://legacy.sname.org/newsletter/SeaHistoryContnrShps.pdf.

Container ship - A ship specially designed for the carriage of containers.

"contra proferentem" - "against the stipulator". (A contract is interpreted against the stipulator.) See Ontario Bus Industries v. The Federal Calumet [1992] 1 F.C. 245 at p. 255 (Fed. Ct. of Canada), upheld (1993) 150 N.R. 149 (Fed. Ct. of App. of Canada).

Contract of affreightment (COA) - A term used in English-speaking countries to refer to a tonnage contract (infra), also known as a "volume contract", being a contract comprising an undertaking to ship a certain quantity fof goods, during a given period of time, by ships or other means, usually to be designated later. The COA must not be confused with the contract of affreightment , (supra), which is a charterparty.

Contributory negligence- The former method of apportionment of damages under English common law, which prohibited a plaintiff from recovering any damages from a defendant in tort if the plaintiff's own fault or negligence had contributed to his own loss or damage in even the slightest degree. In traditional English admiralty law, the common law "contributory negligence bar" to recovery by negligent plaintiffs did not apply to ship collisions, but rather damages in cases where both vessels were to blame for the collision were apportioned according to the divided damages (infra) rule, which was later replaced by proportionate fault (infra) in the United Kingdom, Canada and other British Commonwealth jurisdictions under national statutes giving effect to the Collision Convention 1910 (supra). Contributory negligence was replaced by proportionate fault in English common law by the Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act, 1945, 8 & 9 Geo. 6, c. 28, although several Canadian common law provinces had enacted such legislation some twenty years earlier. In Canadian maritime law, the contributory negligence bar was replaced by proportionate fault for maritime torts other than ship collisions by the Supreme Court of Canada's decision in Bow Valley Husky (Bermuda) Ltd. v. Saint John Shipbuilding Ltd. [1997] 3 S.C.R. 1210, (1997) 153 D.L.R.(4th) 385. See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 476-477, 479-481, 488; Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 49-50, 86, 93, 159 and 1190; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 219-222, 235.

Cooke, J.H.S.; Young, T.; Taylor, A.; Kimball, J.D.; Martowski, D.; and Lambert, L. - Voyage Charters, 2 Ed., 2001, LLP Limited, London.

Corbier, Isabelle - La notion juridique d'armateur, 1999, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris. See also Dr. Corbier's website at: http://www.isabellecorbier.com/.

Corporate veil- Although a corporation, with its separate legal personality, ordinarily has rights and obligations totally distinct from those of its shareholders, courts sometimes "pierce the corporate veil" so as to hold the shareholders personally liable for the liabilities of the corporation. Courts may also "lift the corporate veil", in order to determine who actually controls the corporation or, in the conflict of laws, to ascertain the corporation's true contacts. See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 159, 219-224.

Country Damage- Damage to baled or bagged goods (e.g. cotton) caused by excessive moisture from damp ground or exposure to weather, or by grit, dust or sand ashore.

Court of Appeal - The Court of Appeal of the United Kingdom. An example of the approved citation is [1981] 2 Q.B. 137 (C.A.).

Court of Appeals- The United States Court of Appeals which is divided into thirteen circuits. An example of the citation is: 100 F. 2d 871 (5 Cir. 1939).

CRISTAL- Contract Regarding an Interim Supplement to Tanker Liability for Oil Pollution. This contract was in effect until February 20, 1997 and was not renewed after that date. See also the references to PLATO (infra) and TOVALOP (infra).

"cumul" - A French civil law term referring to the combining of contractual and delictual (i.e. tortious) recourses in a single lawsuit. Many modern civil codes prohibit "cumul", by providing that neither party to a contract may avoid the rules governing contractual liability by opting for rules more favourable to him (i.e. rules of delictual, or "extra-contractual", liability). See, for example, the Québec Civil Code 1991 at art. 1458, second para. See also art. 133(3) of the Swiss Federal Statute on Private International Law, 1987 and art. 4(2) of the Netherlands Conflict of Maritime Laws Act, 1993. See Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 453-454; Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 718-719; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 106.

Curtis, Simon - - The Law of Shipbuilding Contracts, 3 Ed., 2002, LLP, London.

"custodia legis"- ("custody of the law") - Expenses in custodia legis are incurred, in the common interest of the creditors, to preserve the ship during the period of its arrest or attachment. Such expenses, together with costs of arrest and sale of the ship, are ordinarily ranked immediately after "special legislative rights" (infra) and ahead of all other maritime claims. See generally Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at Chap. 7, pp. 223-262; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 479-481.

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D.L.R.- Dominion Law Reports. Reports of Canadian decisions drawn from all Canadian courts and published by Canada Law Book Ltd. Email (Customer Service Department, Toronto): websupport [at] canadalawbook [dot] ca; Website: http://canadalawbook.ca/. An example of the citation is (1984) 8 D.L.R. (4th) 123.

DMF- Droit Maritime Français. The leading maritime law reports of France, published monthly in consecutively numbered issues, with an annual index, published in a supplement called "DMF Hors Série". An example of the citation of a judgment is Cour de Cassation, January 7, 1970, DMF 1970, 123. The publisher is Éditeur S.A. Lamy. The Editor is Stéphane Miribel.

Dalhousie University, Marine & Environmental Law Institute - Schulich School of Law, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Website: http://law.dal.ca/MELAW. Email: melaw [at] dal [dot] ca.

Dalian Maritime University - Dalian, People's Republic of China. Website: http://www.chinatefl.com/liaoning/teach/dlhs.html Email: faodmu [at] yahoo [dot] com [dot] cn.

Darling, G. & Smith, C. - LOF 1990 and the New Salvage Convention, 1991, Lloyd's, London.

David, René & Jauffret-Spinosi, Camille - Les grands systèmes de droit contemporains, 11 Ed., 2002, Dalloz, Paris.

Davies, M. & Dickey, A. - Shipping Law, 3 Ed., 2004, Thomson Lawbook Co., Sydney.

Davis, Mark- Bareboat Charters, 2 Ed., LLP Limited, London, 2005.

De la Rue, Colin & Anderson, Charles B. - Shipping and the Environment: Law and Practice, LLP Limited, London, 1998.

"De minimis non curat lex"- ("The law does not concern itself with trifles") - e.g., trivial divergences from contractual terms do not constitute actionable breaches of the contract. For the application of this maxim to a charterparty by demise (supra), see Sail Labrador Ltd. v. The Challenge One [1996] 3 F.C. 821 at pp. 847-848 (Fed. Ct. of Can.), reversed [1997] 3 F.C. 154, (1997) 212 N.R. 256 (Fed. Ct. of App.), reversed (1998) 235 N.R. 201 at pp. 242-245 (Supr. Ct. of Can.), upholding the trial judge's interpretation of the de minimis principle, but holding the doctrine inapplicable to the facts of the case at bar.

Deadfreight [Fr.: "faux fret"] - A sum of damages payable by the charterer to the shipowner or intermediate charterer where the charterer loads less cargo than promised in the charterparty. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 755-756; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 141.

Deadweight cargo capacity - See "Tons & Tonnage" (infra).

Deadweight tonnage - See "Tons & Tonnage" (infra).

Debattista, Charles, Sale of Goods Carried by Sea, 2 Ed., 1998, Butterworths, London.

"Delegatus non potest delegare" - A delegate may not in turn delegate to someone else.

Demise charterparty- See charterparty (supra).

Demise clause [Fr.: "clause de dévolution"] [Span.: "cláusula de cesión"] [Ital.: "clausola di cessione"] [Gr.: "Demise-Klausel"] - A clause in a bill of lading (supra) providing that, unless the ship is owned by or chartered by demise to the party who issues the bill, the shipowner or demise charterer is the carrier (supra). See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 601-644; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 104. See also Identity of carrier clause (infra).

Demurrage [Fr.: "surestaries"] [Span.: "demora" or "sobrestadías"] [Gr.: "Liegegeld"] - In a voyage charterparty (supra), an agreed amount payable to the shipowner by the charterer in respect of delay in loading or discharging the vessel beyond the laytime (infra), for which the owner is not responsible. In the United Kingdom, demurrage is regarded as liquidated damages, while in the United States, it is seen as extended freight (infra). See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 756-757, 770-771; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 141 footnote 98.

"Dépeçage"[Span.: "dépeçage" or "fragmentación"] [Ital.: "frammentazione"] - A French conflict of laws (supra) term referring to the application of two or more proper laws (infra), each of which is properly applicable to a different legal issue arising in the problem. For example, in a ship collision (supra) at sea, dépeçage could permit the application of different laws, including: a) the law of responsibility as between the ships involved; b) the law of damages (including the recoverability pure economic loss); c) the law of contract applicable as between passengers on one ship and that ship; d) the law applicable to cargo on one ship and that ship; e) the law applicable as between cargo and passengers on one ship and the other ship; f) the law governing the right to limit liability of each shipowner; g) the law applicable to the constitution and calculation of the limitation fund (infra) of each ship and h) the law of the distribution and marshalling (infra) of such limitation funds. The Rome Convention 1980 (infra) at art. 3(1) permits dépeçage by providing: "By their choice the parties can select the law applicable to the whole or a part only of the contract" (emphasis added). See Tetley, Int'l C. of L, 1994 at pp. 42-43.

Derecho Marítimo - A website of links to Spanish-language versions of various international maritime law conventions and Spanish maritime legislation, and related links to various maritime law organizations, maintained by the Universidad d'Alicante, Spain. Website: http://www.ua.es/es/servicios/juridico/derechomarit.htm.

Deviation [Fr.: "déroutement"] [Span.: "desviación"] [Ital.: "deviazione"] [Gr.: "Kursabweichung"] - A departure by the carrier (supra) of goods by sea from the agreed or customary geographic route, done without the consent of the cargo interests. At common law, a deviation deprived cargo of its insurance coverage, so that the carrier was treated as the insurer of the goods. Under the Hague and Hague/Visby Rules (infra), art. 4 par. 4, any deviation in saving or attempting to save life or property at sea, or any "reasonable deviation", is not deemed to be a breach of the convention or of the contract of carriage. An unreasonable geographic deviation, however, may be considered as a "fundamental breach" of the contract which causes the carrier to lose the benefit of the package or package/kilo limitation, and should also result in loss of his other defences under the convention and the contract. (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 229-307; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 89-90.) In the United States, unjustified deck carriage is also often referred to as a "deviation".

Direct action - The right of a third party who has a liability claim against an insured to proceed directly by suit against the insurer, usually because the insured has been declared bankrupt or has become insolvent. In most jurisdictions, direct action is permitted only by statute. See, for example, the Québec Civil Code 1994, arts. 2500 to 2502 and 2628, and the United Kingdom's Third Parties (Rights Against Insurers) Act 1930, 20 & 21 Geo. 5, c. 25. See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 362-381; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 617-619. See also Gregory Fossion, "An eternal triangle at sea: Loss of insurance cover under a direct action in marine liability insurance", Masters of Laws thesis, published in (2003) Jura Falconis, no. 2 of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.

Direito Marítimo e Direito do Mar- A website of Portuguese maritime law and legislation, with many links to other maritime law sites, maintained by the Instituto Politécnico in Beja, Portugal. Website: http://www.estig/ipbeja.pt/~ac_direito/dmar.html.

Dispatch [Fr.: "dispatch-money" or "prime de célérité"] [Span.:"premio por despacho adelantado"] [Ital.: "riscatto di stallia"] [Gr.: "Eilgeld"] - In a voyage charterparty (supra), an agreed amount payable by the shipowner if the vessel completes loading or discharging before the laytime (infra) has expired.

Displacement tonnage - See "Tons & Tonnage" (infra).

Disponent owner- A person, such as a bareboat or time charterer, who, while not being the registered owner of a ship, nevertheless has the right to "dispose of it" (i.e. to control its commercial operation), notably by sub-chartering it to a third party. Although lacking title to the vessel, the disponent owner may have many of the rights and responsibilities of the owner. See Somareff v. ABS 1989 AMC 2330 at p. 2338 (D. N.J. 1989); Arb. of Andros Compania v. Marc Rich 1978 AMC 2108 at p. 2109, note 1 (2 Cir. 1978). The disponent owner may be an agent of the shipowner: The Nortuna 1955 AMC 1576 at p. 1578 (S.D. N.Y. 1955). He may also be the ship's manager: Asty Maritime v. Rocco Giuseppe [1985] 2 Lloyd's Rep. 109 (C.A.).

Diversity jurisdiction- See "Erie doctrine" (infra).

Divided damages- The former method of apportioning damages from a ship collision under the general maritime law of civil law countries, as well as under English and American admiralty law, whereby such damages were equally divided between the ships involved in the collision, regardless of the degree to which each of them was to blame. Divided damages differed from the traditional contributory negligence (supra) rule of apportionment of damages, which precluded a plaintiff from recovering any damages from a negligent defendant if the plaintiff himself was at fault in even the slightest degree. The divided damages method was eventually replaced by the proportionate fault (infra) method of apportionment under the Collision Convention 1910 (supra) and national legislation giving effect to that Convention, and in the United States, by the Supreme Court's decision in United States v. Reliable Transfer Co. 421 U.S. 397, 1975 AMC 541, [1975] 2 Lloyd's Rep. 286 (1975). See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 471-483, 489, 497; Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at p. 50; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 223-228.

Dock receipt - A receipt issued by the carrier (supra) attesting to the delivery of the goods to the dock prior to their loading aboard the ship.

Dockray - Cases and Materials on the Carriage of Goods by Sea, Professional Books, Abingdon, 1987.

Doctors' Commons- Maritime law in England fell within the exclusive jurisdiction of the High Court of Admiralty which sat at Doctors' Commons in London from shortly after the Great Fire of 1666 until its dissolution. Civil law was pleaded in the court. In 1858, Doctors' Commons was abolished. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 33-35; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 366. See also Horton's Key (infra).

Documentary credit [Fr.: "crédit documentaire"] [Span.: "crédito documentario"] [Ital.: "credito documentario"] [Gr.: "Dokumentenakkreditiv"] - A documentary credit is defined as follows in the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits, 2007 Revision (UCP 600) (infra), of the International Chamber of Commerce, Paris (see I.C.C. Publication No. 600), at art. 2:

"any arrangement, however named or described, whereby a bank (the "Issuing Bank") acting at the request and on the instructions of a customer (the "Applicant") or on its own behalf,

i. is to make a payment to or to the order of a third party (the "Beneficiary"), or is to accept and pay bills of exchange (Draft(s)) drawn by the Beneficiary, or
ii. authorises another bank to effect such payment or to accept and pay such bills of exchange (Draft(s)), or
iii. authorises another bank to negotiate, against stipulated document(s), provided that the terms and conditions of the Credit are complied with."

Documentary credits, also known as "banker's commercial credits" and "commercial letters of credit", provide the seller in an international sale of goods with security that he will be paid for his goods after they are shipped, even if the buyer fails to pay for them or if his payment is dishonoured. An international sale of goods involving a documentary credit typically involves the following steps:

The buyer of the goods applies in his own country to his bank (the Issuing Bank), on the bank's standard form, to open a credit in favour of the seller in the other country. The opening of the credit involves an undertaking by the Issuing Bank to pay the contract price of the goods or to accept or pay a bill of exchange (e.g. a draft) drawn by the seller for that sum. The Issuing Bank may require the buyer to provide funds to cover its prospective liability to the seller, or may rely on the buyer's creditworthiness. The standard conditions of opening the credit may also provide the Issuing Bank with a charge on the goods and the shipping documents relating to them. Once the Issuing Bank approves the opening of the credit, it asks the "Advising Bank" in the seller's country to advise the seller of the opening of the credit in his favour. The Advising Bank may also undertake to pay the seller, in which case the credit is referred to as a "confirmed" (as opposed to an "unconfirmed") credit. The seller then provides the Advising Bank with the "shipping documents" (including, among others, the invoice for the goods, the bill of lading (supra) or sea waybill (supra) and, in CIF sales, the marine insurance policy). If the documents are in order, the Advising Bank pays, accepts or negotiates the bill of exchange drawn by the buyer, thus paying the seller for the goods and claims reimbursement from the Issuing Bank. The Advising Bank then sends the shipping documents to the Issuing Bank which releases them to the buyer, to permit him to take delivery of the goods at the port of discharge. The "Issuing Bank" makes a charge for issuing the credit, which is passed on to the buyer. See generally, Roy Goode, Commercial Law, 2 Ed., Penguin Books, London, 1995 at pp. 960-1025.

"Domaine national" ("national domain") - A French civil law term referring to all property and rights, moveable and immoveable, belonging to the French State, including both property forming part of the "domaine privé" (infra) and property forming part of the "domaine public" (infra) of the State. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at p. 1206.

"Domaine privé"- ("private domain") - A French civil law term referring to all property of the French State which is capable of being owned, including vessels. Such property is unseizable, may be used only for its stated purpose, may never be exchanged or leased for another person's use and must be sold when it can no longer be used for the stipulated service or use. See Tetley, M.L.C.., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 1206-1208.

"Domaine public"- ("public domain") - A French civil law term referring to all property of the French State which is incapable of ownership by virtue of its nature or the purpose for which the property is destined. Such property is unseizable, inalienable and imprescriptible. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 1206-1207.

"Dominant mind"- The dominant mind test permits the judge to determine whether the tug or the tow controls the towage operation and aids in determining whether the contract is "of" services (controlled by the tow) or "for" services (controlled by the tug). In this way, liabilities for loss or damage arising out of towage may be allocated. (In particular, the judge is the dominant mind.). See Tetley, "Tug and Tow (A Comparative Study - Common Law/Civil Law - U.S., U.K., Canada and France)" Il Diritto Marittimo 1991, 893-923; Tetley, Int'l M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 183-184. See also towage (infra).

Double actionability - The former English common law rule of conflict of laws in tort, whereby a suit could only be maintained in England for an alleged wrong committed abroad if the wrong would have been actionable had it been committed in England and if it was also civilly actionable in the place where it was committed. See Chaplin v. Boys [1971] A.C. 356 (H.L.). The double actionability rule has been largely repealed in England by Part III of the Private International Law (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1995, U.K. 1995, c. 42. In Canada, the very similar "actionable and not justifiable" common law rule of tort conflicts, adopted by the Supreme Court of Canada in McLean v. Pettigrew [1945] S.C.R. 62, was abandoned by the Supreme Court, in favour of the rule of lex loci delicti (subject to a flexibility exception) in Tolofson v. Jensen and Gagnon v. Lucas [1994] 3 S.C.R. 1022. See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 430-435, 437-438; Tetley, "New Developments in Private International Law: Tolofson v. Jensen and Gagnon v. Lucas" (1996) 42 Am. J. Comp. L. 647.

Douglas & Geen on the Law of Harbours, Coasts and Pilotage - 5 Ed., 1997 (R. Douglas, P. Lane & M. Peto, eds.), LLP, London.

Draft Instrument on Transport Law - See CMI/UNCITRAL Draft Instrument on Transport Law (supra).

Droit Maritime Français - See DMF, (supra).

du Pontavice - Le statut des navires, Librairies techniques, Paris, 1976.

du Pontavice - Transport et Affrètement Maritimes, 2e Ed., Delmas, Paris, 1990

du Pontavice & P. Cordier - La Mer et le Droit, PUF, Paris, 1984.

Dunnage - Material (usually lumber) used to secure cargo in containers and ships' holds in order to prevent shifting and resulting damage during the voyage. See The Milly Gregos, S.M.A. No. 2190 (Arb. N.Y. 1986); M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at p. 1295.

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E.C. Regulation 44/2001 - The Regulation of the Council of the European Union on Jurisdiction and the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, adopted December 22, 2000 (O.J.E.C. L 12/1 to L 12/23, January 16, 2001) and in force March 1, 2002 for all E.U. countries except Denmark. The Regulation is very similar to the Brussels Convention 1968, supra, which it replaces. Denmark continues to be bound by that Convention. See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 421-422.

E.R.- The English Reports. Reprint of eighteenth and nineteenth century law reports. An example of a citation (with the citation of the original report included) is (1839) 1 W. Rob. 111, 166 E.R. 514.

Economic loss- Economic loss is financial damages sustained as a result of a tort or delict. Generally, the claimant may not recover loss of profit unless there is physical damage under the common law, but may do so under the civil law. See Murphy v. Brentwood District Council [1991] 1 A.C. 398, [1990] 2 All E.R. 918, [1990] 3 W.L.R. 414 (H.L.); Robins Dry Dock Co. v. Flint 275 U.S. 303, 1928 AMC 61 (1927); CNR v. Norsk Pacific Steamship Co. (The Jervis Crown) [1992] 1 S.C.R. 1021, (1992) 91 D.L.R.(4th) 289; Bow Valley Husky (Bermuda) Ltd. v. Saint John Shipbuilding Ltd. [1997] 3 S.C.R. 1210, (1997) 153 D.L.R.(4th) 385. See also Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 719-727; Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 131-135; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 255-259.

"ejusdem generis" - "of the same kind". See Foscolo Mango v. Stag Line [1931] 2 K.B. 48 at pp. 57-59, 65-68, 72-76, (1931) 39 Ll. L. Rep. 101 at pp. 106-107, 109-110, 113-114. (C.A.). See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at p. 1226.

Émerigon, B.-M. - Traité des assurances et des contrats à la grosse, 1783, Paris (translated as An Essay on Maritime Loans, 1811 (J.E. Hall, trans.), Nicklin, Baltimore.

Endorsee- A party to whom an order bill of lading (supra) is endorsed by the original consignee (supra) or a previous endorsee of that same bill of lading. See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at p. 450.

"English law" ("Law of England"): All law applicable in England. The major sources of English law are: 1) the common law of England; 2) the rules of equity; and 3) statutes and regulations of the United Kingdom applicable to England. Other sources of English law include English admiralty (i.e. maritime) law, the Law Merchant, the ecclesiastical law (of the Church of England) and custom. N.B.: 1) Sometimes, the term "English law" has been used in a more restrictive sense, as referring to English common law, as opposed to the statutory law applicable to England. 2) English common law applies not only in England, but also in Wales and Northern Ireland. 3) The rules of equity, although still distinct from those of English common law, are considered to have been "fused" with the common law and are now administered by the same courts. 4) In Scotland, Scots law (an uncodified civil law) prevails, rather than English common law. Scots law, nevertheless, has been strongly influenced by English common law and by U.K. statutes. (e.g. English and Scottish law of marine pollution are the same, as per Steel, J. in The Sea Empress [2003] 1 Lloyd's Rep. 123 at p. 127.) See also United Kingdom and Law of the United Kingdom, infra.

Environmental Liability Directive - See E.U. Environmental Liability Directive, infra.

Equasis - European Quality Shipping Information System. An organization estabished in November 1997 by the European Commission, in conjunction with the United Kingdom Government, to promote safety in international shipping, by developing an information system collating existing safety-related information on ships from both public and private sources in various countries and making it available on the Internet. EQUASIS is managed from Paris. Website: http://www.equasis.org/; email: secretariat [at] equasis [dot] org (secretariat [at] equasis [dot] org/).

Equity [Fr.: "équité" [Span.: "equidad"] [Ital.: "equità"] [Gr.: "Billigkeitsrecht"] - A principle of fundamental fairness and justice applied by admiralty courts and arbitrators in maritime disputes where the circumstances of the case warrant doing so (e.g. altering the normal order of ranking of maritime claims, recognizing "equitable" liens, dismissing claims on grounds of laches (infra), marshalling (infra), awarding certain post-arrest expenses as custodia legis expenses (supra) where they have been incurred in the common interest of all the creditors even though they have not been previously authorized by the court). As used in maritime law, the term "equity" must not be confused with "Equity", being that body of law administered by a court of Equity such as the Court of Chancery in England, before the consolidation of the courts in the U.K. in 1873. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 235-236, 855-856 and 859-863; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 54-56; French Civil Code art. 1135; Québec Civil Code art. 1434; Louisiana Civil Code arts. 21 and 2055.

Erie doctrine- The American rule that a U.S. federal district court exercising "diversity jurisdiction" (i.e. jurisdiction in a case in which the parties are from different U.S. states or where a foreigner sues an American citizen), must apply the law of the U.S. state in which it is sitting. See Erie Railroad Co. v. Tompkins 304 U.S. 64 (1938); Klaxon v. Stentor Electric 313 U.S. 487 (1941). See also Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 608-609.

ESCAP- Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand. Email: webmaster [at] unescap [dot] org ; website: http://www.unescap.org/.

Estoppel- Estoppel is a common law bar to denying, in some cases, a fact which a party has already acknowledged, e.g., the issuer of a clean bill of lading (supra) is estopped from contradicting it as against a third party who has relied on it. (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 668-681; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 75.) "Fins de non-recevoir", or "irrecevabilité" ("inadmissibility"), is not the civil law equivalent of estoppel, but is a generic term referring to various exceptions to rights or procedures that prevent a claim or defence. (National Bank of Canada v. Soucisse, [1981] 2 S.C.R. 339 at p. 360).

ETL- European Transport Law. A review containing articles and judgments on air, land and sea transport law. An example of the citation of a judgment is Hof Van Beroep te Antwerpen, Jan. 7, 1971, [1971] ETL 123. The Editor is Robert Wijffels (infra), ably assisted by Marie-Paule Serck as Director.

E.U. Environmental Liability Directive 2004/35 - Directive 2004/35 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 April 2004 on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage, [2004] OJ L143/56, in force April 21, 2004. All Member States of the European Union (infra) must bring their laws, regulations and administrative provisions into compliance with the Directive by April 30, 2007. The Directive provides a regime for the prevention and remeding of environmental damage, at the expense of the polluter, which will cover pollution caused by hazardous and noxious substances and by bunker oil from ships in the E.U., until the HNS Convention 1996 (infra) and the Bunker Pollution Convention 2001 (supra) come into force for E.U. countries. See Malgorzata A. Nesterowicz, "The application of the Environmental Liability Directive to damage caused by pollution from ships" [2007] LMCLQ 107-113.

Euro - The currency of the European Union (infra). This currency is now used in all E.U. countries except Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the ten new countries which join the E.U. on May 1, 2004, but it is anticipated that it will eventually be the currency of all E.U. countries. As at March 2007, one Euro (€) was worth approx. $1.54 Cdn, or $1.31 U.S., or £0.68 (pound sterling), or 1.31 S.D.R.'s (infra).

European Free Trade Association (E.F.T.A.) - The association of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland in a free trade zone, as provided for by the E.F.T.A. Convention of 1960. N.B.: Austria, Finland and Sweden are no longer members of E.F.T.A., having joined the European Union. Website: http://www.efta.int/. Email: mail [dot] gva [at] efta [dot] int.

European Maritime Law Organisation- (EMLO) - Website: http://www.emlo.org/

European Transport Law - See ETL (supra).

European Union [Fr.: "Union européenne"] [Span.: "Unión europea"] [Ital:" Unione europea"] [Gr.: "Europäische Union"] - The present name for the former "European Economic Community" (E.E.C.), consisting of Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. As of May 1, 2004, the European Union includes ten additional countries, namely, the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovenia and Slovakia, thus bringing the total number of E.U. Member States to 25, and Bulgaria Romania joined the E.U. as of 1 January 2007, bringing the total number of Member States to 27. Website: http://www.europa.eu.int/. Email: europa [at] cec [dot] eu [dot] int.

Evasion of the law- A principle of the conflict of laws, better known in civilian jurisdictions (under the French name "fraude à la loi") [Span.: "fraude de ley"] [Ital.: "violazione di norme di legge"] [Gr.: "Rechtswidrige Umgehung eines Gesetzes"] than in common law jurisdictions, which consists of the intentional and improper manipulation of contacts (connecting factors), in order to avoid invalidity under the principle of public order/public policy (infra), to avoid a compulsorily applicable law or to avoid the most appropriate jurisdiction. Evasion of the law must be contrasted with "avoidance of the law" (supra), which is the acceptable arrangement of connecting factors for a legitimate purpose in an agreement, usually between two equal bargaining parties, in order to select an applicable law or jurisdiction. (Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 135-172.)

Ex. C.R.- Exchequer Courts Reports. Canadian Admiralty court reports of first instance and in appeal in Canada beginning in 1875 and ending in 1970 upon being replaced by Federal Court Reports (F.C.). An example of the citation is [1970] Ex. C.R. 123.

"Ex turpi causa" - An abbreviation of the Latin maxim "ex turpi causa non oritur actio", meaning "from a base cause no action arises". The legal principle thus expressed is that, on grounds of public policy, no court will lend its aid to a party who founds his cause of action on an illegal or an immoral act. See SCB v. PNSC [2000] 1 Lloyd's Rep. 218 at p. 231 (C.A.), citing Lord Mansfield in Holman v. Johnson (1775) 1 Cowp. 341 at p. 343, 98 E.R. 1120 at p. 1121. For an application of the principle, see Clunis v. Camden and Islington Health Authority [1998] 2 W.L.R. 902 at p. 908 (C.A.): "... whether a claim brought is founded in contract or in tort, public policy only requires the court to deny its assistance to a plaintiff seeking to enforce a cause of action if he was implicated in the illegality and in putting forward his case he seeks to rely upon the illegal acts."

Executory contract doctrine- The American general maritime law (infra) principle that no maritime lien (infra) arises from the breach of an unexecuted contract. Such a contract gives rise only to an action in personam, and not to an action in rem. For example, no maritime lien arises for breach of a seaman's employment contract unless the seaman has performed some work on board; nor does a lien exist for the supply of necessaries (infra)which have not been furnished to the ship. See Bank One Louisiana v. Dean, 293 F.3d 830, 2002 AMC 1617 (5 Cir. 2002), citing The Keokuk 76 U.S. (9 Wall.) 517 (1870). See also Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 298, 596 and 722.

Exequatur- A formality required by French civil law in order for a foreign judgment to be recognized and enforced in France. Exequatur proceedings are taken before the "Tribunal de grande instance" of the defendant's domicile, in most cases. See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 844-847; Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at p. 1156.

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F.- Federal Reporter being circuit and district court decisions from 1880 to October 1924. An example of a citation is 7 F. 108 (S.D.N.Y. 1881).

F. 2d or F. 3d- Federal Reporter (second or third series) being U.S. District Court and U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals decisions from November 1924 to January 1933 and U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals decisions from November 1924 to the present. An example of a citation is 584 F.2d 841 (8 Cir. 1978) or 3 F.3d 841 (8 Cir. 1990).

Facilitation (FAL) Convention 1965 - The Convention on the Facilitation of International Maritime Traffic, adopted by the IMO (infra) on April 9, 1965, which came into force March 5, 1967, as amended.

Fairplay- The leading international shipping and maritime magazine, published weekly. Website: http://www.fairplay.co.uk/. Email: info [at] fairplay [dot] co [dot] uk; Email (editorials): magazine [at] fairplay [dot] co [dot] uk.

"Falsa demonstratio non nocet" - An abbreviation of the Latin maxim "falsa demonstratio non nocet cum de corpore constat", meaning that a mere false description does no harm if there be sufficient certainty as to the object concerned. See Matthews v. Gillespie 120 S.E. 324 at p. 327 (Va. 1923): "It is one of the maxims of the law that a false description does not render a deed or other writing inoperative, if, after rejecting so much of the description as is false, there remains a sufficient description to ascertain with legal certainty the subject matter to which the instrument applies. This rule of construction is said to be derived from the civil law." See in particular Adamastos Shipping Co. Ltd. v. Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Co. Ltd. [1959] A.C. 133 at p. 154, [1958] 1 Lloyd's Rep. 73 at p. 81 (H.L.), where a charterparty incorporated a Paramount Clause which provided: "This bill of lading shall have effect subject to the provisions of the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act of the United States...." Applying the maxim, Viscount Simonds held: "'This bill of lading' is a conspicuous example of the maxim 'falsa demonstratio non nocet cum de corpore constat'. There can be no doubt what is the corpus. It is the charterparty to which the clause is attached." Accordingly, the charterparty was held to have been intended by the parties to incorporate U.S. COGSA 1936.

F.A.S. (named port of shipment) [Fr.: " F.L.B. - Franco Long du Bord" or "franco le long du navire"] [Span.: "franco al costado del buque"] [Ital.: "franco lungo bordo"] [Gr.: "Freie Längsseite See- oder Binnenschiff (benannter Verschiffungshafen)"]- Free Alongside Ship is a term of the contract of sale. Incoterms 2000 (infra) gives the following abbreviated description of F.A.S.:

"Free Alongside Ship" means that the seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the vessel at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that moment.

The FAS term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.

THIS IS A REVERSAL FROM PREVIOUS INCOTERMS VERSIONS WHICH REQUIRED THE BUYER TO ARRANGE FOR EXPORT CLEARANCE.

However, if the parties wish the buyer to clear the goods for export, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale.

This term can be used only for sea or inland waterway transport."

"Faute lourde"(gross negligence) - The type of fault described by Potheir as: "...le soin que les personnes les moins soigneuses et les plus stupides ne manquent pas d'apporter à leurs affaires" (translation: the care which the least careful and most stupid persons do not fail to devote to their own affairs). This definition was adopted by Rinfret, Chief Justice of Canada, in The King v.Canada Steamship Lines Ltd. [1950] S.C.R. 532 at pp. 537 and 539.

F.C.- Federal Court Reports. The official bilingual reports of the Federal Court and the Federal Court of Appeal in Canada (including Admiralty) which replaced the Exchequer Court Reports (Ex. C.R.) in 1971. Published by the Office of the Commissioner for Federal Judicial Affairs. An example of the citation is [2000] 3 F.C. 123. Website: http://reports.fja.gc.ca/index_en.html

F.C.L.- (Full container load). Here the shipper (infra) usually packs its goods in the container and seals it.

F.C. & S. Clause- A standard clause in a marine insurance policy by which the insurer excludes coverage of loss due to "capture" and "seizure" as well as "arrest, restraint or detriment, and the consequence thereof or of any attempt thereat (piracy excepted), and also from all consequences of hostilities or warlike operations, whether before or after declaration of war."

Fed. Cas.- Federal Cases listed alphabetically and assigned a sequence of numbers. United States Circuit and District Court decisions from 1789 to 1880. An example of a citation is 8 Fed. Cas. 491 (No. 4364) (D. Ore. 1875).

Federal Judicial CircuitsThe thirteen federal judicial circuits of the United States are as follows:

Circuit Composition
District of Columbia District of Columbia
First Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island
Second Connecticut, New York, Vermont
Third Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virgin Islands
Fourth Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia
Fifth District of the Canal Zone, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas
Sixth Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, Tennessee
Seventh Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin
Eighth Arkansas, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota
Ninth Alaska, Arizona, California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Guam, Hawaii
Tenth Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Utah, Wyoming
Eleventh Alabama, Florida, Georgia
Federal All Federal judicial districts

(See 28 U.S. Code sect. 41)

F.I.A.T.A.- International Federation of Freight Forwarders Associations. Website: http://www.fiata.com/. Email: info [at] fiata [dot] com (info [at] fiata [dot] com.)

F.I.O., F.I.L.O., F.I.O.S., F.I.O.S.T. - Terms of a charterparty which oblige the charterer, rather than the shipowner (or disponent owner), to pay for certain cargo handling operations. F.I.O. ("free in and out") means that the charterer controls and pays for loading and discharge of the cargo (which is therefore "free" of charge to the shipowner). F.I.L.O. ("free in, liner out") means that the charterer controls and pays for the loading of the cargo, and the shipowner pays for discharge (the discharge being on liner terms. F.I.O.S. ("free in and out stowed") means that the charterer controls and pays for loading, discharge and stowage of the cargo. F.I.O.S.T. means that the charterer controls and pays for loading, discharge, stowage and trimming of the cargo.
While these terms are unquestionably valid in chartering, their validity in bills of lading under the Hague Rules and the Hague/Visby Rules remains controversial. In the United Kingdom, it has been held that the shipper and the carrier are free to allocate as between themselves the responsibility for these cargo handling operations. See Pyrene & Co. Ltd. v. Scindia Steam Navigation Co., Ltd. [1954] 2 Q.B. 402 at pp. 417-418, [1954] 1 Lloyd's Rep. 321 at pp. 328-329; G.H. Renton & Co. Ltd. v. Palmyra Trading Corp. of Panama [1957] A.C. 149 at pp. 169-170 and 174, [1956] 2 Lloyd's Rep. 379 at pp. 390-391 and 393 (H.L.); and The Jordan II [2005] 1 Lloyd's Rep. 57, 2005 AMC 913 (H.L.). In the United States, there is a division of opinion. Some courts have agreed with the British position. See, for example, Atlas Assurance Co. v. Harper, Robinson Shipping Co. 508 F.2d 1381 at pp. 1389-1390, 1975 AMC 2358 at p. 2369 (9 Cir. 1975) (re the "F.I.O." term); Sumimoto Corp. of America v. M/V Sie Kim 632 F. Supp. 824 at pp. 834 and 836-837, 1987 AMC 160 at pp. 170 and 174-175 (S.D. N.Y. 1985) (re the "F.I.L.O." term); and Sigri Carbon Corp. v. Lykes Bros. Steamship Co. 655 F. Supp. 1435 at p. 1438, 1988 AMC 1787 at p. 1791 (W.D. Ky. 1987) (re the "F.I.O." term). On the other hand, the Second and Ninth Circuits have taken the position that such terms in are invalid under sect. 3(8) of COGSA (46 U.S. Code Appx. 1303(8)), because the duties of the carrier under COGSA are "non-delegable" and because such terms in a bill of lading, in effect, "relieve or lessen" the liability of the carrier for cargo loss or damage otherwise than as permitted by the statute. See Associated Metals and Minerals v. The Arktis Sky 978 F.2d 47 at p. 50, 1993 AMC 509 at p. 513 (2 Cir. 1992) (re the "F.I.O.S." term) and Tubacex, Inc. v. M/V Risan 45 F.3d 951 at p. 956, 1995 AMC 1305 at p. 1310 (5 Cir. 1995).
See also FO, infra and liner terms (infra).

First Restatement of the Conflict of Laws - The First Restatement of the Conflict of Laws, adopted by the American Law Institute at Washington, D.C. on May 11, 1934. - It was feared by Cardozo, C.J. that to grant damages for <strong><a href="http://www.mcgill.ca/maritimelaw/%2526gt%3Beconomic%20%20%20loss%3C/b%3E%20%28%3Ci%3Esupra%3C/i%3E%29%20would%20open%20the%20floodgates%20to%20"liability in an indeterminate amount for an indeterminate time, to an indeterminate class". See Ultramares Corp. v. Touche, Niven & Co., 255 N.Y. 170 at p. 174 (N.Y. C.A. 1931). See also Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 719-720.

Flotilla principle- The principle whereby the tonnage of both the tug and the tow were taken into consideration in calculating the shipowner's limitation of liability arising out of collisions between the tow and another vessel or a stationary object. The principle originally applied in England where the tug and tow belonged to the same shipowner, and even if the fault or negligence which caused the collision was committed only aboard the tug. Today, however, the combined tonnage of tug and tow are taken into consideration in calculating the shipowner's limitation in England, whether or not those vessels are commonly owned, but only if the fault or negligence that caused the collision was committed aboard both those vessels. See The Bramley Moore [1963] 2 Lloyd's Rep. 429 (C.A.) and The Sir Joseph Rawlinson [1972] 2 Lloyd's Rep. 437. In Canada, on the other hand, the traditional flotilla principle still applies, so that the combined tonnage of the tug and the tow will be taken into account in calculating the shipowner's limitation, provided that both the tug and the tow were commonly owned when the collision occurred, and provided that both the tug and the tow caused or contributed to the collision, even if the causal fault or negligence was committed only aboard the tug. See The Rhone v. The Peter A.B. Widener [1993] 1 S.C.R. 497. This position remains unchanged now that Canada is party to the Limitation Convention 1976 (infra). See Bayside Towing Ltd. v. C.P.R. [2001] 2 F.C. 258 (Fed. C. of Can.). The United States applies the same flotilla doctrine, requiring both the tug and tow to be surrendered in the limitation proceedings, if they were under common ownership and engaged in a "single enterprise" (as a unit) when the negligently-caused collision happened. See Cenac Towing Co. Inc. v. Terra Resources, Inc. 734 F.2d 251 at p. 254 and note 4 (5 Cir. 1984); Valley Line Co. v. Ryan 771 F.2d 366 at p. 376 (8 Cir. 1985). See also Seaspan, Lim. Procs. 2001 AMC 2366 at pp. 2368-2369 (W.D. Wash. 2001). See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 304-306.

Flotsam, jetsam, ligan (lagan) and wreck- Particular categories of property which may be salved. Flotsam refers to things found floating after a ship has perished. Jetsam refers to things thrown overboard to lighten a ship. Ligan (lagan) refers to things thrown overboard with a buoy to mark where they are. Wreck refers to an abandoned vessel or part of a vessel which is still afloat, stranded or aground. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 356-357, 359-360; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 322 footnote 7, 328.

F.O. (free out) - A term of a charterparty which obliges the charterer to control and pay for discharging the cargo. The term is sometimes also found in contracts of sale of goods, often in combination with one of the Incoterms. See, for example, Monk Corp. v. Island Fertilizer Ltd. [1991] 1 S.C.R. 779, (1991) 80 D.L.R. (4th) 58, where the Supreme Court of Canada held that a contract of sale specifying "CIF-FO" meant that the price of the goods included cargo insurance and freight (see "CIF", supra) and also made the consignee/purchaser responsible for the costs of discharging the cargo (as indicated by the abbreviation "FO", standing for "free out").

F.O.B.(named port of shipment) [Fr.: "Franco Bord"] [Span.: "franco a bordo"] [Ital.: "franco a bordo"] [Gr.: "Frei an Bord (benannter Verschiffungshafen"]- F.O.B. (Free on Board) is a term of the contract of sale. Incoterms 2000 (infra) gives the following abbreviated definition of F.O.B.:

"Free on Board" means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that point. The FOB term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can be used only for sea or inland waterway transport. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship's rail, the FCA term [free carrier] should be used."

In the port of Antwerp, Belgium, the term "F.O.B.", in general, means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver the goods when he delivers them to the ocean carrier (supra) in the port of shipment, the buyer bearing all costs and risks from that moment onwards. There are certain variations in this rule, depending on whether general cargo, heavy cargo, bulk cargo or containerized cargo is involved. See Robert Wijffels (infra), "Les Problèmes de la vente F.O.B." [1978] ETL 531-549.

F.P.A.- "Free of particular average". A formerly standard clause in a marine insurance policy, meaning that the insurance covers only a total loss and not a partial or percentage loss. F.P.A. is obsolete, now that "A", "B" and "C" cargo clauses are used. See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 609.

F. Supp.- Federal Supplement. United States District Court decisions from October 1932 to the present. An example of a citation is 319 F. Supp. 123 (E.D. La. 1970).

Federation of European Maritime Associations of Surveyors and Consultants Website: http://www.femas.org.

FONASBA- Federation of National Associations of Ship Brokers and Agents. Website: http://www.fonasba.com/. Email: generalmanager [at] fonasba [dot] com.

Flach, R.J.C. - Scheepsvoorrechten, 2001, Deventer, The Netherlands.

Force, Robert - Admiralty and Maritime Law, 2004, Federal Judicial Center, Washington, D.C.

Force, Robert - International Encyclopedia of Law - Transport Law - United States (R. Blanpain, gen.ed.), 2001, Kluwer Law International, Supplement 12, The Hague, London & Boston.

Force, R. & Yiannopoulos, A.N. - Admiralty and Maritime Law: Cases, Notes and Text, 3 vols., 2000, Lupus Publications, Ltd., Lansing, Mich.

Foreign sovereign immunity- See the State Immunity Act 1978 (U.K. 1978 c. 33); Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (28 U.S. Code Appx. 1330, 1332a, 1391(f), 1441(d), 1601-1611 (1976)); State Immunity Act (R.S.C. 1985 c. S-18). All these statutes are published in Benedict on Admiralty, vol. 6A. See generally Chap. 31 in Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 1161-1186.

"Forum conveniens"- ("appropriate (convenient) court"), referring to the principle whereby a court which does not have jurisdiction over a claim nevertheless accepts jurisdiction, because there is no other appropriate jurisdiction to hear the claim, in order to ensure that justice is done. (Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at p. 803.; The Rosalie (1853) 1 Sp. 188 at p. 192, 164 E.R. 109 at p. 112 (High Ct. of Adm.); Québec Civil Code art. 3136).

"Forum non conveniens"- ("inappropriate (inconvenient) court"), referring to the principle whereby a court which has jurisdiction over a claim nevertheless stays conditionally or dismisses unconditionally the suit, in order to send the claim to be tried in another jurisdiction to which the defendant is amenable and which the court believes is more appropriate or convenient for the litigation, in the interests of justice. See for example, Amchem Products Inc. v. British Columbia (Workers' Compensation Board) [1993] 1 S.C.R. 897, (1993) 102 D.L.R. (4th) 96. (Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 798-800; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 412-413; Tetley, " Jurisdiction Clauses and Forum Non Conveniens in the Carriage of Goods by Sea " (publisbed in Jurisdiction and Forum Selection in International Maritime Law. Essays in Honor of Robert Force (Martin Davies, ed.), Kluwer Law International, The Hague, 2005, Chapter 6 at pp. 183-263).)

Forwarderlaw.com- A website of legal information related to freight forwarding. The General Editor is Peter Jones (infra) of Paterson MacDougall, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Website: http://www.forwarderlaw.com/. Email: pfmjones [at] sympatico [dot] ca.

Free pratique ("libre pratique") - Permission given to a ship to use a port after it has been certified free of disease by competent health authorities.

Freezing injunction (or "freezing order")- See "Mareva injunction" (infra).

Freight [Fr.: "fret"] [Span.: "flete"] [Ital.: "nolo"] [Gr.: "Fracht"] - "the remuneration payable for the carriage by the vessel of property or passengers or for the use of the vessel" (Lisbon Rules 1987, infra). The consideration for the carriage of goods under bills of lading (supra), sea waybills (supra) and voyage charterparties (supra).

Freight forwarder- A party who arranges for the carriage of other people's goods by sea, for a fee, usually calculated as a percentage of the freight (supra) charge plus expenses. At times, the freight forwarder acts as a principal contractor in respect of the shipper (infra) and bears the responsibilities of a common carrier. At other times, the freight forwarder acts merely as an agent of the shipper, with the obligation to exercise reasonable care and skill. In France, the freight forwarder as principal contractor is known as a "commissionnaire de transport", and the freight forwarder agent is known as a "transitaire". See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 1691-1745. See also NVOCC (infra), ocean freight forwarder (infra) and ocean transportation intermediary (infra).

"Freinte de route"[Span.: "mermas"] [Ital.: "calo"] [Gr.: "Schwund an Raumgehalt oder Gewicht"] - A French term, referring to the normal, minor shrinkage, evaporation or deterioration of certain cargoes while in transit, for which no damages are ordinarily awarded in a cargo claim. (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 773-774; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 100.).

Full faith and credit [Fr.: "reconnaissance totale"] - In the conflict of laws, the principle of "full faith and credit" requires courts in one jurisdiction in a federal State to recognize and enforce the laws and court judgments of other jurisdictions within the same State. The principle is enshrined in Art. IV sect. 1 of the Constitution of the United States of America and at art. 118 of the Australian Constitution. In Canada, the full faith and credit doctrine has emerged in the case law of the Supreme Court of Canada in decisions such as Morguard Investments Ltd. v. DeSavoye [1990] 3 S.C.R. 1077 at pp. 1100-1101 and Hunt v. T. & N. plc. [1993] 4 S.C.R. 289 at pp. 321-325. See Tetley, Int. L. of C., 1994 at pp. 706-707 and 826.

Fund Convention 1971- The International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage, adopted by IMO (infra) at Brussels on December 18, 1971 and in force as of October 16, 1978, and its 1976 Protocol, adopted at London November 19, 1976 and in force November 22, 1994; its 1984 Protocol, adopted at London May 25, 1984, which never came into force; and its 1992 Protocol, adopted at London, November 27, 1992, in force May 30, 1996. The Fund Convention 1971 ceased to be in force on May 24, 2002, pursuant to a Protocol amending its art. 43.1, adopted at London, on September 27, 2000, which came into force on June 27, 2001. Most Contracting States to the Fund Convention 1971 are now parties to the Fund Convention 1992 (infra).

Fund Convention 1992 - The International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage, 1992, consisting of Arts. 1 to 36 quinquies of the Fund Convention 1971, as amended by its 1992 Protocol. The Fund Convention 1992 has replaced the Fund Convention 1971, which ceased to be in force on May 24, 2002.

Fundamental breach- A common law principle first developed in English decisions in the 1930's, which became very popular in the U.K. and British Commonwealth jurisdictions in the 1960's, prior to the enactment of consumer protection legislation. By virtue of this doctrine, a party who had committed an intentional breach of contract so serious as to "go to the root of the contract", depriving the other contracting party of substantially the whole benefit of the contract, was held to have fundamentally breached the contract and was consequently deprived of the protection of limitation and exception clauses in the contract. Since the House of Lords' decisions in Suisse Atlantique Société d'Armement S.A. v. N.V. Rotterdamsche Kolen Centrale [1967] 1 A.C. 361 and Photo Production v. Securicor Transport [1980] A.C. 827, however, fundamental breach has ceased to be a doctrine of substantive law, and has become purely a question of construction of the contract. In maritime law, however, fundamental breach is still evident in three areas of the law on carriage of goods by sea: knowing misrepresentation by the shipper (infra) of the nature or value of the goods (Hague and Hague/Visby Rules (infra) art 4, par. 5 fourth par.), unreasonable geographic deviation (Hague and Hague/Visby Rules art. 4 par. 4) and unjustified deck carriage (Hague and Hague/Visby Rules art. 1(c)). (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 229-307.) "Fundamental breach" has been translated into French in different ways, including "violation d'une clause essentielle" in Z.I. Pompey v. Ecu-Line N.V. [1999] A.C.F. No. 2017 (Fed. C. of Can. per Blais J.)); "rupture fondamentale" in Armada Shipping Lines v. Chaleur Fertilizer [1995] 1 F.C. 3 (Fed. C. A. of Can.); and "inexécution fondamentale" in Hunter Engineering v. Syncrude Canada [1989] 1 S.C.R. 426 (Supr. C. of Can.) and Z.I. Pompey v. Ecu-Line N.V., [2003] 1 S.C.R. 450 (Supr. C. of Can.).

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Gaskell, Nicholas - Limitation of Shipowners' Liability: The New Law, 1986, Sweet & Maxwell, London.

Gaskell, N. & Debattista, C. - Shipping Law, 9 Ed., 2006, FT Prentice Hall, Harrow, England.

Gaskell, N., Asariotis, R. & Baatz, Y. - Bills of Lading: Law and Contracts, 2000, LLP Limited, London.

Gauci, Gotthard - Oil Pollution at Sea: Civil Liability and Compensation for Damage, 1997, Chichester, England and Wiley, New York.

Gencon - See voyage charterparty (supra).

General Average act [Fr."acte d'avarie commune"] [Span.: "acto de avería común"] [Ital.: "atto di avaria comune"] [Gr.: "Gemeinschaftlicher Havarieakt"] - "There is a general average act when, and only when, any extraordinary sacrifice or expenditure is intentionally and reasonably made or incurred for the common safety for the purpose of preserving from peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure." (York/Antwerp Rules 1994, Rule A first para.; Marine Insurance Act, 1906 (U.K.) sect. 66(2); Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 1747-1808; see generally Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 Chap. 9, pp. 361-396).

General Average contribution [Fr.: "contribution d'avarie commune"] [Span.: "contribución a la avería común"] [Ital.: "contribuzione in avaria comune"] [Gr.: "Gemeinschaftlicher Havariebeitrag"] - The monetary contribution required of shipowners and cargo owners (or their respective insurers) in respect of general average expenditures and general average sacrifices. Cargo's claim for general average contributions against the ship is secured by either a maritime lien (infra) or a statutory right in rem (infra), depending on the jurisdiction concerned. The shipowner's claim for general average contribution is secured by a possessory lien (infra) on the cargo. Both claims may also be asserted by an action in personam. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 439-450; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 384-388.

General Average expenditure [Fr.: "dépense d'avarie commune" or "avarie-frais"] [Span.: "gasto (contribución) de avería común"] [Ital.: "spese d'avaria comune"] [Gr.: "Gemeinschaftliche Havariekosten"] - An extraordinary expenditures incurred by the shipowner intentionally and reasonably to preserve from peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure (e.g. port of refuge expenses, salvage remuneration, etc.).

General Average loss [Fr.: "perte d'avarie commune"] [Span.: "pérdida de avería común"] [Ital.: "perdita d'avaria comune"] [Gr.: "Gemeinschaftlicher Havarieschaden"] - "A general average loss is a loss caused by or directly consequential on a general average act. It includes a general average expenditure as well as a general average sacrifice" (Marine Insurance Act, 1906, sect. 66(1)). See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 610.

General Average sacrifice [Fr.: "sacrifice d'avarie commune"] [Span.: "sacrificio de avería común"] [Ital.: "sacrificio d'avaria comune"] [Gr.: "Gemeinschaftliche Havarieaufopferung"] - An extraordinary sacrifice intentionally and reasonably made to preserve from peril the property involved in a common maritime adventure (e.g. jettison of cargo, cutting away the mast or anchor).

General Council of British Shipping (GCBS)- See Chamber of Shipping, supra.

"General maritime law"- A term used particularly in the United States to refer to the non-statutory sources of American admiralty law. The general maritime law of the United States is derived from the historic lex maritima (infra) common to all Western European nations, with its fundamentally civilian nature and origin. The general maritime law includes such concepts and institutions as the maritime attachment; the theory of abandonment (supra) in shipowners' limitation of liability; the legislative treatment of maritime liens (infra) as substantive rights, rather than as procedural remedies dependent upon jurisdiction; remedies for wrongful death; the ocean carrier's possessory lien (infra) for bill of lading freight (supra), charter hire (infra) and demurrage (supra); maintenance and cure (infra) rights of the sick or injured seaman; the role of equity in admiralty law; general average (supra); marine insurance and pre-judgment interest. See Tetley, "The General Maritime Law - The Lex Maritima" (1994) 20 Syracuse J. Int. L. & Comm. 105-145 at pp. 121-128; reprinted in [1996] ETL 469-506 at pp. 484-491; Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at p. 55. See also RMS Titanic v. Haver 171 F.3d 943 at p. 960, 1999 AMC 1330 at p. 1344 (4 Cir. 1999).

"generalia specialibus non derogant" - A Latin maxim meaning "general things do not derogate from special things". The maxim expresses a rule of construction of statutes and international conventions, whereby their general provisions are held not to qualify their particular provisions. See, for example, Effort Shipping Co. v. Linden Management S.A. [1998] A.C. 605 at p. 618 (H.L.); The Zhi Jiang Kou [1991] 1 Lloyd's Rep. 493 (N.S.W. C.A.); Morales v. Trans World Airlines, Inc. 504 U.S. 374 at p. 382 (1992) ("[I]t is a commonplace of statutory construction that the specific [provision] governs the general."); and Senator Linie GmbH v. Sunway Line, Inc. 291 F.3d 145 at p. 157, 2002 AMC 1217 at p. 1230 (2 Cir. 2002).

Geneva Conventions 1958- The Geneva Conventions on the High Seas, on the Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone, on the Continental Shelf and on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas, adopted at Geneva on April 29, 1958.

Giermann, Heiko A. - Die Haftung des Verfrachters für Konnossementsangaben, 2000, LIT Verlag, Hamburg.

Gilmore, Grant & Black, Charles R. - The Law of Admiralty, 2 Ed., 1975, Foundation Press, Mineola, N.Y.

Gold, Edgar - Gard Handbook on Marine Pollution, 2 Ed., 1997, Assuranceforeningen Gard, Arendal, Norway.
Gold, Edgar - Gard Handbook on P&I Insurance, 5 Ed., 2002, Assuranceforeningen Gard, Arendal, Norway.

Gold E., Chircop, A. & Kindred, H. - Maritime Law, 2003, Irwin Law, Inc., Toronto.

Gold Clause Agreement- An agreement drawn up by the British Maritime Law Association, signed August 1, 1950 and amended July 1, 1977, substituting for the 100 gold value of the carrier's (supra) package limitation under the Hague Rules 1924 (infra) (arts. 4 (5) and 9), a value of 200 (1950), increased in 1977 to 400 English currency, where suit or arbitration (supra) was taken in the U.K. The Agreement ceased to have effect as at midnight on May 31, 1988. See text of the Agreement as amended in 1977 in Tetley, M.C.C., 3 Ed., 1988, Appendix "C" at pp. 1235-1239, with commentary at pp. 1239-1241.

Goldrein, I. & Turner, P. - Ship Sale and Purchase, 4 Ed., 2003, LLP, London.

Good faith [Fr.: "bonne foi"] [Sp.: "buena fe"] [It.: "buona fede"] [Gr.: "guter Glaube"]- A principle found throughout the civil law, to the effect that parties must negotiate and carry out a contract honestly and fairly. The common law, in recent years, has adopted the principle to some extent, especially in the negotiations, prior to reaching a final agreement. Good faith is a basic principle of such modern conventions, rules and codes as the Vienna Sales Convention, 1980; the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts 1994/2004 and the Uniform Commercial Code. See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 174-175; Tetley, "Good Faith in Contract: Particularly in the Contracts of Arbitration and Chartering" (2004) 35 JMLC 561-616 and on-line at Good Faith in Contract, Particularly in the Contracts of Arbitration and Chartering (Corrective vs. Distributive Justice) .

"Good Samaritan doctrine"- A common law doctrine whereby: "A person who voluntarily assumes a duty owed by another and then breaches that duty beomes liable to one who is injured as a result of the breach." See Tidewater v. Sanco 2001 AMC 2319 at p. 2335 (E.D. La. 2000), citing Indian Towing Co. v. U.S. 350 U.S. 61, 1956 AMC 27 (1955). See also sect. 324A, Restatement (Second) of Torts. The general maritime law, however, requires that the voluntary conduct be reckless and wanton. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 336-337; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 324.

Goode, Sir Roy M. - Commercial Law, 3 Ed., 2004, LexisNexis UK, London.
Goode, Sir Roy M. - Commercial Law in the Next Millennium, 1998, Sweet & Maxwell, London.

Gorton, L., Ihre, R. & Sandevarn, A. - Shipbroking and Chartering Practice, 6 Ed., 2004, Informa, London.

"Governmental interest analysis"- The principle of the conflict of laws according to which the law applicable is to be determined by the identification of the law of the state having the greatest interest in having its law applied to the particular case. The application of the theory requires the court to ascertain which of the states concerned has a more legitimate interest in having its social, economic or administrative policies applied to the legal problem at hand. The term and concept were developed by Brainerd Currie in the United States in his book, Selected Essays on the Conflict of Laws, 1963. The principle is applied in certain American states, but has not been generally accepted outside the U.S. (Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at p. 12.)

Great Lakes Seaway Review http://www.greatlakes-seawayreview.com. Email: harbor [at] harborhouse [dot] com/">harbor [at] harborhouse [dot] com.

Griggs P. & Williams, R. - Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims, 4 Ed., 2005, LLP Limited, London.

Grime, Robert - Shipping Law, 3 Rev. Ed., 2006, Sweet & Maxwell, London.

Gross negligence- See "faute lourde" (supra).

Gross register tonnage (g.r.t.)- See "Tons & Tonnage" (infra).

Gross tonnage- See "Tons & Tonnage" (infra).

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Hague Conference on Private International Law- An intergovernmental organization founded in 1893 to promote uniformity of private international law. The Conference has drafted over 30 conventions on diverse subjects of private international law, over 20 of which conventions are in force in different countries, including, among others, the Hague Conventions on International Sales of Goods (1955 and 1986), the Service of Documents Abroad (1965), the Taking of Evidence Abroad (1970) and Agency (1978). See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at p. 30 and the list of Hague Conventions in force at Appendix "K", pp. 1080-1081.

Hague Rules [Fr.: "Convention de Bruxelles de 1924" or "Règles de La Haye"] [Span.: "Convención de Bruselas de 1924" or "Reglas de La Haya"] [Ital.: "Convenzione di Bruxelles del 1924" or "Regole dell'Aja"] [Gr.: "Haager Regeln"] - "The International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law relating to Bills of Lading" - Brussels, August 25, 1924 (adopted at the instigation of the CMI and in force as of June 2, 1931). (See French and English texts, Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 2609-2635).

Hague/Visby Rules: The Hague Rules (supra) as amended by the Visby Rules (infra).

Hale & Fleetwood on Admiralty Jurisdiction - (M.J. Prichard & D.E.C. Yale, eds.), Selden Society, vol. CVIII, 1992, London.

Hamburg Rules [Fr.: "Règles de Hambourg"] [Span.: "Reglas de Hamburgo- "] [Ital.: "Regole di Amburgo"] [Gr.: "Hamburger Regeln"] - The United Nations Convention on the Carriage of Goods by Sea", adopted at Hamburg on March 30, 1978 and in force as of November 1, 1992. See English text: Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 2650-2676.

Hare, John - Shipping Law & Admiralty Jurisdiction in South Africa, 1999, Juta & Co. Ltd., Kenwyn, South Africa.

Harter Act 1893- formerly 46 U.S. Code Appx. 190-196. It is the precursor of COGSA (supra), 1936 in the U.S. It continues to apply to coasting trade and to shipping exempt from COGSA and also governs the carrier's (supra) liability for the goods before loading and after discharge. See the text in Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 2742-2744. Note that the Harter Act was codified in 46 U.S. Code at Chapter 307 ("Liability of Water Carriers") by the "Act to complete the codification of title 46, United States Code, 'Shipping', as positive law", being the Act of October 6, 2006, Public Law No. 109-304 (formerly H.R. 1442). The codification, while simplifying, clarifying and modernizing the language of the original statute, was not intended to make any substantive change in its provisions.

HNS Convention 1996- The International Convention on Liability and Compensation for Damage in connection with the Carriage of Hazardous and Noxious Substances by Sea, 1996, adopted by the IMO (infra) at London, May 3, 1996 (not yet in force). See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 142-143.

Hazelwood, Steven J. - P & I Clubs: Law and Practice, 3 Ed., 2000, LLP, London.

Healy, N.J. & Sharpe, D.J. & Sharpe, D.B. - Cases and Materials on Admiralty,4 Ed., 2006, Thomson/West, St. Paul, Minn.

Healy, N.J. & Sweeney, J.C. - The Law of Marine Collision, 1998, Cornell Maritime Press, Centreville, Md.

Hesse, Ph. J; Beurier, J.-P.; Chaumette, P.; Tassel, Y.; Mesnard, A.-H.; and Rezenthel, R. - Droits Maritimes, tome I, Mer, Navire et Marins, 1995, Les Éditions Juris-Service, Lyon and Paris.

Hill, Christopher - Maritime Law, 6 Ed., 2003, LLP, London.

Himalaya clause [Fr.: "clause Himalaya"] [Span.: "cláusula Himalaya"] [Ital.: "clausola Himalaya"] [Gr.: "Himalaya-Klausel"] - A clause in a bill of lading (supra) extending to specified third parties, such as servants or agents of the carrier (supra) and independent contractors (e.g. stevedores and terminal operators) employed by the carrier, the benefit of the exemptions, limitations, defences and immunities of the carrier under the bill of lading. The name is derived from the decision of the English Court of Appeal in Adler v. Dickson (The Himalaya) [1955] 1 Q.B. 158, [1954] 2 Lloyd's Rep. 267 (C.A.). (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 1853-1904.) The "Himalaya clause" is sometimes combined with a "circular indemnity clause" (see supra).The Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999, U.K. 1999, c. 31, at sects. 1 and 6(5) to (7), permits a third party to take advantage of a term excluding or limiting liability in a contract for the carriage of goods by sea, thus providing a statutory basis for the Himalaya clause. See Tetley, "The Himalaya Clause revisited" (2003) 9 JIML 40-64; also available on-line at: The Himalaya Clause - revisited

Hire [Fr.: "loyer" or "loyer d'affrètement"] [Span.: "precio" or "tarifa"] [Ital.: "prezzo di noleggio"] [Gr: "Mietzins"] - The consideration in bareboat, demise and time charterparties.

Hodges, Susan - Law of Marine Insurance, 1996, Cavendish Publishing Limited, London.

Hodges, S. & Hill, C. - Principles of Maritime Law, 2001, LLP, London.

Home port doctrine - A principle of the general maritime law whereby a maritime lien existed for the supply of necessaries (infra)to a vessel only if the necessaries were supplied away from the vessel's home port. The home port doctrine is still enshrined in French maritime law in respect of necessaries and master's disbursements (infra), but has been repealed by statute in the modern maritime law of most common law jurisdictions. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998, 552, 580, 596-597, 607, 608; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 494.

Honka, Hannu, ed. - New Carriage of Goods by Sea: The Nordic Approach including Comparisons with some Other Jurisdictions, 1997, Institute of Maritime and Commercial Law, Åbo Akademi University, Helsinki, Finland.

Horton's Key- A quay near London Bridge in Southwark during the Middle Ages. The Admiralty Court sat in a building on Horton's quay and at the Church St. Margaret-at-Hill nearby prior to the Great Fire of 1666, following which the Court moved to Doctors' Commons (supra).

Hoyle, Mark - The Mareva Injunction and Related Orders, 3 Ed., 2003, LLP, London.

Huybrechts, Marc, ed. - Marine Insurance at the Turn of the Millennium, vol. 1 (E. Van Hooydonk & C. Dieryck, co-eds.), 1999, European Institute of Maritime and Transport Law, Intersentia, Antwerp, Groningen, Oxford.

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I.C.C. - The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) is the world business organization. It is formed of national associations and has its head office in Paris. It makes rules that govern the conduct of business across borders. Among them are the Incoterms (the latest being Incoterms 2000 (infra), in force January 1, 2000) and the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits (infra)the latest (2006) revision of which comes into force on July 1, 2007. They are known as UCP 600. Website: http://www.iccwbo.org/. Email: webmaster [at] iccwbo [dot] org The ICC operates the ICC International Court of Arbitration. Website: http://www.iccwbo.org/index_court.asp. Email: webmaster_court [at] iccwbo [dot] org. There is also the ICC Institute of World Business Law. Website: http://www.iccwbo.org/home/business_law/council.asp Email: ldt [at] iccwbo [dot] org.

I.C.S.- The Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers - Website: http://www.ics.org.uk/. Email: info [at] ics [dot] org [dot] uk. See also International Chamber of Shipping (ICS), infra.

Identity of carrier clause [Fr.: "clause d'identité du transporteur"] [Span.: "cláusula de identificación del porteador"] [Ital.: "clausola d'identificazione del vettore"] [Gr.: "Identity-of-carrier-Klausel"] - A clause in a bill of lading (supra) providing that the shipowner is the carrier (supra). See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 602-603; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 104. See also demise clause (supra).

I.F.F.- Institute of Freight Forwarders - The former name of the British International Freight Association, supra.

Il Diritto Marittimo- A quarterly maritime law review, published in Genoa, Italy. Website: http://www.dirmar.com. Email: marlaw [at] dirmar [dot] com. The Editor-in-Chief is Francesco Berlingieri (supra).

IMAO/OIAM- International Maritime Arbitration Organization (Organisation Internationale d'Arbitrage Maritime), based in Paris, which operates under the aegis of the ICC (supra).

IMO (before 1982 it was named IMCO)- International Maritime Organization (IMO), formerly Inter-governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), is a specialized agency of the United Nations ; Email: info [at] imo [dot] org web site: http://www.imo.org/. The IMO has been instrumental in the preparation of many international conventions and protocols.

Immunity of State-owned Ships Convention 1926- The International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Concerning the Immunity of State-owned Ships, adopted at Brussels on April 10, 1926 and in force as of January 8, 1937, and its Additional Protocol of May 24, 1934, in force as of January 8, 1937. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 1163-1165.

In personam (against the person) - A type of legal proceedings directed against the defendant personally (e.g. an action for breach of contract, the commission of a tort or delict or the possession of property). Where an action in personam is successful, the judgment may be enforced against all of the defendant's assets, real and personal, moveable and immoveable. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 958-985. The jurisdiction of a court to try actions in personam is referred to as the court's in personam jurisdiction. See Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at p. 795; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 404-408. In the U.K., Admiralty claims formerly known as "claims in personam" under the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (S.I. 1998/3132), in force April 26, 1999, are now governed, as of March 25, 2002, by Practice Direction 61 (Admiralty Claims), paras. 12.1 to 12.6 (Other Claims) and such claims proceed in accordance with Part 58 (Commercial Court) (see para. 12.2). The relevant claim form must be in Form ADM1A (see para. 12.3).

In rem(against the thing) - A type of legal proceedings, taken in an admiralty court in a common law jurisdiction, against the ship (and sometimes against cargo and/or freight) (the res) as defendant, in respect of particular types of maritime claims (e.g. to enforce a claim secured by a maritime lien (infra) or a statutory right in rem (infra)). The taking of an action in rem is generally accompanied by the arrest (supra) of the res, which provides pre-judgment security for the claim and confirms the admiralty court's in rem jurisdiction. Where an action in rem is successful, the judgment may be enforced against the res by way of judicial sale. If the defendant files an appearance in the action in rem, however, the action proceeds as a combined action in personam and in rem, and an eventual judgment in the plaintiff's favour may then be executed against both the res and the defendant's other personal assets. On in rem jurisdiction, see Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at p. 795; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 404-408. In the United Kingdom, an action in rem is now termed a "claim in rem". See paras. 3.1 to 3.5 of Practice Direction 61 (Admiralty Claims), promulgated under Part 61 (Admiralty Claims) at Rule 61.3 of the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (S.I. 1998/3132), in force April 26, 1999, as amended with effect from March 25, 2002.

The action in rem does not exist in civilian jurisdictions, but in such jurisdictions, the action in personam (supra) may be accompanied by the saisie conservatoire (conservatory attachment) (infra) of the ship, cargo or freight, which, like the action in rem, provides pre-judgment security for the claim. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 958-985; Tetley, Int'l M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 406.

Inchmaree Clause- A clause in the hull policy extending the perils to include negligence of master and crew and other additional perils. See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 603, footnote 138.

Incoterms 2000- The Incoterms, the internationally accepted and employed terms for contracts of sale, were first published by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) (supra) in 1936. They were revised in 1953 and reprinted in 1974, including two new terms that had been adopted in 1967, and again in 1976, 1980 and 1990. The latest revision, known as "Incoterms 2000", came into force on January 1, 2000. It modifies some of the existing terms in an updated format for ease of use, providing traders, lawyers, transport officials and insurers with a modern text reflecting the latest changes in the trading environment. On the Incoterms 2000, see generally Emmanuel Jolivet, Les Incoterms: Étude d'une norme du commerce international, 2003, Litec, Paris. See also the ICC website:http://www.iccwbo.org/.

Indeterminate term (intermediate term) - A term of a contract which, according to the consequences of its breach, will allow rescission of the contract (and damages) or merely damages. See Bunge Corp. v. Tradax [1981] 2 All E.R. 513, [1981] 2 Lloyd's Rep. 1 (H.L.); Hong Kong Fir v. KKK [1962] 2 Q.B. 26, [1961] 2 Lloyd's Rep. 478 (C.A.). See also condition (supra) and warranty (infra).

Institut Maritime du Québec - Cegep de Rimouski, Rimouski, Quebec, Canada. Website: http://www.imq.qc.ca. Email: institut [at] imq [dot] qc [dot] ca.

Institute of International Container Lessors (I.I.C.L.) The trade association for the international container and chassis leasing industry and leading publisher of inspection and repair publications for containers and chassis. Website: http://www.iicl.org/. Email: info [at] IICL [dot] org.

Institute of International Shipping and Trade Law - University of Wales (Swansea). Website: http://www.swan.ac.uk/law/istl. Email: D [dot] R [dot] Thomas [at] Swansea [dot] ac [dot] uk (D [dot] R [dot] Thomas [at] Swansea [dot] ac [dot] uk.)

Institute of Marine and Environmental Law- A specialized institute within the University of Cape Town, South Africa, which provides teaching and research facilities in regard to the public law of the sea. Website: http://www.uct.ac.za/faculties/law/research/marine/. Email:uctlawclinic [at] uct [dot] ac [dot] za. See also "Shipping Law Unit" and "University of Cape Town".

Institute of Maritime Law- A specialized institute within the Faculty of Law of the University of Southampton, whi ch provides maritime law courses for practitioners and students. Website: http://www.iml.soton.ac.uk/ Email: R [dot] A [dot] Holloway [at] soton [dot] ac [dot] uk.

Institute of Maritime and Transport Law - University of Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden. Website: http://www.juridicum.su.se/transport/Main/eframep.htm. Email: transport [at] juridicum [dot] su [dot] se

Institute of World Business Law- See ICC (supra).

Instituto Hispano-Luso-Americano de Derecho Marítimo (IHLADM) - c/o Instituto Iberoamericano de Derecho Marítimo, infra.

Instituto Iberoamericano de Derecho Marítimo (IIDM). Buenos Aires, Argentina. Website: http://www.iidmaritimo.org/#.

Instituto Marítimo Español - Madrid, Spain. Website: http://www.ime.es. Email: maritimo [at] ime [dot] es.

Instituto Marítimo Internacional de Alicante - Universidad de Alicante, Spain. Website: http://www.ua.es/es/informacion/memoria/1998/x3.htm. Email: imia [at] ua [dot] es.

Integration clause - See "superseding clause", infra.

Intermediate (innominate) term- A term of a contract which cannot easily be classified as either a condition (a contractual term the breach of which deprives the aggrieved party of substantially the entire benefit which it was intended he should obtain from the contract, thus permitting him to sue for the annulment of the contract and/or damages) or a warranty (breach of which is of a less serious nature, sounding only in damages). An intermediate (innominate) term, by comparison, is a term which (if the parties have not stipulated that is either a condition or a warranty) the court must examine on a case-by-case basis, evaluating the nature and consequences of its breach in the light of the contract as a whole, in order to decide whether it should be treated as a condition or as a warranty. See Hong Kong Fir Shipping Co., Ltd. v. Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha, Ltd. [1962] 1 All E.R. 474 (C.A.). See also Bunge Corp. v. Tradax Export S.A. [1981] 2 Lloyd's Rep. 1 (H.L.), where the existence of intermediate (innominate) terms was acknowledged, but where it was also held that in mercantile contracts where "time is of the essence", the breach by one party of a time-related provision, which precludes the other party from performing his bargain under the contract, should normally be treated as the breach of a condition, rather than as the breach of a warranty.

International Association of Average Adjusters (Association Mondiale de Dispacheurs) - Founded in 1961 as Association Internationale de Dispacheurs Européens, the association in 2007 opened itself to worldwide membership and changed name. Secretariat: c/o Federowicz & Partners, 170, Rue d'Anogrune, B-1380, Lasne, Belgium. Tel.: (03) 32 2 633 41 14; Fax: (03) 32 2 633 55 58. Website: http://www.amdadjusters.org/; Email: info [at] amdadjusters [dot] org.

International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) - Website: Email: permsec [at] iacs [dot] org [dot] uk.

International Association of Dry Cargo Shipowners (INTERCARGO)- Website: http://www.intercargo.org/. Email: info [at] intercargo [dot] org.

International Association of European General Average Adjusters- c/o Henry Voet-Genicot, Mechelsesteenweg 203 B6, B-2018, Antwerpen, Belgium.

International Association of Independent Tanker Owners (INTERTANKO)- Website: http://www.intertanko.com/. Email: london [at] intertanko [dot] com.

International Association of Maritime Universities (IAMU) Website: http://www.iamu-edu.org/. Email: info [at] iamu-edu [dot] org

International Association of Ports and Harbours (IAPH)- website: http://www.iaphworldports.org/. Email:info [at] iaphworldports [dot] org.

International Bar Association (IBA)- Website: http://www.ibanet.org/.

International Cargo Handling Co-ordination Association (ICHCA)- Website: http://www.ichcainternational.co.uk/. Email: info [at] ichcainternational [dot] co [dot] uk.

International Chamber of Shipping (ICS)- Website: http://www.marisec.org/.

International Congress of Maritime Arbitrators (ICMA) - A convention of maritime arbitrators held every second year in different parts of the world since 1972, also attended by many judges, lawyers, and shipping officials concerned with maritime arbitration (supra).

International Council of Cruise Lines (ICCL) Website: http://www.iccl.org/. Email: info [at] iccl [dot] org.

International Court of Arbitration - See ICC (supra).

International Federation of Shipmasters' Associations-(IFSMA) – Web site: http://www.ifsma.org/. Email: HQ [at] ifsma [dot] org.

International Group of P. & I. Clubs- Email: international [dot] group [at] btinternet [dot] com.

International Institute of Marine Surveying - Website: http://www.iims.org.uk/. Email: iims [at] compuserve [dot] com.

International Law Association (I.L.A.) - Website: http://www.ila-hq.org/. Email: info [at] ila-hq [dot] org.

International Labour Organization (I.L.O.) - The specialized agency of the United Nations, headquartered in Geneva, which seeks the promotion of social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights. Founded in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles which brought the League of Nations into being, the I.L.O. became the first specialized agency of the UN in 1946. Since 1920, the I.L.O. has prepared 40 conventions and 29 recommendations on maritime labour standards, dealing with matters such as recruitment and placement, minimum age, hours of work, safety, health and welfare, labour inspection and social security. The I.L.O. is making efforts to consolidate these conventions and recommendations into a new, international maritime labour convention. Website: http://www.ilo.org/; e-mail: ilo [at] ilo [dot] org.

International Maritime and Commercial Law Yearbook- A jurisdictional review of international maritime and commercial law, published by Informa Professional since 2002, and containing annual summaries of the maritime law and marine insurance decisions rendered by courts in Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. An example of a citation is: [2002] IMCLY §27. Editor: Prof. Francis D. Rose.

International Maritime Mobile Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) - Website: http://www.inmarsat.com/. Email: customer_care [at] inmarsat [dot] com. IMSO (International Mobile Satellite Organization) is the inter-governmental organization (IGO) formed to oversee INMARSAT's public safety and services obligations since becoming a private company (Inmarsat Ltd.) on April 15, 1999. INMARSAT was established by the Convention on the International Maritime Satellite Organization, adopted by the IMO (supra) on September 3, 1976, which came into force on July 16, 1979.

International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG Code) - The International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code, adopted by the IMO. See consolidated edition 1994, in four volumes with one Supplement.

International Maritime Law Institute- A specialized institute established under the auspices of the IMO, providing maritime law courses to practitioners and students in Malta. Director: David J. Attard. Website: http://www.imli.org/. Email: info [at] imli [dot] org.

International Maritime Lecturers Association (I.M.L.A.)- c/o The World Maritime University, P.O. Box 500 S 201 24, Malmo, Sweden. See World Maritime University, infra.

International Maritime Pilots' Association (I.M.P.A.)- Website: http://www.internationalpilots.org/. Email: sec [at] impahq [dot] org/">sec [at] impahq [dot] org/.

International Maritime Security (IMS) - An organization specializing in providing and implementing the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code). Website: http://www.intemarsec.co.uk/. E-mail: ims [at] intmarsec [dot] co [dot] uk.

International Navigation Association (PIANC-AIPCN)-A world-wide non-political and non-profit making technical and scientific organization of private individuals, corporations and national governments, formerly known as the Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses (PIANC) (infra). Website: http://www.pianc-aipcn.org/. Email: info [at] pianc-aipcn [dot] org.

International Oil Pollution Compensation Funds (IOPC Funds) - Website: http://www.iopcfund.org/. Email: info [at] iopcfund [dot] org. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at p. 138; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 453-454. See also International Supplementary Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (infra).

International Safety Management Code (ISM Code)- The International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention (commonly called the "ISM Code") was originally the annex to Resolution No. A.741(18), adopted by the IMO Assembly at its Eighteenth Session on November 4, 1993, but has now become Annex IX to the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention, infra. See text published by IMO, London, 1994. See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 465-467.

International Salvage Union (I.S.U.)- Website: http://www.marine-salvage.com. Email: isu [at] randell [dot] fsnet [dot] co [dot] uk;

International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code) - The "International Code for the Security of Ships and of Port Facilities", adopted by the IMO (supra) on December 12, 2002, and which takes effect July 1, 2004 upon the entry into force of Chapter XI-2 of the SOLAS Convention 1974 (infra) concerning measures to enhance safety and security in the maritime transport sector. The ISPS Code establishes and international framework for cooperation between governments, their agencies and local administrations, on the one hand, and the shipping and port industries, on the other, in order to detect security threats, prevent security incidents and collect and exchange security-related information. It also requires the preparation of security assessments, security plans and related procedures for ships and port facilities.

International Ship Managers' Association (I.S.M.A.) - Website: http://www.intermanager.org/. Email: secretary [at] intermanager [dot] org.

International Ship Suppliers' Association (I.S.S.A.)- Website: http://www.shipsupply.org/. Email: issa [at] dial [dot] pipex [dot] com. ISSA is the international association representing nearly 2,000 ship suppliers throughout the world. 38 national associations of ship suppliers are full ISSA members and there are associate members in 44 other countries where no national association exists.

International Supplementary Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (Supplementary Fund) The Supplementary Fund was established on May 16, 2003 by way of a Protocol (in force March 3, 2005) to the Fund Convention 1992 (supra), in order to provide a third tier of compensation for marine oil pollution damage, over and above the compensation provided for under the CLC Convention 1992 (supra) and the Fund Convention 1992 (supra). The Supplementary Fund and the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (supra) share a common director and secretariat in London.

International Support Vessel Owners' Association (I.S.O.A.) - Website: http://www.marisec.org/marisec/marisec.htm. Email:isoa [at] marisec [dot] org (mailto:isoa [at] marisec [dot] org).

International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF)- Website: http://www.itopf.com. Email: central [at] itopf [dot] com.

International Transport Workers' Federation (I.T.F.)- The ITF is a global organization of more than 621 transport trade unions in 137 countries, representing around 5 million workers. It is one of 10 Global Union Federations (formerly International Trade Secretariats) allied to the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICTFU). Founded in 1896, it organizes workers in seafaring, docks, railways, road transport, civil aviation, inland navigation, fisheries, and civil aviation and tourism. It represents the interests of transport workers at world level through its input into global solidarilty, promotes independent and democratic trade unionism and defends human and trade union rights. Website: http://www.itf.org.uk/. Email: mail [at] itf [dot] org [dot] uk.

International Underwriting Association of London (I.U.A.)- An association of international insurers and reinsurers created in 1998 by the merger of the Institute of London Underwriters (I.L.U.) and the London International Insurance and Reinsurance Market Association (LIRMA). Website: http://www.iua.co.uk/. Email: info [at] iua [dot] co [dot] uk (info [at] iua [dot] co [dot] uk").

International Union of Marine Insurance (IUMI)- The international association of marine insurers (hull, cargo, liability, energy & offshore) has its head office in Zurich, Switzerland. Website: http://www.iumi.com/. Email: mail [at] iumi [dot] com.

Intervention Convention 1969- The International Convention relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties, adopted by IMO (supra) at Brussels, November 29, 1969 and in force May 6, 1975. See also the Protocol to the International Convention relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Pollution by Substances other than Oil, adopted at London, November 2, 1973, in force March 30, 1983.

Ivamy, E.R. Hardy - Marine Insurance, 4 Ed., 1985, Butterworths, London.

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Jackson, David C. - Enforcement of Maritime Claims, 4 Ed., 2005, LLP, London.

Jados, Stanley S. - Consulate of the Sea and Related Documents, 1975, University of Alabama Press, University of Alabama.

Jason clause/ New Jason clause- A clause in American bills of lading which permits the carrier (supra) to collect general average contributions (supra) from cargo owners in situations where the carrier is at fault, but is not responsible for the cargo loss or damage under the Harter Act 1893 (supra) or COGSA (supra). The name originates in the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in The Jason 225 U.S. 32 (1912), where the clause was upheld under the Harter Act. The clause evolved into the "New Jason clause" with the advent of COGSA in 1936. (See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 1780-1781; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 371).

Joint liability - Two or more debtors who are obligated to the same creditor for the same obligation are "jointly liable" where they may only be compelled to perform the obligation separately and only up to their respective shares of the debt. See Québec Civil Code 1994, art. 1518; Louisiana Civil Code, art. 1788.

Joint and several liability - Two or more debtors who are obligated to the same creditor for the same obligation are "jointly and severally liable" where any one of them may be compelled to perform the whole obligation and where performance by one of them releases the other debtors towards the creditor. See French Civil Code, art. 1200; Québec Civil Code 1994, art. 1523. In the civil law, a joint and several obligation is referred to as a "solidary" obligation (in French, "une obligation solidaire") and joint and several liability is termed "solidarity" (in French, "solidarité"). See French Civil Code, art. 1200 and 1201; Québec Civil Code 1994, arts. 1523 and 1525; Louisiana Civil Code, arts. 1794 and 1796.

Jolivet, Emmanuel - Les Incoterms: Étude d'une norme du commerce international, 2003, Litec, Paris.

Jones, Peter - The FIATA Legal Handbook for Freight Forwarders; Essentials of EDI, EDI Council of Canada, Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada, 1992; and EDI, The New Transport Revolution, EDI Council of Canada, 1993. See also forwarderlaw.com (supra).

Journal of Commerce- A news service, based in New York City, providing information on international trade and commerce, including shipping, surface and air transport and logistics. The JoC Group provides the information in different forms, including, among others, JoC Online (a daily news service on the Internet) and JoC Week (a weekly magazine). Website: http://www.joc.com/. Email: customerservice [at] cbizmedia [dot] com.

Journal of International Maritime Law - A major international maritime law review, published six times a year, with an index, by Lawtext Publishing Limited, Witney, Oxfordshire, England. Website: http://www.lawtext.com/lawtextweb/default.jsp?PageID=2. Email: jiml [at] lawtext [dot] com. An example of a citation is: JIML [2003] 9 503. The Editor-in-Chief is Prof. D. Rhidian Thomas (infra).

Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce- The leading American maritime law review published four times per year by Jefferson Law Book Co. Website: http://www.jmlc.org/. Email: jefflaw1 [at] juno [dot] com. An example of the citation is 14 J. Mar. L. & Com. 123 (1983). The Editor is Edward V. Cattell, Jr.

Juris International - A website of legal information in English, French and Spanish dealing with international trade, including international conventions, model clauses, drafting guidelines and links to various dispute resolution centres and business associations. Website: http://www.jurisint.org/pub/.

Jurisdiction- A term referring to the nature and extent of the legal authority bestowed upon a legislature to enact laws (legislative jurisdiction) or of courts to hear and determine actions and other legal proceedings (judicial jurisdiction), as determined by international conventions or national laws. A court exercises its "jurisdiction" (i.e. decision-making authority, or "competence") over proceedings of certain types ("subject-matter jurisdiction", or "jurisdiction ratione materiae") and over a defined territory ("territorial jurisdiction", or "jurisdiction ratione loci"). Its authority to adjudicate may also be limited to certain persons or to certain maximum amounts of money in dispute. "Jurisdiction" may also refer to one or more States or political subdivisions governed by a particular legal system (e.g. "common law jurisdictions", "civilian jurisdictions"). The term may also refer to the type of legal proceedings whereby a court assumes and exercises its decision-making function (e.g. the court's "in personam" or "in rem" jurisdiction (supra)). "Jurisdiction" may be used with respect to a particular type of subject-matter jurisdiction exercised by a court (e.g. the "Admiralty jurisdiction" of the Court of Queen's Bench), as well as with respect to the geographic limits of the territorial jurisdiction of the court (e.g. service "out of the jurisdiction"; assets "within the jurisdiction").

Jurisdiction clause - A clause in a bill of lading (supra), a waybill (supra) or a charterparty (supra), providing that any dispute arising under the contract evidenced by that document shall be tried before the competent court of a particular State (e.g. "the courts of France") or by a specific court within that State (e.g. the "Tribunal de Commerce de Rouen"). A jurisdiction clause usually also specifies the law that will govern the disputes concerned. See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 1903-2009; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 107; Tetley, " Jurisdiction Clauses and Forum Non Conveniens in the Carriage of Goods by Sea " (publisbed in Jurisdiction and Forum Selection in International Maritime Law. Essays in Honor of Robert Force (Martin Davies, ed.), Kluwer Law International, The Hague, 2005, Chapter 6 at pp. 183-263).
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Kennedy, W.R. & Rose, F.D. - Kennedy and Rose on the Law of Salvage, 6 Ed., 2001, Sweet & Maxwell, London.

Khodjet el Khil, Lilia - La Pollution de la Mer Méditerranée du Fait du Transport Maritime de Marchandises, 2003, Presses Universitaires d'Aix-Marseille.

Kiantou-Pampouki, Aliki -Multimodal Transport: Carrier Liabiity and Issues related to the Bills of Lading, 2000, Bruylant, Brussels.

Knot - One nautical mile (infra) (6080 feet) per hour, the maritime measure for speed at sea.

Kpoahoun Amoussou, Aubin - Les Clauses Attributives de Compétence dans le Transport Maritime de Marchandises, 2002, Presses Universitaires d'Aix-Marseille.


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Laches- A common law term derived from the Courts of Equity, referring to the failure of a plaintiff to assert his claim within a reasonable time, which alone or with other circumstances, causes prejudice to his debtor or to third parties, resulting in the dismissal of his tardy suit on equitable grounds. Laches is frequently invoked in admiralty courts, especially in the United States where there are few statutes of limitation applicable to maritime claims. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 857, 863-868, 882-883, 901, 908-909; Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 673-677, 687-688; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 503-504.

"Law Merchant"- See "lex mercatoria", infra.

Law of the flag- The conflict of laws rule, still reflected in many national laws and international conventions, which subjected various maritime law matters to the law of the flag or port of registry of the ship. The concept bore the imprint of nineteenth-century theories of the law of the citizen, espoused by Napoleon Bonaparte and Mancini. Today, the emergence of flags of convenience, double-flagging, flagging out, and the increasing insistence in many international conventions on a "genuine link" between the flag and the ship, have reduced the importance of the law of the flag to merely one contact, or connecting factor, among others in maritime conflicts of law. See for example, Hellenic Lines, Ltd. v. Rhoditis, 398 U.S. 306, 1970 AMC 994 (1970) and Spector v. Norwegian Cruise Line Ltd., 545 U.S. 119, 2005 AMC 1521 (2005). See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 175-224.

Law of the Sea Convention 1982 (LOS 1982)- The United Nations Law of the Sea Convention, adopted at Montego Bay, Jamaica, December 10., 1982 and in force November 16, 1994. This Convention was the product of nine years of work by the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (1973-1982). See Tetley M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at p. 141; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 633-644.

"Law of the United Kingdom": The statutes and regulations applicable to the whole of the United Kingdom, including European Union treaties and regulations, which are "directly applicable" in the U.K. as a Member-State of the E.U., as well as treaties made by the U.K. Government under the royal prerogative of the Crown. See also English law (Law of England) and United Kingdom.

Laws of Wisby (Visby)- An important collection of maritime laws based on the Lubeck codes, a Flemish copy of the judgments of Oléron and Dutch ordinances from Amsterdam, first published at Wisby (Visby), capital of Gotland in 1505 by Godfrey of Gemen. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 18-21.

Lay days - See laytime infra.

Lay (share)- A type of employment contract for commercial fishermen, whereby they are paid a share, or percentage, of the profits from the catch. See 46 U.S. Code 10601 et seq. See also Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 299-301.

Laycan - An abbreviation of "layday cancelling date" or "laydays cancelling". A term used in a voyage charterparty, (supra) referring to the period of time between the commencement of laytime (infra) (being the beginning of the "lay days" when the charterer must commence loading the cargo), and the cancelling date (being the date after which the charterer may repudiate the charterparty if the ship has not then arrived at the specified port or place of loading). This period, also called the "laycan spread", is typically expressed as two dates, for example "laycan 25 March/2 April", meaning that the charterer may not be obliged to commence loading earlier than 25 March even if the ship has arrived at the specified port or place of loading by that date, and that he may cancel the charterparty if the ship has not arrived there by 2 April. See J. Schofield, Laytime and Demurrage, 5 Ed., LLP, London, 2004; P. Brodie, Dictionary of Shipping Terms, 4 Ed., LLP, London, 2003 at p. 140.

Laytime [Fr.: "staries" or "délai de staries"] [Ital.: "stallie"] [Gr.: "Liegezeit"] - In a voyage charterparty (supra), the period of time (the "lay days") agreed between the parties during which the shipowner will make and keep the vessel available to the voyage charterer for loading or discharging without payment additional to the freight (supra). See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 135 footnote 67.

LCIA (London Court of International Arbitration)- The International Dispute Resolution Centre in London, England. Website: http://www.lcia.org/. Email: lcia [at] lcia [dot] org.

L.C.L.- (less than a container load). Here the carrier (supra) takes the goods from two or more shippers (infra), packs them into the container and seals it.

Leader- An underwriter whose judgment is so respected by other underwriters that they will follow his lead in accepting a risk presented by the assured's broker. His syndicate or company will be the first to initial the slip presented by the assured's broker.

League- An ancient term of measurement on land and sea, the equivalent of four Roman miles. It is 3.18 nautical miles but at sea it is usually taken as 3 nautical miles, often reduced to 6000 feet.

Letter of guarantee [Fr.: "lettre de garantie"] [Span.: "carta de garantía del consignatario"] [Ital.: "lettera di garanzia all'arrivo"] [Gr.: "Garantiebrief"] - A written undertaking, or letter of indemnity, usually provided by a bank, promising to hold the carrier (supra) harmless, up to a certain sum, for claims that may arise from the delivery of goods to a particular person who is unable to surrender the original bills of lading in return for the goods. See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at p. 2014.

Letter of indemnity [Fr.: "lettre d'indemnité"] [Span.: "carta de garantía del cargador"] [Ital.: "lettera di manleva" or "lettera di garanzia alla partenza"] [Gr.: "Indemnitätsbrief"] - A written undertaking by a shipper (infra) to indemnify a carrier (supra) for any liability which the carrier may incur for having issued a clean bill of lading (supra) when, in fact, the goods received were not as stated on the bill of lading (supra). Such a letter is usually a central document in a fraud, whereby the shipper and carrier knowingly misrepresent to third parties the actual order and condition of the goods at the time of shipment or the bad order of the packing, or whereby they issue duplicate bills of lading to replace lost or stolen originals. Letters of indemnity should not be condoned by courts and are generally held ineffective as against third parties. See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 2011-2074; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 73; Hamburg Rules (supra) art 17(2) and (3) (referring to letters of indemnity as "letters of guarantee".

Letter of undertaking (LOU) [Fr.: "lettre d'engagement"] [Ital.: "lettera di impegno"] [Gr.: "Schuldübernahme"] - A written undertaking provided by a P. & I. club (see P. & I. insurance, infra) to secure the release of a ship belonging to one of the Club's shipowning members from arrest or attachment, or to prevent such arrest or attachment. The letter provides the seizing creditor with a guarantee that his claim will be satisfied up to the amount specified by the letter. It also usually replaces the ship as security and contains a submission to the jurisdiction of the competent court or , as well as an undertaking to accept service on behalf of the shipowners in personam besides in the name of the ship. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 1111-1118.

"lex causae"- The law applicable to the case.

"lex fori" - The law of the forum.

"lex loci contractus"- The law of the place of conclusion of the contracting.

"lex loci damni" - The law of the place of the injury.

"lex loci delicti" - The law of the place of the tort/delict.

"lex loci solutionis"- The law of the place of performance of the contract.

"lex maritima" ("ley maryne")- A body of oral rules, customs and usages relating to navigation and maritime commerce, the first elements of which may be traced back to the Rhodian Law (infra) (c. 800 B.C.), and which developed in medieval Western Europe from the ninth to the twelfth centuries as part of a wider, customary mercantile law (the "lex mercatoria" or "Law Merchant", infra), administered by merchant judges. The lex maritima was gradually codified in early maritime law compilations, such as the Rôles of Oléron (infra) in the twelfth century, the Consolato del Mare (supra) in the fifteenth century and the Laws of Wisby (supra) in the sixteenth century. It underlies much of contemporary maritime law, not only in civil law countries, but even in common law jurisdictions such as England and Canada, and, in particular, may be found in the "general maritime law" (supra) of the United States. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 7, 12-13, 48, 55-56, 59; Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 181-185, 302, 389, 671, 868; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 9; Tetley, "The General Maritime Law - The Lex Maritima" (1994) 20 Syracuse J. Int. L. & Comm. 105-145; reprinted in [1996] ETL 469-506.

"lex mercatoria" ("Law Merchant")- A body of oral, customary mercantile law which developed in medieval Europe and was administered quite uniformly across Europe by merchant judges, adjudicating disputes between merchants. The lex mercatoria originally included the lex maritima (supra). In the contemporary world, some (although not all) scholars believe there exists a modern lex mercatoria, defined to include certain transnational trade usages and commercial customs recognized internationally by the mercantile community, and possibly extending to certain international conventions and even national laws pertaining to international economic relations. International commercial arbitration (supra) is frequently cited as a field in which the modern lex mercatoria is operative. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 7, 12, 55-56, 60; Tetley, Int. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 181-185, 389, 417-419, 671, 868; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 4; Tetley, "The General Maritime Law -The Lex Maritima" (1994) 20 Syracuse J. Int. L. & Comm. 105-145, at pp. 109-114 and 134-142; reprinted in [1996] ETL 469-505 at pp. 472-478 and 497-504.

Lex Mercatoria - An extensive website of legal materials related to various fields of international trade law, including, inter alia, carriage of goods, international commercial arbitration and the conflict of laws. Website: http://www.jus.uio.no/lm.

"ley maryne" - See "lex maritima", supra.

Li, K.X. & Ingram, C.W.M. - Maritime Law and Policy in China, 2002, Cavendish Publishing, London & Sydney.

Limitation Convention 1957- The International Convention Relating to the Limitation of the Liability of Owners of Seagoing Ships, adopted at Brussels on October 10, 1957 and in force as of May 31, 1968. See also the Protocol, adopted at Brussels on December 21, 1979 and in force as of October 6, 1984. See CMI (supra).

Limitation Convention 1976 - Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims, adopted by the IMO (supra) at London on November 19, 1976 and in force as of December 1, 1986. See also the Protocol, adopted at Geneva on May 3, 1996 (in force May 13, 2004).

Limitation fund [Fr.: "fonds de limitation"] [Span.: "fondo de limitación"] [Ital.: "fondo di limitazione"] [Gr.: Haftungsbegrenzungsfond"] - The fund which is constituted in court by the party seeking to limit its liability under the Limitation Conventions 1957 (art. 2) or 1976 (art. 11) (supra). Once constituted, the limitation fund is available only to pay claims subject to limitation, so that other claims must be asserted separately, and claimants against the fund are barred from proceeding against other assets of the defendant. The fund is constituted by the deposit with the court of the sum or approved security, as determined under the relevant Convention, for the benefit of all claimants. The constitution of the fund results in a stay of proceedings in any actions already begun in respect of the casualty concerned, and in the filing of all claims relating to the casualty in the limitation proceedings, in accordance with the principle of "concursus" (supra). At the conclusion of the limitation proceedings, the fund is distributed in proportion to the "established claims". See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 300-311.

Limitation of shipowners' liability - The ancient right of shipowners, later extended to charterers, managers, salvors and insurers of ships, to limit their liability for certain maritime claims, either to a sum representing the value of the vessel and pending freight after the casualty, or to a sum determined by the tonnage of the vessel, depending upon the jurisdiction concerned and the applicable or national law. See Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994, at pp. 505-531; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003, Chap. 7, at pp. 267-316.

liner [Fr.: "navire de ligne"] [Span.: "buque de línea"] [Ital.: "nave di linea"] [Gr.: "Linienschiff"] - A vessel habitually employed on a regular schedule and loading and discharging at specified ports.

liner terms - Liner terms refer to the ordinary responsibility of the shipowner under a charterparty to control and pay for the loading, stowage, trimming and discharge of the cargo of the charterer. Liner terms are therefore to be contrasted with terms such as F.I.O., F.I.L.O., F.I.O.S. and F.I.O.S.T. (supra), which have the effect of transferring some of those responsibilities from the shipowner to the charterer.

Linewaybill - See waybill (sea waybill) (supra).

Lisbon Rules 1987 [Fr.: "Règles de Lisbonne 1987"] [Span.: "Reglas de Lisboa 1987"] [Ital.: "Regole di Lisbona 1987"] [Gr.: "Lissabonner Regeln 1987"] - A set of rules on the assessment of damages in ship collisions (supra), prepared by the CMI and adopted at Lisbon in 1987. The Rules do not have the force of law, but are intended rather as guidelines for judges, arbitrators, insurers, average adjusters and others concerned with evaluating collision damages. They may also be chosen by the parties to a collision dispute, after it arises, to govern damage assessment. See text at (1987) 18 JMLC 577-582, with commentary by J. Warot at pp. 583-587. See also Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 259.

Lloyd's List- A daily newspaper published in London, England, and also available on the Internet, providing information on world shipping, insurance, energy and logistics markets. Email: webeditor [at] lloydslist [dot] com; website: http://www.lloydslist.com/.

Lloyd's Maritime and Commercial Law Quarterly- The leading English maritime review published by Informa Professional (a trading division of Informa UK Limited). In North America: Informa Publishing Group Ltd. Website: http://www.informalaw.com/. An example of the citation is [1980] LMCLQ 123. The General Editor is Prof. Francis. D. Rose (infra). The Consultant Editor is Prof. Francis M.B. Reynolds (infra).

Lloyd's Register - A parent organization which is the world's leading classification society. The Register of Ships contains details of some 83,000 merchant ships from around the world. For publications, contact Marine Information Publishing Group. Website: http://www.lr.org/. Email: Lloydsreg [at] lr [dot] org.

Lloyd's Rep. and Ll. L. Rep. - Lloyd's List Law Reports (since 1950 the title has been Lloyd's Reports.) They are the leading maritime law reports of Great Britain, published by LLP Professional Publishing. An example of the citation up to 1950 is: (1950) 84 Ll. L. Rep. 123 and thereafter is: [1970] 1 Lloyd's Rep. 123. Website: http://www.lloydslawreports.com/; E-mail: contact [at] lloydslawreports [dot] com.

Lloyd's Standard Form of Salvage Agreement - See LOF 2000 (infra).

Load lines [Fr.: "lignes de charge"] [Span.: "líneas de carga"] [Ital.: "linee di massimo carico" or "marche di bordo libero"] [Gr.: "Ladelinie"] - Lines painted on the side of a ship, indicating the maximum depth to which the vessel may safely be loaded. See also the International Convention on Load Lines, adopted by IMO on April 5, 1966, which came into force July 21, 1968. See also "Plimsoll line" (infra).

LOF 2000 (Lloyd's Standard Form of Salvage Agreement)- A form of salvage contract approved and published by the Council of Lloyd's to replace, as of September 1, 2000, the previous Lloyd's Standard Form Salvage Agreement (LOF 1995). The acronym "LOF" derives from the former name of the Agreement ("Lloyd's Open Form"). LOF 2000 provides for salvage services to be rendered on the principle of "no cure - no pay" (infra), subject, however, to the provisions of the Salvage Convention 1989 (infra) relating to special compensation (infra) and to the SCOPIC Clause (infra). See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 327-328.

Log (ship's log) [Fr.: "journal de bord" or "livre de bord"] [Span.: "diario de navegación"] [Ital.: "giornale di bordo"] [Gr.: "Logbuch"] - A record book carried aboard a ship in which all significant events relating to the journey are recorded by the ship's officers authorized to make such entries. A ship may have aboard more than one log, including an "official" log, an engine room log, a radio log, a "rough" log, etc. The log is at time prima facie (infra) evidence in a maritime dispute. See Cour de Cassation, July 2, 1996, DMF 1996, 1145. note P. Delebecque. The modification of or failure to produce logs is regarded by courts with suspicion. See Old Colony Ins. Co. v. S.S. Southern Star 280 F. Supp. 189 at p,. 191, 1967 AMC 1641 at p. 1644 (D. Ore. 1967); International Produce, Inc. v. Frances Salman 1975 AMC 1521 at p. 1540, [1975] 2 Lloyd's Rep. 355 at p. 365 (S.D. N.Y. 1975); Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 343-350 ("Fourth Principle of Proof").

London Court of International Arbitration- See "LCIA" (supra).

London Maritime Arbitrators' Association (LMAA)- A major association of maritime arbitrators. Website: http://www.lmaa.org.uk/. Email: lmaa [at] btinternet [dot] com.

London Shipping Law Centre - A specialized institute within the Faculty of Laws of University College London, which provides maritime law courses to practitioners and students. It is an industry-based forum for education, discussion, interaction and development of professional links. Address: The London Shipping Law Centre, Dr. Aleka Mandaraka-Sheppard, Founding Director, University College London, Bentham House, Endsleigh Gardens, London WC1H 0EG, England. Tel.: +44 (0)20 7679 1512 or 1434; fax: +44 (0)20 7679 1512. Website: http://www.london-shipping-law.com/. Email: shipping [at] ucl [dot] ac [dot] uk. Prospective Master's students can contact Marion Mark at the Graduate Office, Faculty of Laws, Bentham House, Endsleigh Gardens, London WC1H 0EG, England. Email: m [dot] mark [at] ucl [dot] ac [dot] uk.

Long form bill of lading- See "Bills of Lading & Related Documents" (supra).

L.N.G. - Liquefied natural gas carrier. A specially constructed ship designed to carry natural gas at low temperatures and under pressure.

LO - LO - Lift On - Lift Off is the conventional container ship, as opposed to the Ro-Ro (Roll On - Roll Off).

Lowndes and Rudolf - The Law of General Average and the York-Antwerp Rules (D.J. Wilson & J.H.S. Cooke, eds.), 12 Ed., 1997, Stevens & Sons, London.

Loyola Maritime Law Journal - A maritime law review published by Loyola University New Orleans. Website: http://law.loyno.edu/loyola-maritime-law-journal.

Lucas, J.D. - Admiralty Cases and Materials, 4 Ed., 1996, Foundation Press, Westbury, New York; and 1998 Statute, Rule and Case Supplement, 1998, Foundation Press, New York, New York.

Lugano Convention 1988- The Convention on Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters, adopted at Lugano on September 16, 1988 (O.J.E.C. 1988 L 391/1) and in force as of May 1, 1992, establishes uniform rules on jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters as between the States of the European Union (supra) and those of E.F.T.A. (the European Free Trade Association, supra). See W. Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 809 and 856-858; W. Tetley, Intl. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 422.

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Maintenance and cure- Expenses incurred for food and lodging during recovery (maintenance) and necessary medical services (cure) for a seaman suffering from an illness or injury sustained in the service of the ship. The expenses arise in contract or in virtue of the general maritime law and they are payable for a reasonable period of time, depending on the circumstances of each case until "maximum cure" is achieved. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 304-308; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 560-561.

Malmo- See "World Maritime University", infra.

Malta- See "International Maritime Law Institute", supra.

Mandaraka-Sheppard, Aleka - Modern Admiralty Law, 2001, Cavendish Publishing Limited, London and Sydney.

Mandatory rules- In the conflict of laws, mandatory rules are compulsorily applicable rules of law, found in applicable international conventions or national statutes, which cannot be contracted out of. In some cases, they may also be rules which apply regardless of the law otherwise applicable under the forum's rules of private international law. Mandatory rules frequently give effect to social and economic policies deemed by the country concerned to be of overriding importance, particularly in fields such as consumer protection, employment, monetary and fiscal policy. In maritime law, the Hague/Visby and Hamburg Rules (supra) on the carriage of goods by sea, and various national statutes making those rules compulsorily applicable, are examples of mandatory rules. The Rome Convention 1980 (infra) recognizes mandatory rules of the sole connected law (art. 3(3)), of a closely connected law (art. 7(1)) and of the forum (art. 7(2)), as well as specific mandatory rules on consumer contracts (art. 5(2)), employment contracts (art. 6(1)) and contracts concerning immoveable property (art. 9(6)). See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 101-102, 124-131 and 166-170.

Maraist, F.L. & Galligan, Jr., T.C. - Admiralty in a Nutshell, 5 Ed., 2005, Thomson/West, St. Paul, Minn.
Maraist, F.L. & Galligan Jr., T.C. - Personal Injury in Admiralty, 2000, Lexis Publishing, Charlottesville, Virginia, U.S.A.

Mareva injunction - An injunction issued by the courts of the United Kingdom and other British Commonwealth countries, on the motion of a plaintiff at the beginning of or during a suit, enjoining the defendant from removing from the jurisdiction, and/or from dealing with, specified assets (real or personal, moveable or immoveable), in cases where it appears to the court that without the grant of such an injunction, the plaintiff's recovery on his claim will be jeopardized. The injunction was first granted by Lord Denning M.R. in 1975 in Nippon Yusen Kaisha v. Karageorgis [1975] 2 Lloyd's Rep. 137 (C.A.), and the name "Mareva" derives from Lord Denning's second decision issuing such an injunction, in Mareva Cia. Naviera S.A. v. International Bulkcarriers (The Mareva) [1975] 2 Lloyd's Rep. 509 (C.A.). In the United Kingdom, the Mareva injunction is now provided for by legislation, at sect. 37(3) of the Supreme Court Act 1981 (U.K. 1981 c. 54). See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 987-997, 1001-1006; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 409-411. In the United Kingdom, the Mareva injunction is now known as a "freezing injunction" (or "freezing order) under the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (S.I. 1998/3132), in force April 26, 1999, and such an injunction may be granted either to restrain the removal from England and Wales of assets located in that jurisdiction or to restrain dealing with any assets worldwide, pursuant to the Civil Procedure Rules 1998, Part 25 (Interim Remedies), at Rule 25.1(1)(f) and Practice Direction Part 25 (Interim Injunctions) at para. 6. Examples of both types of freezing injunction are provided in the annexes to that Practice Direction. On worldwide freezing injunctions, see, for example, Dadourian Group International Inc. v. Simm [2006] 3 All E.R. 48 (C.A.). Mareva injunction does not exist in the United States. See Grupo Mexicano de Desarollo v. Alliance Bond Fund, Inc. 527 U.S. 308, 1999 AMC 1963 (U.S. Supr. Ct. 1999). For the existence of the Mareva injunction in Canada see Aetna Financial Services Ltd. v. Feigelman [1985] 1 S.C.R. 2.

Marine and Shipping Law Unit - A research centre specializing in maritime law and the international law of the sea, operating at the T.C. Beirne School of Law, University of Queensland, Australia. Website: http://www.law.uq.edu.au/maslu/. Email: s [dot] derrington [at] law [dot] uq [dot] edu [dot] au.

Marine Insurance - The original form of insurance in Western society, pre-dating all insurance ashore, marine insurance was developed by Lombard merchants in the city states of northern Italy in the twelfth century, whence it gradually spread north to the cities of the Hanseatic League, and later to London, where King Henry IV of England (1399-1413) granted the "Lombard merchants" a sector of the City of London in which to live and practise their trade, which came to be known as "Lombard Street". In succeeding centuries, London emerged as the major world centre of the marine insurance and reinsurance markets, a position which it continues to occupy, being the seat of both Lloyd's and the International Underwriting Association of London (formerly the Institute of London Underwriters).

Marine insurance was originally an aspect of the medieval European, transnational lex mercatoria, or Law Merchant, rooted in the civil law, whose usages were eventually codified in the ordinances of various maritime commercial centres on the Continent and later in the Ordonnance de la Marine (1681). In England, thanks largely to the efforts of Lord Mansfield, Chief Justice of King's Bench from 1756 to 1788, these Continental sources of marine insurance law were frequently cited and came slowly to be incorporated into the common law of England. In 1906, the bulk of this common law was codified in the U.K.'s Marine Insurance Act, 1906, 6 Edw VII, c. 41 (infra), in force January 1, 1907. The 1906 enactment, a masterpience of legislative drafting attributable to Sir Mackenzie Chalmers, has been copied, almost verbatim, by various Commonwealth jurisdictions (e.g. Australia and Canada) and even influences American judges in rendering decisions on marine insurance matters, although the United States has no statute on the subject. The historic lex mercatoria continues to apply to contracts of marine insurance in England the Commonwealth, however, thanks to provisions such as sect. 91(2) of the U.K.'s Marine Insurance Act, 1906, which perpetuates the "... rules of the common law including the law merchant, save in so far as they are inconsistent with the express provisions of this Act". See Tetley, "The General Maritime law - The Lex Maritima" (1994) 20 Syracuse J. Int'l L. & Comm. 105-145 at pp. 129-130; reprinted in [1996] ETL 469-505 at pp. 492-493; Tetley, "Maritime Law as Mixed Legal System (With Particular Reference to the Distinctive Nature of American Maritime Law, Which Benefits from Both its Civil Law and Common Law Heritages)" (1999) 23 Tul. Mar. L.J. 317-350 at p. 336 and at http://www.mcgill.ca/maritimelaw/comparative/marlawmix/.

By sect. 1 of the U.K.'s Marine Insurance Act, 1906, a contract of marine insurance is "... a contract whereby the insurer undertakes to indemnify the assured, in the manner and to the extent thereby agreed, against marine losses, that is to say, the losses incident to marine adventure." Definitions given in other statutes and treatises are similar. See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 336-338. The three basic types of marine insurance are hull insurance (on the ship and its machinery), cargo insurance (on cargo) and Protection and Indemnity, or "P. & I." insurance (insurasnce in respect of third party liability resulting from the operation of the ship). See also marine reinsurance (infra). See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003, Chap. 15, at pp.573-622.

Marine Insurance Act, 1906 - (U.K.) 6 Edw. VII, c. 41 - The basic statute on marine insurance, which has been copied almost verbatim in many British Commonwealth countries and which is frequently looked to as authoritative, even by American courts, in marine insurance decisions. See for example, Queen Ins. Co. v. Globe & Rutgers Fire Ins. Co., 263 U.S. 487 at p. 493, 1924 AMC 107 at p. 109 (1924); Gulf Refining Co. v. Atlantic Mut. Ins. Co., 279 U.S. 708, 1929 AMC 825 (1929); Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. U.S., 340 U.S. 54, 1951 AMC 1 (1950); Calmar S.S. Corp v. Scott, 345 U.S. 427 at p. 443, 1953 AMC 952 at p. 965 (1953); Antilles S.S. Co. v. Members of American Hull Ins., 733 F.2d 195 at p. 198, 1984 AMC 2444 at p. 2449 (2 Cir. 1984). See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at p. 339; Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 583-586; and M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 831-840 with respect to marine insurance liens.

Marine Insurance Act- S.C. 1993, c. 22 - The Canadian federal statute on marine insurance, modelled on the United Kingdom's Marine Insurance Act, 1906 (supra).

Marine Insurance Industry - marine insurance may be divided into three categories: (1) cargo; (2) hull and machinery; and (3) protection and indemnity (P.& I.).

Marine Law Institute - University of Maine School of Law, Portland, Maine, U.S.A. Website: http://www.mli.usm.maine.ed/indes.htm. Email: mainelaw [at] usm [dot] maine [dot] edu.

Marine Liability Act, S.C. 2001, c. 6, in force August 8, 2001. Among other things, this statute gave the force of law in Canada to the Hague/Visby Rules (supra) and also provided for the eventual coming into force in Canada of the Hamburg Rules (supra).

Marine reinsurance - A contract whereby risks insured under a number of marine insurance contracts are redistributed among one or more reinsurers. Marine reinsurance contracts are often termed "reinsurance treaties". See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 361-362; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 619-620.

Mar. L.C. - Crockford's Maritime Law Cases. English maritime decisions from 1860 to 1871. An example of a citation is The Great Eastern (1867) 2 Mar. L.C. 553.

Mar. Law - The Maritime Lawyer. Published twice a year (from 1975 to 1986) by the students of the Tulane University School of Law. An example of a citation is [1980] Mar. Law. 123. It was succeeded in 1987 by the Tulane Maritime Law Journal. (See Tul. Mar. L.J., infra).

Maritime law - is a complete system of law, both public and private, substantive and procedural, national and international, with its own courts and jurisdiction, which goes back to Rhodian law of 800 B.C. and pre-dates both the civil and common laws. Its more modern origins were civilian in nature, as first seen in the Rôles of Oléron of circa 1190 A.D. Maritime law was subsequently greatly influenced and formed by the English Admiralty Court and then later by the common law itself. That maritime law is a complete legal system can be seen from its component parts. For centuries maritime law has had its own law of contract - of sale (of ships), of service (towage), of lease (chartering), of carriage (of goods by sea), of insurance (marine insurance being the precursor of insurance ashore), of agency (ship chandlers), of pledge (bottomry and respondentia), of hire (of masters and seamen), of compensation for sickness and personal injury (maintenance and cure) and risk distribution (general average). It is and has been a national and an international law (probably the first private international law). It also has had its own public law and public international law. Maritime law is composed of two main parts - national maritime statutes and international maritime conventions, on the one hand, and the general maritime law (lex maritima), on the other. The general maritime law has evolved from various maritime codes, including Rhodian law (circa 800 B.C.), Roman law, the Rôles of Oléron (circa 1190), the Ordonnance de la Marine (1681), all of which were relied on in Doctors' Commons, the English Admiralty Court, and the maritime courts of Europe. This lex maritima, part of the lex mercatoria, or "Law Merchant" as it was usually called in England, was the general law applicable in all countries of Western Europe until the fifteenth century, when the gradual emergence of nation states caused national differences to begin creeping into what had been a virtually pan-European maritime law system. Today's general maritime law consists of the common forms, terms, rules, standards and practices of the maritime shipping industry - standard form bills of lading, charterparties, marine insurance policies and sales contracts are good examples of common forms and the accepted meaning of the terms, as well as the York/Antwerp Rules on general average and the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits. Much of this contemporary lex maritima is to be found in the maritime arbitral awards rendered by arbitral tribunals around the world by a host of institutional and ad hoc arbitral bodies. See Tetley , Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003, Chap. 1, at pp. 1-30.

The Maritime Law Association of the United States (M.L.A.) - Website: http://www.mlaus.org/.

Maritime lien [Fr.: "privilège maritime"] [Span.: "privilegio marítimo"] [Ital.: "privilegio speciale marittimo"] [Gr.: "Seerechtliches Pfandrecht; Schiffsgläubigerrecht"] - A secured claim against a ship (and sometimes against cargo or bunkers) in respect of services provided to the vessel or damages done by it. A maritime lien is a substantive right in the property of another, derived from the general maritime law (supra) and rooted in the civil law concept of a "privilège". It arises without notice, registration or other formalities, at the time the services are rendered or the damages are done. Unlike a common law possessory lien (infra), it does not depend for its existence on the possession of the res by the creditor. It travels with the ship, so as to encumber the title of subsequent owners or possessors and survives the conventional sale of the vessel. It remains inchoate from the moment it attaches, until it is enforced by an action in rem, when it relates back to the time it first attached. In the U.K. and British Commonwealth countries, it ranks after special legislative rights (infra), the costs of arrest and sale and custodia legis expenses (supra) and before ship mortgages (infra) and statutory rights in rem (infra).

In the U.K. and Commonwealth, maritime liens are restricted to seamen's and master's wages, master's disbursements (infra), salvage (infra), damage, bottomry (supra) and respondentia (infra) (the last two being obsolete). In the U.S. and civilian jurisdictions, maritime liens are more numerous, including, notably, contract maritime liens for the supply of necessaries (infra) and liens for general average contributions (supra) (which in Anglo/Commonwealth law are secured only by statutory rights in rem (infra). American law also distinguishes between "preferred maritime liens" (infra) and other maritime liens. American and civilian ranking of maritime liens also differs from that applied in the U.K. and Commonwealth. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 56-60 (generally) and re ranking at pp. 872-876 (U.S.), 884-890 (U.K.), 892-897 (Canada) and 903-905 (France); Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 469-514 (generally) and re ranking at pp. 498-505.

Maritime liens are expunged by the extinction of the debt (e.g. by payment), by the loss or destruction of the res, by prescription, laches (supra), waiver or judicial sale.

Maritime Liens and Mortgages Convention 1926 - The International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law Relating to Maritime Liens and Mortgages, adopted at Brussels on April 10, 1926 and in force as of June 2, 1931. See text in Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998, Appendix A at pp. 1413-1420; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 498-500.

Maritime Liens and Mortgages Convention 1967 - The International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to Maritime Liens and Mortgages, adopted at Brussels on May 27, 1967 (not yet in force). See text in Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998, Appendix B at pp. 1421-1428; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 498-500.

Maritime Liens and Mortgages Convention 1993 - The International Convention on Maritime Liens and Mortgages, adopted at Geneva on May 6, 1993 (in force September 5, 2004). See text in (1996) 27 JMLC 233-241, with commentary by José María Alcántara, ibid. at pp. 219-232, as well as in Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998, Appendix C at pp. 1429-1438; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 498-500.

Maritime London - An organization promoting London as the world's premier maritime centre. Its website features news, information and links to various maritime organizations in the United Kingdom. Website: http://www.maritimelondon.com/.

MARPOL 1973/1978- The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), adopted by the IMO (supra) at London, November 2, 1973, as amended on February 17, 1978, which came into force on October 2, 1983, except for Annex II (in force April 6, 1987), Annex III (in force July 1, 1992) and Annex V (in force December 31, 1988), together with several amendments. See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 449.

Marsden, Reginald G. - The Law of Collisions at Sea (Simon Gault, gen. ed.), 13 Ed., 2003 (British Shipping Laws Series), Sweet & Maxwell, London.

Marshalling - The equitable process, whereby the Marshal or the court orders a creditor who has a secured right on more than one res or more than one fund belonging to the debtor or security from two or more debtors for the same debt, to exercise his right on the security in a manner which will be in the best interests of all the creditors. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 857-858; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 504.

Master's disbursements - Expenditures made by the master and paid for with his own funds or obtained on his personal credit for the purchase of necessaries (infra) for the ship. A maritime lien is granted for such disbursements, but both the disbursements and the lien are virtually extinct today, because modern means of communication obviate the need for them, and because masters no longer wish to bind their own credit to obtain necessaries for the ship. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 417-438.

Material deviation- An American doctrine originating in the admiralty law doctrine of fundamental breach (supra), which is sometimes applied by U.S. courts in carriage of goods cases arising under the Carmack Amendment (supra). In cases of shipments by air, rail and truck, where the shipper has paid an additional charge to ensure specialized safety measures to reduce the risk of damage to its cargo, the carrier's failure to perform those very measures which resulted in damage to the cargo has been found to be a sufficient basis upon which the liability limitation provision in the shipping agreement may be rescinded. See Praxair, Inc. v. Mayflower Transit, Inc., 919 F. Supp. 650 at p. 656 (S.D. N.Y. 1996); Nipponkoa Ins. Co., Ltd. v. Watkins Motor Lines, Inc., 431 F. Supp.2d 411, 2006 AMC 2598 (S.D. N.Y. 2006).

"Maxwell order" - An order rendered by a bankruptcy court in one jurisdiction, approving an agreement between officials appointed by the bankruptcy courts of two or more jurisdictions in which a debtor has assets, which agreement is designed to facilitate co-operation by those officials in proceeding to develop and have judicially confirmed, a plan of reorganization of the debtor and thereby avoiding liquidation proceedings. The Maxwell order takes its name from the decision rendered by the High Court in England in Re Maxwell Communications Corporation plc. [1992] B.C.L.C. 465. See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 417.

Mayers, Edward C. - Admiralty law and Practice, 1916, Carswell, Toronto.

McLean, Malcom - The inventor of the container, supra.

Meeson, Nigel - Admiralty Jurisdiction and Practice, 3 Ed., 2003, LLP, London.

Meléndez, M.A.P. et al. - Comentario a los Principios de Unidroit para los Contratos del Comercio Internacional, 1999, Editorial Aranzadi S.A., Pamplona, Spain.

Merger clause - See "superseding clause", infra.

Merkin, Robert M. - Arbitration Act 1996, 3 Ed., 2005, Informa, London.
Merkin, Robert M. - Marine Insurance Legislation, 3 Ed., 2005, LLP, London.
Merkin, Robert M. - Privity of Contract: The Impact of the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999, 2000, LLP, London.

Methodology - A fifth approach to solving conflict of laws problems, which permits the identification of the "properly applicable law" (infra). A methodology of this kind is described in Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 35-43, and is presented as a consistent, logical system for resolving conflicts problems, preferable to, but building upon, the four traditional approaches to solving such problems, outlined and criticized ibid. at pp. 3-34 (viz., single concepts or principles; multiple numbered rules; general texts, commentaries and essays; and national legislation and international conventions).

Mixed jurisdiction - A country or a political subdivision of a country in which a mixed legal system (infra) prevails.

Mixed legal system - A legal system in which the law in force is derived from more than one legal tradition or legal family. For example, in Scotland, South Africa, Louisiana and Québec, the basic private law is derived partly from the civil law tradition (supra) and partly from the common law tradition (supra). See Tetley, 1999-4 Uniform Law Review 591-619 at p. 597; also available on-line at: Mixed jurisdictions: common law vs. civil law (codified and uncodified)

"Most significant connection" - The principle of the conflict of laws according to which the "proper" (i.e. applicable) law of a contract or tort is the law which, on policy grounds, appears to have the most significant connection with the chain of acts and consequences in the particular case at hand. This connection is assessed by consideration of the "connecting factors", or "contacts" (supra), linking the legal situation concerned with the different jurisdictions involved. The term was used by J.H.C. Morris in his renowned essays, "Torts in the Conflict of Laws" (1949) 12 Modern Law Rev. 248 and "The Proper Law of a Tort" (1951) 64 Harv. L. Rev. 881. In contract conflicts, the corresponding term generally used in the United Kingdom and British Commonwealth countries today is "closest and most real connection". See, e.g., Dicey and Morris, The Conflict of Laws, 11 Ed., 1987 at Rule 180. In tort, the term "most significant relationship" has the same meaning. See, e.g., Dicey and Morris, ibid. 12 Ed., 1993 at Rule 202. See Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 10-12.

"Most significant relationship" -The principle of the conflict of laws requiring that the "proper" (applicable) law be that of the state having the closest and most real connection with the facts of the case concerned. The term was derived from "most significant connection" as first used by J.H.C. Morris (supra) and was introduced into American private international law by Willis M. Reese, the principal author of the Restatement (Second) of the Conflict of Laws, adopted by the American Law Institute in 1969, where it figures prominently. See, e.g. sect. 145 re tort and sect. 188 re contract. See Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 12-13.

Müller, Walter - Internationales Recht auf See und Binnengew&aumlssern. Festschrift für Walter Müller, 1993 (A. von Ziegler & T. Burckhardt, eds.), Schulthess Polygraphischer Verlag, Zurich.

Multimodal Carriage [Fr.: "transport multimodal"] [Span.: "transporte multimodal"] [Ital.: "trasporto multimodale"] [Gr.: "Multimodaler Transport"] - Multimodal carriage is the transport of goods by two or more carriers (supra) using two or more types of carriage (i.e. truck, rail, sea and air). The Convention on International Multimodal Transport of Goods, 1980 (the Multimodal Convention 1980 (infra)) was adopted by the United Nations, but is not in force.

Multimodal Convention 1980 - The United Nations Convention on International Multimodal Transport of Goods, adopted at Geneva on May 24, 1980 (not yet in force). See text in Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008, Appendix "A" at pp. 2677-2705. See also IMO (supra).

Multimodal or combined transport bill of lading - See "Bills of Lading & Related Documents" (supra).

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Named (nominate) bill of lading - See "Bills of Lading & Related Documents" (supra).

National Union of Marine, Aviation and Shipping Transport Officers International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF). Website: http://www.numast.org/welcome.asp; e-mail: enquiries [at] numast [dot] org.

Nautical assessors [Fr.: "assesseurs"] [Span.: "asesores náuticos"] [Ital.: "consulenti tecnici nautici"] [Gr.: "Sachverständiger für Schiffahrtsfragen"] - Court-appointed experts (usually on matters of navigation and seamanship) who sit with the judge on the bench during the trial of maritime disputes and give their opinions to the judge, at his request, on matters relating to their field of expertise. Traditionally, nautical assessors have not been subject to examination or cross-examination by the parties to the suit, nor has the judge been required to disclose to the parties the information or opinions provided to him by them. In Canada, however, these traditional rules have been departed from on grounds of respect for natural justice, and expert witnesses may now also be called by the parties, even if they testify on matters within the expertise of the nautical assessors. See Porto Seguro Companhia de Seguros Gerais v. Belcan S.A. [1997] 3 S.C.R. 1278, (1997) 153 D.L.R.(4th) 577, (1997) 220 N.R. 321 (Supr. Ct. of Can.). See also "Trinity House" (infra).

Nauticalcampus - London, England. Website: http://www.nauticalcampus.org Email: info [at] nauticalcampus [dot] org.

Nautical Institute - London, England. Website: http://www.nautinst.org. Email: sec [at] nautinst [dot] org.

Nautical mile - The maritime measurement for distance, being 6080 feet, as opposed to 5280 feet, being a land mile. Also known as a knot (supra).

The National Association of Marine Surveyors - Chesapeake, Virgina. Website: http://www.nams-cms.org/; email: NationalOffice [at] nams-cms [dot] org id="necessaries" name="necessaries"> - Goods or materials (and in some cases services) provided to the ship for its operation or maintenance. The specific classes of goods, materials and services which qualify as necessaries vary to some extent from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, but in general necessaries include such items as bunkers, supplies, repairs, towage and stevedoring. In the United States, a maritime lien (supra) is granted for necessaries under 46 U.S. Code 31301(4) and 31342, whereas in the United Kingdom, Canada, and other British Commonwealth jurisdiction, necessaries confer only at most a statutory right in rem (infra). In France, necessaries confer a maritime lien ("privilège maritime") only if they are ordered away by the master within the scope of his authority away from the vessel's home port, for the preservation of the ship or the completion of the voyage. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 545-618; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 483.

"Negotiorum gestio" - A civil law term, meaning management of the business of another. Under this principle, a party who voluntarily takes care of the affairs of another person, without any express or implied authority from that person, may claim reimbursement of his necessary and useful expenses, whether he has been successful or not. Negotiorum gestio is therefore the likely origin of the concept of salvage (infra) in maritime law. See the French Civil Code, arts. 1372-1375; the Québec Civil Code, art. 1482-1490; Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 10 and 330; Int'l M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 323-324.

"Nemo judex in causa sua" - "No one may be judge in his own case", referring to the principle of natural justice that an adjudicator should be disinterested and unbiased See Porto Seguro Companhia de Seguros Gerais v. Belcan S.A. [1996] 2 F.C. 751 at p. 778, (1996) 195 N.R. 241 at p. 271 (Fed. Ct. of App. of Canada).

Net tonnage - See "Tons & Tonnage" (infra).

Netherlands Institute for the Law of the Sea - University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Website: Link.
Email: Nilos [at] law [dot] uu [dot] nl.

New Jason clause - See "Jason clause/New Jason clause" (supra).

New York Convention 1958- The "Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards" was signed on June 10, 1958 in New York: 21 U.S.T. 2517, 330 U.N.T.S. 3. This convention deals with the recognition of foreign arbitral awards (supra) and the enforcement of arbitration clauses (supra). See Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 392-393.

New Zealand Maritime Law - A website of New Zealand maritime case law and legislation, maintained by Prof. Paul Myburgh of the University of Auckland, New Zealand. Website: http://www.maritimelaw.orcon.net.nz/.

No cure no pay - The historic common law principle of salvage (infra) which prohibited the payment of any salvage reward where the salvage operations had been unsuccessful. "No cure no pay" contrasts with the historic civilian concept of "assistance" (supra), which permitted the payment of salvage remuneration even if no successful result was achieved. See the Salvage Convention 1910 (infra) art. 2 and the Salvage Convention 1989 (infra) art. 13. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at p. 338, 339; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 324-325.

Non-separation agreement- An agreement between a carrier and a cargo owner following a general average act (supra) which permits the cargo owner to have his goods discharged at the port of refuge and forwarded to destination by the carrier in another ship, thus terminating the common maritime adventure, in return for cargo contributing to future general average loss (supra), according to values stated in the agreement, as if the common adventure were continued. See also Bigham clause (supra).

Non-vessel-operating common carrier - See NVOCC, infra.

Norris, Martin J. - The Law of Salvage, 1958, Baker, Voorhis, Mount Kisco, New York

Notice of abandonment- In marine insurance, a notice given by the insured to the insurer whereby the insured indicates that he wishes to treat a "constructive total loss" (supra) as an "actual total loss" (supra) and to abandon the subject-matter insured to the insurer. See the U.K.'s Marine Insurance Act, 1906, sects. 61, 62 and 63. See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 612-613.

Notify Party - A person identified in the bill of lading (supra) as the party to be notified by the carrier (supra) when the goods arrive at their destination. (Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 463, 485, 496-498). In France, the "notify party" is frequently regarded as the "destinataire réel" (real consignee (supra)) of the goods.

"Novus actus interveniens" - A harmful act or omission which occurs subsequent to an initial wrongful act or omission of a tortfeasor and which breaks the chain of causation between that initial act or omission and the ensuing damage. See Restatement Second of the Law of Torts, 1965, sect. 441; Letnik v. Toronto 82 N.R. 261, 1993 AMC 768 (Fed. C.A.). A novus actus intervenies may take three forms: 1) a natural event independent of human agency; 2) an act or omission by a third party; or 3) the conduct of the plaintiff himself. See Reeves v. Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis [1999] Q.B. 169 (C.A.); Clerk & Lindsell on Torts, 18 Ed., 2000 at paras. 2-36 to 2-59.

NUMAST - See National Union of Marine, Aviation and Shipping Transport Officers, supra.

NVOCC (Non-vessel-operating common carrier) - A common carrier that does not operate the vessel by which the ocean transportation is provided, and is a shipper (infra) in its relationship with an ocean common carrier. See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 1705-1707, citing definition enacted at sect. 3(17) of the U.S. Shipping Act of 1984 (46 U.S. Code Appx. 1702(17)). The "non-vessel operating common carrier" and the ocean freight forwarder (infra) were combined in the new category of ocean transportation intermediary (infra) by the Ocean Shipping Reform Act of 1998, Act of October 14, 1998, Public Law no. 105-258, Title I, sect. 102, 112 Stat. 1902. See 46 U.S. Code Appx. 1702(17)(A) and (B). China has also legislated on NVOCC's by virtue of the "Regulations of the People's Republic of China on International Maritime Transport", promulgated by Decree No. 335 by the State Council of the P.R.C. on December 11, 2001. Nota bene: Although "NVOCC", under the above legislation, stands for "non-vessel-operating common carrier", the acronym is also sometimes (erroneously) taken to mean "non-vessel-owning common carrier" (emphasis added). See, for example, American Maritime Cases (AMC, supra), which, in its collection of reported decisions from 1923 to the fourth quarter of 2001 on CD-ROM, includes 72 decisions where NVOCC is shown as standing for "non-vessel-operating common carrier" and 11 decisions where the acronym is explained as standing for "non-vessel-owning common carrier". See also freight forwarder (supra).

NYPE/NYPE '93 - See time charterparty (supra).

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"obiter dictum" - ("a saying by the way"), referring to a finding of law in a decision where that finding was based on issues not properly before the court. It is an opinion expressed by a court upon a question of law which is not necessary to the decision of the case before it. The opposite of "obiter dictum" is "ratio decidendi" (see infra).

Obligatory forum court statute - In the conflict of laws, an obligatory forum court statute is a national statute or international convention which is compulsorily applicable whenever any case on the subject of that statute or convention is heard in the courts of the State in question. Most legal authors do not distinguish obligatory forum court statutes from public order (infra) or mandatory rules (supra) of the forum, but such statutes are distinguishable from both those concepts, in that they are obligatorily applied by the forum court, whenever a case involving their subject matter is tried in such a court, rather than because of any connecting factor (contact) linking the case to the law of that forum (State). An example of this type of statute is the United Kingdom's Merchant Shipping Act 1995, U.K. 1995 c. 21, at sect. 185(1) and Schedule 7 Part I art. 15, which provisions give effect in the U.K. to the Limitation Convention 1976 (supra) and require the Convention to be applied whenever limitation proceedings are instituted before the courts of any State party to the Convention, thereby making the Convention compulsorily applicable to any such proceedings taken in any U.K. court. Obligatory forum court statutes are rare. They have no place in any system of international law and can be overcome in jurisdictions which have adopted the principle of forum non conveniens (supra). See Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 102-103, 131-132, 561; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 314.

Ocean freight forwarder- A person who dispatches shipments from the United States via a common carrier, books or otherwise arranges space for those shipments on behalf of shippers and processes the documentation or performs related activities incident to those shipments. See the U.S. Shipping Act of 1984, as amended by the Ocean Shipping Reform Act of 1998, Act of October 14, 1998, Public Law no. 105-258, Title I, sect. 102, 112 Stat. 1902, 46 U.S. Code Appx. 1702(17)(A)(i) and (ii). See also freight forwarder (supra), NVOCC (supra) and ocean transportation intermediary (infra).

Ocean through bill of lading - See "Bills of Lading & Related Documents" (supra).

Ocean transportation intermediary- A term which in the United States includes both the NVOCC (supra) and the ocean freight forwarder (supra). See the United States Shipping Act of 1984, as amended by the Ocean Shipping Reform Act of 1998, Act of October 14, 1998, Public Law no. 105-258, Title I, sect. 102, 112 Stat. 1902, 46 U.S. Code Appx. 1702(17).

Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF) - Website: http:www.ocimf.com/.

Oil Pollution Act 1990 - See OPA '90, infra

O'May, Donald - O'May on Marine Insurance, 1993, (Julian Hill, ed. & co-author), Sweet & Maxwell, London.

OPA '90- The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 of the United States (Act of August 18, 1990, Public Law No. 101-380, 104 Stat. 484, 33 U.S. Code sects. 2701-2761). See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 145-148; Tetley, Int'l M. & A.L., 2003 at pp. 460-463.

OPRC 1990- The International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation, adopted at London, November 30, 1990, and in force May 13, 1995, and its 2000 Protocol, adopted at London, March 15, 2000, not yet in force. See IMO (supra).

Order bill of lading - See "Bills of Lading & Related Documents" (supra).

"Ordonnance de la Marine" - An important piece of French maritime legislation, dating from 1681, codifying much of the French maritime law and practice. The best text concerning the Ordonnance de la Marine is the commentary written in 1760 by René-Josué Valin, who, at the time, was the King's advocate at the admiralty's headquarters in Larochelle, France. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 18, 24-25.

- The Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North East Atlantic, aopted at Paris, September 22, 1992 and in force March 25, 1998. This Convention is the mechanism by which Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, cooperate for the protection of the marine environment of the North East Atlantic. The Ospar Commission is based in London (Email: secretariat [at] ospar [dot] corg; website: http://www.ospar.org/).

Oughton, D.W.; Lowry, J.P. & Merkin, R.M. - Limitation of Actions, 2003, LLP, London.

Ozcayir, Z. Oya - Liability for Oil Pollution and Collisions, 1998, LLP, London.
Ozcayir, Z. Oya - Port State Control, 2 Ed., 2004, LLP Limited, London.

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P. & I. Insurance [Fr.: "assurance de protection et d'indemnisation"] [Span.: "seguro de protección y de indemnización"] [Ital.: "assicurazione di protezione e indennizzo"] [Gr.: "Reederhaftpflicht"] - Protection and Indemnity Insurance is mutual insurance which covers shipowners' liability to third parties for damage to their ship or cargo, as well as statutory liabilities such as pollution and wreck removal, but does not cover direct losses to the shipowner's own ship or cargo. Four classes of coverage are included in P. & I.; (i) Protection, which covers a shipowner for claims paid in regard to liability for loss of life, personal injury, damage to fixed or floating objects, wreck removal and one-fault collision (supra) in liability; (ii) Indemnity, which reimburses the shipowner for indemnity given to owners of damaged or lost cargo; (iii) War risks; (iv) Freight War Risks.

The bulk of this coverage is provided by: P. & I. Clubs (Protection and Indemnity Clubs) [Fr.: "mutuelles de protection et d'indemnisation"] [Span.: "clubs de protección e indemnización"] [Gr.: "Reedervereinigung für die Versicherung von Schiffsrisiken"]. These have been formed by shipowners to provide financial protection against the extent of liabilities to which they may be subjected. As a result of the "homogeneity" of risks faced by shipowners, P. & I. Clubs operate on a mutual basis where risks are placed in the same portfolio; annual premiums are paid into a common fund according to the degree of exposure to risks,(1) and losses are indemnified out of this common fund. See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 591-592.

1 "... each member is rated for annual contributions in accordance with the hazards he wishes to cover, the deductibles chosen, and the individual risk exposure he represents .... This basic rate, which also includes the member's share of expenditures for the running of the association and for reinsurance premiums, is multiplied by the tonnage entered for the 'policy year' and produces the 'advance call'. After a 'policy year' ends, ... a balance is struck between the income derived from the 'advance call' and the expenditure for claims (paid and outstanding) and management, reinsurance and representatives fees. Excess expenditure over income is collected from members by 'supplementary calls' (one or more) in proportion to their 'advance calls'. If income exceeds expenditure ... a return is made on the same basis."

In other words, the members of the Club share each other's liabilities; the insurer also being the assured. At present, there are less than twenty P. & I. Clubs in operation. The major Clubs have joined the International Group of Protection and Indemnity Clubs (supra), forming a pool for reinsurance purposes, as well as giving attention to problems of general concern to members. The major Clubs are in the United Kingdom, Scandinavia, Japan and the United States of America. The International Group Clubs are:

The American Steamship Owners Mutual Protection and Indemnity Association, Inc. - Website: http://www.american-club.com/. Email: info [at] american-club [dot] net.

Assuranceforeningen Skuld (Gjensidig) -
Website: http://www.skuld.com/. Email: osl [at] skuld [dot] com.

Britannia Steam Ship Insurance Association Ltd. -
Website: http://www.britanniapandi.com/. Email: http://www.britanniapandi.com/contact.html.

Gard AS -
Website: http://www.gard.no/. Email: companymail [at] gard [dot] no.

Japan Ship Owners' Mutual Protection & Indemnity Association -
Website: http://www.piclub.or.jp/. Email: general-dpt [at] piclub [dot] or [dot] jp.

London Steam-Ship Owners' Mutual Insurance Association Limited -
Website: http://www.lsso.com/. Email: comms [at] a-bilbrough [dot] co [dot] uk.

North of England P. & I. Association -
Website: http://www.nepia.com/. Email: general [at] nepia [dot] com.

Shipowners' Mutual Protection and Indemnity Association (Luxembourg) -
Website: http://www.shipownersclub.com/. Email: info [at] shipowners [dot] co [dot] uk.

Standard Steamship Owners' Protection & Indemnity Association Limited - Website: http://www.standard-club.com/. Email: p&i.london.ctcplc.com.

Steamship Mutual Underwriting Association Limited -
Website: http://www.ssmua.com/. Email: steamship [at] simsl [dot] com.

Sveriges Angfartygs Assurans Forening (The Swedish Club) -
Website: http://www.swedishclub.com. Email: swedish [dot] club [at] swedishclub [dot] com/">swedish [dot] club [at] swedishclub [dot] com/.

United Kingdom Mutual Steam-Ship Assurance Association Limited -
Website: http://www.ukpandi.com/. Email: john [dot] mcphail [at] thomasmiller [dot] com.

West of England Ship Owners Mutual Insurance Services Limited -
Website: http://www.westpandi.com/. Email: mail [at] westpandi [dot] com.

Pardessus, J.-M. Collection de lois maritimes antérieures au XVIIIe siècle, 6 vols., 1828-1845, Imprimerie royale, Paris.

Paris MOU - Paris Memorandum of Understanding. See Port State Control.

Parks, A.L. and Cattell, E.V. - The Law of Tug, Tow and Pilotage, 3 Ed., 1994, Cornell Maritime Press, Centreville, Maryland.

Particular Average [Fr.: "avarie particulière] [Span.: "avería particular"] [Gr.: "Besondere Havarie"] - A marine insurance term meaning a partial and not total loss suffered by an insured. ("Particular" means percentage and "average" means loss.) See Marine Insurance Act, 1906 (U.K.) sect. 64. See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 609-610.

Pavliha, Markho A. - Implied Terms of Voyage Charters 1993, Reinsurance Company Sava Limited, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Pavliha, Markho A., Prevozno Pravo, 2000, Gospodarski Vestnik, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Payne, W. & Ivamy, E.R. Hardy - Carriage of Goods by Sea, 13 Ed., 1989, Butterworths, London.

Penal Jurisdiction Convention 1952 - The International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to Penal Jurisdiction in Matters of Collision or Other Incidents of Navigation, adopted at Brussels on May 10, 1952 and in force as of November 20, 1955. See CMI (supra).

Pennsylvania Rule - An almost irrebuttable presumption of causation in ship collisions (supra) in American maritime law, established by the United States Supreme Court's decision in ThePennsylvania, 86 U.S. (19 Wall.) 125 at p. 136 (1874), whereby when a ship, at the time of the collision, is in violation of a statutory rule, that violation is deemed to be at least a contributory cause of the collision. The presumption may only be rebutted by proof that the violation could not have been a cause of the collision. See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 472, 484, 601-602; Tetley, "The Pennsylvania Rule - An Anachronism?" (1982) 13 JMLC 127; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 242-244.

Peril of the sea - "Peril of the sea is some catastrophic force or event that would not be expected in the area of the voyage, at that time of year and that could not be reasonably guarded against." See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at p. 1051, Chap. 18. See also Tetley, Int'l M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 85 and 593.

Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses- See International Navigation Association (PIANC-AIPCN) (supra).

Personification theory - A theory of maritime liens (supra), particularly popular in the United States, which understands such liens as rights against a ship, treated as being a person. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 53-55.

"Place of machinery" or "centre of gravity" - is the contact introduced by Robert Merkin in repect of insurance law, being "the law of the place in which the process of the formation of the agreement primarily took place.". See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at p. 357-358.

PLATO - The Pollution Liability Agreement among Tanker Owners. An agreement proposed following the adoption of the 1984 Protocol to the Civil Liability Convention 1969 (supra), which was intended to increase, on a voluntary basis, the compensation payble by independent tanker owners in respect of marine oil pollution damage and to amend CRISTAL (supra), but which never came into force.

Pleasure craft [Fr.: "embarcation de plaisance"] [Span.: "embarcación de recreo"] [Ital.: "natante da diporto"] [Gr.: "Vergnügungsschiff"] - A term used to designate any class of vessel designed for recreational purposes (e.g. yachts, row-boats, motor boats, etc.).

Plimsoll line (Plimsoll mark) - A mark painted on the side of merchant vessels showing the various draught levels to which the ship may be loaded, usually including tropical fresh water, fresh water, tropical sea water, summer sea water, winter sea water and (for vessels under 100 meters in length) winter North Atlantic Ocean water. The Plimsoll line is accompanied by a circle bisected by a horizontal line, indicating the summer freeboard of the ship and letters signifying the name of the ship's classification society (e.g. Lloyd's Register). The Plimsoll line is named for Samuel Plimsoll (1824-1898), an English Member of Parliament who fought for improved safety of British merchant ships. See also "Load lines" (supra).

Poincaré gold franc (p.g.f.)- One p.g.f. is 65.6 milligrams of gold of millesimal fineness 900. It was first defined by the French Law of June 25, 1928 and named after Raymond Poincaré, the French Prime Minister who stabilized the currency of France. The p.g.f. is worth approximately 13 cents Cdn. or 10 cents U.S. approximately.

Pomerene Act - The American Bills of Lading Act of 1916, 49 U.S. Code Appx. 81-124, recodified in 1994 as 49 U.S. Code sect. 80101-80116. It controls bills of lading covering common carriage between the United States and foreign countries and inside the country. (See text: Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 2729-2741.)

Port State Control - Port State Control is the system whereby the authorities of a State responsible for marine safety are empowered to inspect vessels entering its ports, even if they do not fly the flag of that State, in order to identify ships not complying with applicable norms, especially with respect to safety. Port State Control is typically governed by an international agreement, such as the Paris Memorandum of Understanding (Paris MOU) of July 1, 1982 (binding most European countries and a few others, including Canada) or the Tokyo MOU of December 2, 1993, in force April 1994 (binding many States in the Asia-Pacific region and also including Canada). Other Port State Control MOU’s exist for various other regions of the world, including the Caribbean, the Mediterranean, Latin America, West Africa and the Indian Ocean. These MOU’s typically confer powers of detention on the port states party to them in respect of vessels inspected and found wanting in their compliance with national or international standards, such as the I.S.M. Code. See also A.J. Rodriguez & M.C. Hubbard, “The International Safety Management (ISM) Code: A New Level of Uniformity” (1999) 73 Tul. L. Rev. 1585 at pp. 1615-1616, concerning the Vancouver Declaration of 1998 on enforcement of the Code by signatories of the Tokyo and Paris MOU’ s and also outlining enforcement measures taken by the European Union. The United States, although not party to any Port State Control MOU, nevertheless vigorously enforces the I.S.M. Code through the U.S. Coast Guard by boardings, inspections, detentions and denial of port entry. See Matthew Marshall, “Port State Detentions –what message for insurers?”, an unpublished lecture delivered to the Insurance Institute of London, January 12, 1999 at p. 9 (on file with the author); Rodriguez & Hubbard, supra at pp.1613-1615.

Possessory liens - At common law, the right of a bailee to retain property in his possession belonging to another until certain claims of the bailee in possession are satisfied. The common carrier thus had a possessory lien for freight (supra), which was strictly possessory and was lost when the cargo was delivered unconditionally. This lien was recognized by English admiralty law, as well as the possessory liens of salvors and repairmen. Possessory liens are also recognized in the United States. The civil law equivalent of the possessory lien is the right of retention ("droit de rétention") [Span.: "derecho de retención"] [Ital.: "diritto di ritenzione"]. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 363, 646-649, 749-754, 759-770; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 167-168, 495-498.

Power, Vincent - EC Shipping Law, 2 Ed., 1998, LLP Limited, London.

Powles, David G. - The Mareva Injunction and Associated Orders, 1985, Professional Books, Abingdon, England.

Preferred maritime lien - A category of maritime lien (supra) under the American Commercial Instruments and Maritime Liens Act (46 U.S. Code 31301(5)), including (contract) maritime liens arising before the filing of a preferred mortgage (infra) on the ship; as well as liens for damage, wages of stevedores employed directly, crew wages, general average (supra) and salvage (infra). (Preferred maritime liens rank after expenses and fees allowed by the court (custodia legis) (supra) and court costs, and before preferred mortgage liens (infra). See 46 U.S. Code 31326(1); Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 873-875 (re ranking); Tetley, In'tl. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 483-484.

Preferred mortgage - A ship mortgage (infra) on the whole of a vessel, filed in the U.S. in substantial compliance with the requirements of 46 U.S. Code 31322 et seq.

Preferred mortgage lien - A lien on a ship on which a preferred mortgage (supra) has been filed. they rank after preferred maritime liens (supra), by virtue of 46 U.S. Code 31326(1). See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at 512-515.

"prima facie" - ("at first sight") a rule whereby a particular fact constitutes evidence of a state of affairs, unless contradicted by other stronger, admissible evidence. See, e.g., the Hague and Hague/Visby Rules (supra) art. 3(4), under which the issue of a clean bill of lading (supra) is prima facie evidence of the receipt by the carrier (supra) of the goods as described in the bill, and the similar provisions of the Hamburg Rules (supra) art. 16(3) and of the Pomerene Act (supra), old sect. 22 (49 U.S. Code sect. 102, now 49 U.S. Code sect. 80113(a). See also The Atlas [1996] 1 Lloyd's Rep. 642.

Private carriage - Carriage of particular goods of one shipper (infra) under a special contract, usually by charterparty, as opposed to the common (public) carriage (supra) of goods of the public in general, on advertised, "liner" routes, usually under bills of lading or waybills. See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008, at pp. 14-15, 75; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003, Chap. 4, at pp.119-178.

Privity or knowledge - See "actual fault or privity",supra.

"pro hac vice" - "for this occasion". See Baumwoll Manufactur von Carl Scheibler v. Furness [1893] A.C. 8 at p. 16 (H.L.). where it was held that the demise charterer of a ship is regarded as the vessel's owner "pro hac vice" during the term of the charterparty.

Procedural theory - A theory of maritime liens (supra), particularly popular in England, which holds that maritime liens are the "children of procedure" and in particular of the writ in rem(infra), rather than substantive rights in the property of another. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 53-55.

Proper law - The principle of the conflict of laws according to which the law applicable to a given legal situation should be the law having the closest and most real connection to the case. The term "proper law of the contract" was first used by Westlake in A Treatise on Private International Law, with principal reference to its practice in England, 2 Ed., 1880, sect. 201 at p. 237, who defined it as "the law of the country with which the contract has its most real connection". The term was taken up by Morris and Cheshire in their essay "The Proper Law of a Contract in the Conflict of Laws" (1940) 56 L.Q.R. 320 and was later used by Morris in his essays "Torts in the Conflict of Laws" (1949) 12 Modern L. Rev. 248 and "The Proper Law of a Tort" (1951) 64 Harv. L. Rev. 881. The "proper law" is arguably the most important concept in contemporary conflict of law legislation, both national and international. See Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 10-11.

Properly applicable law - The law which has the closest and most real connection (or most significant relationship) with the contract or tort, based upon the connecting factors (contacts). The properly applicable law may be identified by the application to any conflict of laws problem of a consistent methodology (supra), such as that proposed in Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 35-43, 41-42.

Proportionate fault- The rule for apportioning damages in tort/delict, whereby each party whose fault or negligence has contributed to the total loss or damage is held liable for that loss or damage in a proportion corresponding to that party's fault or negligence. Proportionate fault is the system of apportionment of damages recognized historically by the civil law and later codified in the various civil codes. At common law, however, proportionate (comparative) fault only replaced the old common law contributory negligence (supra) rule (which precluded any recovery by a plaintiff whose fault or negligence had contributed to his loss or damage in even the slightest degree) when the United Kingdom enacted the Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act, 1945, 8 & 9 Geo. 6, c. 28, although several Canadian common law provinces had enacted similar legislation some twenty years earlier. In maritime law, proportionate fault replaced the traditional equally divided damages (supra) rule of apportionment for ship collision when the United Kingdom, Canada and other British Commonwealth countries enacted national statutes giving effect to the Collision Convention 1910 (supra). In the United States, proportionate fault in ship collisions was imposed by the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in United States v. Reliable Transfer Co. 421 U.S. 397, 1975 AMC 541, [1975] 2 Lloyd's Rep. 286 (1975). In Canadian maritime law, proportionate fault replaced contributory negligence in respect of maritime torts other than ship collisions pursuant to the Supreme Court of Canada's decision in Bow Valley Husky (Bermuda) Ltd. v. Saint John Shipbuilding Ltd. [1997] 3 S.C.R. 1210, (1997) 153 D.L.R.(4th) 385. See Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 478-489; Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 49-50; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 222, 228-241.

Prudent mariner doctrine -A term derived from a warning printed on close area navigation charts published by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States, which reads as follows: "The prudent mariner will not rely solely on any single aid to navigation, particularly on floating aids."

Prujiner, Alain - Traités et documents internationaux usuels en droit du commerce international/Treaties and International Documents used in International Trade Law, 2 Ed., rev. and updated, 2005, Wilson & Lafleur, Montreal.

Public order/public policy [Fr.: "ordre public"] [Span.: "orden público"] [Ital.: "ordine pubblico"] [Gr.: "öffentliche Sicherheit und Ordnung"] - In domestic law, public order (a civil law term) refers to domestic rules and legal principles reflecting lofty standards of morality and social conduct in a civilized society, while public policy (a common law term) refers to fundamental principles of natural justice found in a state's constitution, bill of rights, laws, regulations, precedents and accepted customs. See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at p. 100. In the conflict of laws, international public order/public policy refers to the general principle whereby courts may refuse to recognize or enforce contracts or foreign judgments or foreign arbitral awards which they deem to be repugnant to the forum's essential principles of morality and justice, or, in some cases, to the basic policies and interests of the forum State. In the United States, the concept of public policy in conflicts theory and practice has been subsumed, at least partially, by the American theory of interest analysis and quest for equity. International public order/public policy is found in both the codes and jurisprudence of civil law jurisdictions and the case law of common law jurisdictions. It is also to be found in international conflict of laws conventions and instruments, such as the Rome Convention 1980 (infra) at art. 16, the Brussels Convention 1968 (supra) and Lugano Convention 1988 (supra) at art. 27(1), the New York Convention 1958 (supra) at art. V(2)(b) and the UNCITRAL Model Law 1985 (infra) at art. 36(1)(b)(ii), as well as in national statutes giving effect to them. See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 95-133 and 821-861.

Punitive damages - Damages awarded in addition to normal damages for bad faith or excessively improper acts of the defendant in contract or tort or even during a court action. They are usually granted by statute and at times excluded by statute (Hague/Visby Rules at art. 4(5)(b)). They are only now appearing in modern civilian jurisdictions (e.g. Québec Civil Code 1994, at art. 1621 c.c.q.) See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at p. 238 and Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 801-808.

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Quasi-deviation - An American term for certain types of breach of a contract of carriage of goods by sea, analogous to unreasonable geographic deviation, notably overcarriage, non-delivery and delayed delivery. Where intentional, these breaches have been held by U.S. courts as depriving the carrier (supra) of the benefit of the package limitation under COGSA (see supra), and should result in the loss of all the carrier's exemptions and limitations of liability. See for example, Vision Air Flight Serv. v. M/V Nat'l Pride, 155 F.3d 1165, 1999 AMC 1168 (9 Cir. 1998), and SPM Corp. v. M/V Ming Moon, 965 F.2d 1297, 1992 AMC 2409 (3 Cir. 1992). See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 240-243, 265-273; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 92-93.

Quasi in rem jurisdiction - An American term referring to jurisdiction (supra) exercised by way of the attachment (supra) over the chattels of a defendant who cannot be found within the district. See Supplemental Rules B and E of the Supplemental Rules for Certain Admiralty and Maritime Claims (infra). See also Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 795-796, 830; Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 940, 954; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 408-409.

Quasi-maritime liens - A term used to describe claims for pilotage, general average contributions and dock charges in Canada, which claims, under sects. 2(1) and 22(2)(l), (q),and (s), read with sects. 43(2) and (3), of the Federal Court Act, R.S.C., 1985, c. F-7, follow the ship into whosever hands it passes (like traditional maritime liens (supra)), but which (unlike maritime liens) rank after rather than before ship mortgages. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed, 1998 at pp. 94, 452, 457 and 736-737; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 436.

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Rainey, Simon - The Law of Tug and Tow and allied Contracts, 2 Ed., 2002, LLP, London.

"ratio decidendi" - ("reason for deciding"), which refers to a finding of law in a decision, where the finding was based on the issues properly before the court. It is legal reasoning essential to the decision which the court has to take to decide the case. For the opposite of "ratio decidendi", see "obiter dictum" (supra).

Received for shipment bill of lading - See "Bills of Lading & Related Documents" (supra).

Recognition of foreign judgments - In the conflict of laws, the rules and principles applied by courts in order to determine whether or not to recognize and enforce a judgment rendered by a foreign court or an arbitral award rendered by a foreign arbitral tribunal.

Register tonnage - See "Tons & Tonnage" (infra).

Reinsurance - See marine reinsurance (supra).

Rèmond-Gouilloud, Martine - Droit Maritime, 2 Ed., 1993, Éditions A. Pedone, Paris.
Rèmond-Gouilloud, Martine - Le Contrat de Transport, 1993, Dalloz, Paris.
Rèmond-Gouilloud, Martine - Du droit de détruire, 1989, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris.

"renvoi" [Span.: "reenvío"] [Ital.: "rinvio"] [Gr.: "Verweisung"] - In the conflict of laws, the French term renvoi refers to the application of the conflict rules of one state by the court or tribunal of another state, in order to solve a conflict of laws problem. Renvoi developed in the nineteenth century, as a reaction to the territorial theory, in an effort to secure greater uniformity and equity in conflicts decisions. Single renvoi (a.k.a. partial, imperfect, or receptive renvoi or renvoi simpliciter) is the referral by the forum court to the conflict rules of a foreign state, but not to that state's renvoi rules. This may result in a reference back to the forum's domestic law ("remission") or a reference to the domestic law of a third state ("transmission"). Double renvoi (a.k.a. perfect, total, true or integral renvoi, total reference, or the foreign court principle) is the referral by the forum court to the conflict rules, including the renvoi rules) of a foreign state. Thus the forum court applies the law specified by the foreign conflicts rules, including the foreign renvoi rules, in an effort to render the decision which the foreign court would render if it were seized of the case. Double renvoi appears to be limited to England. Renvoi has been subjected to criticism by legal authors and is increasingly excluded in international conflict of laws conventions (e.g. the Rome Convention 1980, infra, at art. 15) and should be rejected. See Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 69-93

Replevin- An action for the repossession of personal property wrongfully taken or held by the defendant, where the plaintiff gives security for and holds the property until the court decides who owns it. See Hual AS v. Expert Concrete, Inc. 2002 AMC 741 (N.Y. Supr. Ct. 2001).

"res ipsa loquitur" - ("the thing speaks for itself"), referring to the presumption that damages caused by an inanimate object, without human intervention, result from some fault or negligence on the part of the owner or possessor of the object in whose custody it was at the time it caused the harm. The doctrine applies in cases where the damage would not ordinarily occur in the absence of fault or negligence, and where there is no evidence as to how or why the harmful occurrence took place. See Scott v. London and St. Katherine Docks Co. (1865) 3 H. & C. 596 at p. 596, 159 E.R. 665 at p. 667; Hellenius. v. Lees [1972] S.C.R. 165 at p. 172; Jackson v. Millar [1976] 1 S.C.R. 225 at p. 235. The principle was shot through the heart by the Supreme Court of Canada in Fontaine v. B.C. (Offical Administrator) [1998] 1 S.C.R. 424 at p. 435, where Major, J. said: "It would appear that the law would be better served if the maxim was treated as expired and no longer used as a separate component in negligence actions. After all, it was nothing more than an attempt to deal with circumstantial evidence. That evidence is more sensibly dealt with by the trier of fact,..." The decision has been followed in a number of countries in the world.

"res judicata" [Fr.: "chose jugée"] [Span.: "cosa juzgada"] [Ital.: "cosa giudicata"] [Gr.: "Rechtskräftig entschiedene Sache"] - ("the thing having been adjuged"), referring to the principle that once a court of competent jurisdiction has rendered a final and conclusive decision in a dispute, the same cause of action may not normally be tried again. In the conflict of laws, by virtue of res judicata, a court is estopped from retrying a case which has been the object of a final and conclusive judgment by a competent court or in another jurisdiction. See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 1964-1965; Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 831-832.

"res perit domino" - ("the thing perishes for the owner"), referring to the principle that risk in the goods pass with ownership. See Martineau v. Kitching (1872) 7 Q.B. 436 at pp. 453-454; Tetley, M.C.C.,4 Ed., 2008 at p. 424.

respondentia ("nantissement à la grosse sur facultés") - The hypothecation of the ship's cargo by the master while away from the vessel's home port, as security for a loan to pay for goods or services needed to preserve the ship or complete the voyage. Respondentia, although still secured by a maritime lien (supra) in the U.K. and British Commonwealth countries, is obsolete, in view of the emergence of modern means of communications. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 9, 17 and 419; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 594 footnote 91.

responder immunity - A term used to express the limited immunity from civil liability given to "responders" to an environmental accident whose actions taken or not taken result in worsening the environmental consequences, as long as their conduct was in accord with certain principles and as long as the worsening of the consequences was not due to gross negligence or wilful misconduct.

Restatement Second of the Conflict of Laws - The Restatement (Second) of the Conflict of Laws, adopted by the American Law Institute at Washington, D.C., on May 23, 1969.

"restitutio in integrum" - A latin term for "restoration in full", referring to the civilian principle, also recognized at common law and frequently applied in admiralty law, requiring that the successful plaintiff be fully compensated by the final judgment of the court for all the losses and damages which the breach of contract or the commission of the tort or delict caused him. It requires that the victim of the breach of contract or the tort/delict be placed in the same position he was in before the harmful event occurred. In admiralty law, the principle has notably been applied to permit the awarding of damages for pure economic loss, the granting of judgments in foreign currency and the ordering of pre-judgment interest as an integral part of damages from the date of the casualty. See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at p. 751, Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 719-721, 736-737, 741, 743, 752; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 97-98, 255.

Reuter, N. - La notion d'assistance en Mer, 1975, Librairies techniques, Paris.

Revue de Droit Commercial, Maritime, Aérien et des Transports ("Revue Scapel") (4 times a year). Website: http://www.scp-scapel.com/revue.html. Email: scp [dot] scapel [at] barreau [dot] com. The Director is Christian Scapel and the Editor-in-Chief is Jacques Bonnaud.

Reward - See salvage reward (infra).

Reynolds, Francis M.B. - Lex Mercatoria. Essays in Honour of Francis Reynolds, 2000 (F.D. Rose, ed.), LLP, London. See also Carver, T.G. (supra).

Rhodian Law - An unwritten body of sea law, purportedly administered on the Island of Rhodes, dating from approximately 800 B.C., some fragmentary portions of which were recorded in the sixth century A.D in the Digest of Justinian, especially in Book XV, Title 2, "De lege Rhodia de jactu", concerning general average (supra). See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 7-8; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 9-12; Tetley, "The General Maritime Law - The Lex Maritima" (1994) 20 Syracuse J. Int. L. & Comm. 105-145 at p. 109; reprinted in [1996] ETL 469-506 at p. 473. See also "Byzantine/Rhodian Sea-Law" (supra).

Rio Rules 1977 [Fr.: "Règles de Rio 1977"] [Span.: "Reglas de Rio 1977"] [Ital.: "Regole di Rio 1977"] [Gr.: "Rio Regeln 1977"]- The draft "International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Concerning Civil Jurisdiction, Choice of Law and Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments in Matters of Collision", approved by the CMI Conference at Rio de Janeiro on September 30, 1977, but which is not in force. For a commentary and the text of the Rio Rules 1977, see [1978] LMCLQ 14.

Ripert, Georges - Droit Maritime, 4 Ed., 3 vols, 1950-1953, Les Éditions Rousseau, Paris. >

Rodière, René - Traité Général de Droit Maritime in seven volumes, 1967 to 1983, Dalloz, Paris.
Rodière, René - Le Droit Maritime, 1980, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris.

Rodière, R. et Rèmond-Gouilloud, M. - La Mer. Droits des Hommes ou Proie des États, 1980, Éditions A. Pedone, Paris.

Rodière et du Pontavice - Droit Maritime, 12 Ed., 1997, Dalloz, Paris.

Rôles of Oléron: 12th century codification of maritime law which defined the duties and responsibilities of masters, crews, shipowners and merchants. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 13-18; Tetley, Int'l M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 12-16.

Roman law - The law of ancient Rome, which is the source of the civil law. The term "Roman law" is sometimes applied loosely to refer to civil law generally.

Roman-Dutch law - The uncodified civil law of South Africa, which has been strongly influenced by common law.

Rome Convention, 1980 - The "Convention on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations" (E.E.C. 80/934) opened for signature at Rome on June 19, 1980, and in force April 1, 1991, is one of the most important conventions of private international law. It establishes uniform conflict of law rules for contract applicable in all countries of the European Union (supra). (See text: Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994 at pp. 1032-1045, with a brief commentary at pp. 1045-1048.)

RO-RO ("roulage" or "transroulage") - Roll On-Roll Off is the method of ship carriage whereby the cargo is driven directly on board ship and at destination driven directly off.

Roland, Roger - Liber Amicorum R. Roland, 2003, Larcier, Brussels.

Rose, Francis, D., ed., - New Foundations for Insurance Law, 1987, Stevens & Sons, Ltd., London; Marine Insurance: Law and Practice, 2004, LLP, London; General Average: Law and Practice, 2 Ed., 2005, LLP, London. See also Lloyd's Maritime and Commercial Law Quarterly (supra).
Rose, Francis, D., ed., - Lex Mercatoria, 2000, LLP, London. See Reynolds, Francis M.B., (supra).

Rotterdam Rules - United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea (The Rotterdam Rules) . The text of the Convention was adopted on 11 December 2008 during the sixty-third session of the United Nations General Assembly by resolution A/RES/63/122. The Convention shall be open for signature by all States at Rotterdam, the Netherlands, on 23 September 2009, and thereafter at the Headquarters of the United Nations in New York. The Convention will enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of one year after the date of deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession. For criticisms of the Rotterdam Rules please see http://www.mcgill.ca/maritimelaw/rotterdamrules/.

Rules of the Road - A term often used to refer to the Collision Regulations 1972 (supra).

Rules for Electronic Bills of Lading - These are CMI rules concerning the use of bills of lading sent by Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). They were adopted in Paris, June 29, 1990. (See text: (1991) 22 JMLC 620-625.

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Safe Containers Convention 1972 - The International Convention for Safe Containers, adopted by the IMO (supra) on December 2, 1972, which came into force September 6, 1977.

Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention 1974- International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, amended 1974, in force May 25, 1980, as amended. Adopted by the IMO (supra).

"Said to contain" - Words which may be inserted in the bill of lading (supra) by the carrier (supra), in accordance with sect. 21 of the Pomerene Act of 1916 (supra) (49 U.S. Code Appx. sect. 101; recodified in 1994 as 49 U.S. Code sect. 80113(b), (c) and (d)), to indicate that package freight is loaded by a shipper (infra) and is supposed to contain goods of a certain kind or quantity or in a certain condition. If true, these words relieve the carrier issuing the bill of lading from liability, although the goods are not of the kind or quantity or in the condition they were said to be by the consignor.

"saisie conservatoire" [Span.: "embargo preventivo"] [Ital.: sequestro conservativo"] [Gr.: "Sicherungsbeschlagnahme"] - The civil law procedure, known in English as the "conservatory attachment", whereby, on motion by a plaintiff, at the beginning of or during a suit, specified assets of the defendant (real or personal, moveable or immoveable) may be seized by the court, as security for the plaintiff's claim. See Decree no. 67-967 of Oct. 27, 1967 as amended (France) and arts. 733-739 Code of Civil Procedure (C.C.P.) re "seizure before judgment" (Québec). The American "attachment" (supra) under the general maritime law (supra) and Supplemental Rule B of the Supplemental Rules for Certain Admiralty and Maritime Claims (infra) is the equivalent of the "saisie conservatoire". See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 962-971; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 406.

Salvage [Fr.: "assistance" or "assistance en mer"] [Span.: "salvamento"] [Ital.: "assistenza e salvataggio"] [Gr.: "Bergung"] - The salvor has a claim of salvage reward if he has successfully and voluntarily salvaged maritime property in danger. The civil law term is "assistance" (supra) permitting the salvor to be rewarded whether the salvage was successful or not. "Sauvetage" (supra) is used in France for wreck salvage [Ital.: "ricupero"]. See Chap. 9 in Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 329-382; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003, Chap. 8, at pp. 317-359.

Salvage Convention 1910- The International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law Relating to Assistance and Salvage at Sea, adopted at Brussels on September 23, 1910 and in force as of March 1, 1913. See also the Protocol, adopted at Brussels on May 27, 1967 and in force as of August 15, 1977. See CMI (supra); Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 332-333; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 326.

Salvage Convention 1989 - The International Convention on Salvage, adopted by the IMO (supra) at London on April 28, 1989 and in force as of July 14, 1996. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 332-333; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 326-327.

Salvage reward-The compensation which is payable to a salvor, pursuant to a salvage award (supra). See the Salvage Convention 1989 (supra), arts. 12 and 13. See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 338-352.

SAMSA - The Society of Accredited Marine Surveyors, Inc., Jacksonville, Florida. Website: http://www.marinesurvey.org/; email: SAMSHQ [at] aol [dot] com.

Sanborn, F.R. - Origins of the Early English Maritime and Commercial Law, 1930, The Century Co., New York and London. Reprinted by William S. Hein & Co., Inc., Buffalo, N.Y., 2002.

Sánchez, G.J. Jiménez, Derecho mercantil, 6 Ed., (2 vols.), 2000, Editorial Ariel, S.A., Barcelona, Spain.

Sanderson order - See Bullock order, supra.

Scandinavian Institute of Maritime Law - University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. Website: http://www.ub.uio.no/ujur/english/instbibl/nifs/. Email: fa-admin [at] admin [dot] uio [dot] no.

Scheiber, Harry N. - Law of the Sea: the common heritage and emerging challenges, 2000, Nijhoff, The Hague and Boston.

Schelin, Johan - Modern Law of Charterparties, 2002, Jure AB, Stockholm.

Schoenbaum, Thomas J. - Admiralty and Maritime Law, 4 Ed., 2004, (3 vols.), West Group, St. Paul, Minn.

Schofield, John - Laytime and Demurrage, 5 Ed., 2004, LLP, London.

SCOPIC Clause - The "Special Compensation P. & I. Club Clause" ("SCOPIC Clause") refers to the agreement, which first became effective August 1, 1999, between members of the International Salvage Union (I.S.U.) (supra), the International Group of P. & I. Clubs (supra), and certain property underwriters, providing a mechanism for remunerating salvors on the basis of a fixed tariff of daily rates for tugs, equipment and personnel used, rather than by arbitration on the basis provided by arts. 13 and 14 of the Salvage Convention 1989 (supra). The SCOPIC Clause, slightly reworded, is now an optional clause which may be incorporated by the salvor into LOF 2000, (Lloyd's Standard Form of Salvage Agreement), in effect September 1, 2000) (supra), whereby the salvor may request guaranteed remuneration thereafter, instead of a "no cure/no pay" ( supra) salvage reward. See Tetley, Int'l. M & A. L., 2003 at pp. 342-345.

S.C.R. - Supreme Court Reports. The official bilingual reports of the Supreme Court of Canada published by Public Works and Government Services, Ottawa, ON, Canada, K1A 0S9. Web site: http://www.lexum.umontreal.ca/csc-scc/en/index.html. An example of the citation is [1970] S.C.R. 123.

Scots law - The uncodified civil law of Scotland, which has been strongly influenced by English common law and United Kingdom statutes.

Scrutton, T.E. - Scrutton on Charterparties (S.C. Boyd, A.S. Burrows, D. Foxton, eds.) 20 Ed., 1996, Sweet & Maxwell, London.

S.D.R. [Fr.: "D.T.S.- Droits de tirage spéciaux"] [Span.: "Derechos especiales de giro"] [Ital.: "D.S.P., diritti speciali di prelievo"] [Gr.: "Sonderziehungsrechte"] - Special Drawing Rights are an international value used to provide a regular comparative evaluation by the International Monetary Fund of the currency of member nations. Value of a national currency will rise in S.D.R.s as the value of the national currency rises on the world market. S.D.R.s therefore are a fair evaluation of the comparison of national currencies one with another and as such useful as a valuation for limitation in an international convention. If S.D.R.s adjust to the rise and fall of the currency of a single nation as compared with other nations, they do not adjust to world inflation and as a result, the limitation of liability in S.D.R.s in various conventions has fallen as all currencies have inflated. In this respect, S.D.R.s are unsatisfactory. Gold does adjust to world inflation over very long periods of time, but in the short run suffers violent fluctuations in value. Gold has also been controlled in price by many countries at various times. Both S.D.R.s and gold suffer from the reluctance of many nations to comply with a market evaluation of their currency.

The value of the S.D.R., as established by the IMF with effect from January 1, 2001, is equal to the market value of fixed amounts of four currencies, the U.S. dollar 45%, the euro 29%, the Japanese yen 15% and the British pound sterling 11%. (Up to December 31, 1980, there were 16 currencies in the basket). If any of the component currencies weaken, the assumption is that other component currencies will strengthen, thus moderating fluctuations in the S.D.R.'s value. The criteria selecton of currencies for inclusion in the S.D.R. valuation basket are: 1) the currencies of those member countries of the IMF which are the largest exporters of goods and services (including exports by a monetary union that includes IMF members); and 2) currencies which are "freely usable" in acordance with Article XXX(f) of the IMF's Articles of Agreement, being ones which the IMF's Executive Board determines are in fact widely used to make payments for international transactions and are widely traded in the principal foreign exchange markets. The weights assigned to the currencies in the S.D.R. basket continue to be based on the value of the exports of goods and services and the amount of reserves denominated in the respective currencies which are held by other members of the IMF. The basket composition is reviewed every five years to ensure that it reflects the relative importance of currencies in the world's trading and financial systems.

As at March 2007, the S.D.R. was worth approx. $1.77 Cdn., or approx. $1.50 U.S., or approx £0.77 (pound sterling), or approx. €1.14(euro) (supra) .

Seaways Website: http://www.nautinst.org/seaways/index.htm. Email: sec [at] nautinst [dot] org.

Sea Waybill - See "Bills of Lading & Related Documents" (supra).

Search and Rescue (SAR) Convention 1979 - The International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue, adopted by the IMO (supra) on April 27, 1979, which came into force June 22, 1985, as subsequently amended by a revised technical annex on May 18, 1998, which came into force January 1, 2006, and a group of amendments relating to persons in distress at sea, adopted on May 20, 2004, which came into force on July 1, 2006.

Search Order - See "Anton Piller Order", (supra).

Seaworthiness [Fr.: "navigabilité"] [Span.: "navegabilidad"] [Ital.: "navigabilità"] [Gr.: "Seetüchtigkeit"] - A basic theme in maritime law, referring to the obligation of shipowners and carriers (supra) to provide a vessel and crew fit to confront the perils of the sea. In the carriage of goods by sea, under art. 3(1) of the Hague and Hague/Visby Rules (supra), the carrier must exercise "due diligence" before and at the beginning of the voyage " (a) to make the ship seaworthy; (b) to properly man, equip and supply the ship; and (c) to make the holds, refrigerating and cool chambers, and all other parts of the ship in which goods are carried, fit and safe for their reception, carriage and preservation". Although less demanding than the absolute duty of seaworthiness of the former common law, which applied at all times and at all stages of the voyage, the due diligence obligation has been held to be an overriding obligation on the carrier (see Maxine Footwear Co., Ltd. v. Canadian Government Merchant Marine [1959] A.C. 589 at pp. 602-603 (P.C.)). The carrier has the obligation of proving that due diligence has been exercised. The exercise of due diligence is only material if lack of seaworthiness was the proximate cause of the loss or damage to the goods carried (see Eisenerz G.m.b.H. v. Federal Commerce & Navigation Co. (The Oak Hill) [1974] S.C.R. 1225, [1975] 1 Lloyd's Rep. 105 (Supr. Ct. of Can.)). Moreover, the due diligence obligation may not be delegated (see Riverstone Meat Co. Pty. Ltd. v. Lancashire Shipping Co. (The Muncaster Castle) [1961] A.C. 807, [1961] 1 Lloyd's Rep. 57, 1961 AMC 1357 (H.L.)). Where the contractors act carefully and competently, however, the carrier has been held to have fulfilled its obligation of due diligence (see Union of India v. N.V. Reederij Amsterdam (The Amstelslot) [1963] 2 Lloyd's Rep. 223 (H.L.)). Under the Hamburg Rules (supra), art. 5(1), the due diligence obligation is not mentioned expressly, nor is seaworthiness. Nevertheless, the obligation of the carrier under that provision to prove that he, his servants and his agents took all measures which could reasonably be required to avoid the occurrence and its consequences, would seem to impose a due diligence obligation at all times and all stages of the voyage. See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 875-950; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 52-53.

Seaworthiness is also a requirement of charterparties, and is also found in public law, in legislation governing seamen's employment contracts and steamship inspection (e.g. Canada Shipping Act, 2001, S.C. 2001, c. 26, sects. 85(1) and (2) and 222(1)). It also is found in marine insurance (e.g. the U.K.'s Marine Insurance Act, 1906, 7 Edw. VII, c. 41, sect. 39; see text in Tetley, Int'l M. & A. L., 2003, Appendix "O" at pp. 825-859). See also Canada's Marine Insurance Act, S.C. 1993, c. 21, sect. 37), as well as in general average (supra). See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 162-163 (charterparties), 599-601 (marine insurance), 52-53 (general average).

Senate COGSA '99 - A bill to repeal and replace U.S.COGSA, 1936 (supra), introduced (in a sixth draft) in the U.S. Senate on September 24, 1999, but not yet adopted. For the text, see here. See also Tetley, "Reform of Carriage of Goods - The UNCITRAL Draft and Senate COGSA '99" (2003) 28 Tul. Mar. L.J. 1-44, also available: Reform of Carriage of Goods -- The UNCITRAL Draft and Senate COGSA '99 . See also further comments by Tetley at here and by the Canadian Maritime Law Association here.

Sériaux, Alain - La faute du transporteur, 2 Ed., 1998, Economica, Paris.

Shiparrested.com A website providing information on the arrest of ships in many different jurisdictions around the world. Website: http://www.shiparrested.com/ Email: info [at] shiparrested [dot] com;

Ship mortgage [Fr.: "hypothèque maritime"] [Span.: "hipoteca marítima"] [Ital.: "ipoteca navale"] [Gr.: "Schiffshypothek"] - Security on a ship and its appurtenances by the shipowner as security for a loan. It is derived from the English common law chattel mortgage and is similar to the "hypothèque maritime" of the civil law. Ship mortgages in common law jurisdictions may be either legal or equitable mortgages. See Chap. 14 in Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 473-532; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003, Chap. 12, at pp. 469-514..

Shipped bill of lading - See "Bills of Lading & Related Documents" (supra).

Shipper - The party who contracts with a carrier (supra) for the carriage of goods. See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 445-519.

"Shipper's weight, load and count" - Words which may be inserted in a bill of lading (supra) by a carrier (supra), under sect. 21 of the Pomerene Act of 1916 (supra) (49 U.S. Code Appx. sect. 101, recodified in 1994 as 49 U.S. Code sect. 80113(b), (c) and (d)) to indicate that the goods were loaded by the shipper (supra) and that the description of them in the bill of lading was also made by him. If such statement is true, the carrier is not liable for loss or damages resulting from improper loading, non-receipt or misdescription of the goods described in the bill. The words are treated as null and void, however, if the carrier in fact loaded the goods, or if he was requested by the shipper in writing and afforded a reasonable opportunity to weigh the bulk freight (supra) at weighing facilities maintained by the shipper. See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 687-688, 1191, 1545, 1158, 1563.

Shipping Conferences - Various shipowners who operate liner, rather than tramp, services have formed associations in various trades, and various areas of the world. These associations, or conferences, fix freight (supra) rates to prevent unfair price cutting and to ensure reasonable profits. Some nations consider such conferences and their price fixing to be monopolistic and unfair as well as being oppressive, because the conference presumably restricts the development of fleets of emerging nations. For this reason, the Convention on a Code of Conduct for Liner Conferences was adopted by UNCTAD in 1974. Other nations feel that ocean carriage is already so competitive and risky that some international rules and rate fixing is needed to prevent unfair undercutting and other improper practices.

Shipping Federation of Canada/Fédération maritime du Canada - Website: http://www.shipfed.ca/. Email: info [at] shipfed [dot] ca.

Shipping Law Unit- A specialized institute within the University of Cape Town, South Africa, providing teaching and research facilities in regard to private maritime law. Website: http://web.uct.ac.za/depts/shiplaw/shipping.htm. See also Institute of Marine and Environmental Law" and "University of Cape Town".

Ship's delivery order - See "Bills of Lading & Related Documents" (supra).

Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments Convention 2004 - The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, adopted by the IMO (supra) on February 13, 2004, not yet in force.

Short form bill of lading - See "Bills of Lading & Related Documents" (supra).

Sister-ship arrest [Fr.: "saisie conservatoire de navires apparentés (navires jumeaux)"] [Span.: "detención (inmovilización) de buques hermanos"] [Ital.: "sequestro di nave sorella appartenente allo stesso armatore"] [Gr.: "Ersatzbeschlagnahme"] - A procedure whereby a ship, which is not the ship to which the claim relates, but which is beneficially owned (or, in the U.K., the shares of which are beneficially owned) at the time the action in rem is brought by the party who was personally liable on the claim when it arose, may be arrested in an action in rem as security for the claim. See the U.K.'s Supreme Court Act 1981 (U.K. 1981 c. 54) sect. 21(4)(b)(ii); Canada's Federal Court Act (R.S.C. 1985 c. F-7) sect. 43(8). South Africa's Admiralty Jurisdiction Regulation Act 1983 (No. 105 of 1983), sect. 3(6) and (9), providing for the arrest of "associated ships" provides a particularly liberal form of sister-ship arrest. Sister-ship arrest is really a form of attachment (supra), and therefore is not needed in the U.S. or civil law countries, where the attachment and saisie conservatoire (supra) exist. See also the International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to the Arrest of Seagoing Ships, adopted at Brussels May 10, 1952 (the Arrest Convention 1952, supra) art. 3 (1) and (4). See Chap. 27 in Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 1029-1046; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 419, 421. The principle of sister-ship arrest was enunciated in order to counter what are deemed as evasions of responsibility by shipowners and managers who operate large fleets in one-ship companies. These evasions are often seen to be magnified by the use of flags of convenience. "Piercing" and "lifting" the corporate veil (supra) has been permitted more and more by legislation and even by the courts after the principle was refused with authority by the House of Lords in Salomon v. Salomon [1897] A.C. 22. See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 41, 159 and 219-224. On the other hand, liens against one particular ship should not be transferable as liens per se against another ship, ranking ahead of creditors of the second ship. See in general, Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998, Chap. 27, and in particular pp. 1030-1046, 1171 and 1183. The Arrest Convention 1999, supra, at art. 3(2) permits arrest of ships under common legal (i.e. registered) ownership, but not common beneficial ownership. See in general Tetley, "Arrest, Attachment, and Related Maritime Law Procedures" (1999) 73 Tul. L. Rev. 1895 at pp. 1911-1912, 1924-1925, 1935, 1943 and 1969; also available on-line at: http://www.mcgill.ca/maritimelaw/maritime-admiralty/arrest/.

S.M.A. - The Society of Maritime Arbitrators, New York. Email: info [at] smany [dot] org; website: http://www.smany.org/. See M.M. Cohen, "Current Law and Practice of Maritime Arbitration in New York", DMF 1996.589, with French translation, DMF 1996.605.

Société de développement du Saint-Laurent (SODES) Website: http://www.st-laurent.org/pages/indexfr.htm.

Sohn, L. B. & Gustafson, K. - The Law of the Sea in a Nutshell, 1984, West, St. Paul, Minn.

SOLAS - See Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention 1974 (supra).

Southampton - See "Institute of Maritime Law".

Special compensation [Fr.: "indemnité spéciale"] [Span.: "compensación especial"] [Ital.: "indennità (compenso) speciale"] [Gr.: "Besondere Aufwandsentschädigung"] - Compensation payable under art. 14 of the International Convention on Salvage, 1989, adopted at London, April 28, 1989 (the Salvage Convention 1989 (supra), in respect of salvage operations carried out in respect of a vessel which by itself or its cargo threatened damage to the environment. This special compensation covers the salvor's expenses, defined at art. 14(3) as "the out-of-pocket expenses reasonably incurred by the salvor in the salvage operation and a fair rate for equipment and personnel actually and reasonably used in the salvage operation, taking into consideration the criteria set out in article 13, paragraph 1(h), (i) and (j)." Special compensation is only payable if the salvor failed to earn a salvage reward under art. 13 of the Convention at least equivalent to special compensation as defined (art. 14(1)). It is payable, however, regardless of whether or not the salvor succeeded in salving any of the ship or cargo. Where the salvor's exertions to prevent or minimise damage to the environment were successful, the amount of the special compensation may be increased by up to 30% of his expenses, with the tribunal also having the right to grant an increase up to 100% where it deems it fair and just to do so, bearing in mind the relevant criteria in art. 13(1) (art. 14(2). The total special compensation is paid only to the extent that it exceeds a salvage reward payable under art. 13 (art. 14(4)). See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 341-342.

Special Drawing Rights - see S.D.R., supra.

Special legislative rights - Rights which governments in most countries of the world have given themselves by national legislation to detain, seize and sell ships, and (often) to be preferred to other creditors on the proceeds of sale, in respect of claims for harbour, dock and canal dues; wreck removal; or pollution. Special legislative rights also increasingly include a governmental power of forfeiture of ships and/or other property for offences against national legislation on matters such as drug trafficking, fisheries control, customs, immigration, the arms trade and piracy. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 65-71; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 475-478.

Squibb, G.D. - Doctors' Commons, 1977, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers (STCW) Convention 1978 - The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, adopted by the IMO (supra) on July 7, 1978, which came into force on April 28, 1984, as amended.

"stare decisis" - ("to stand by decisions"), referring to the common law principle which obliges an inferior court to follow the clear findings in law of a superior court of the same jurisdiction. Supreme courts and inferior courts may also hold themselves bound by their own decisions. Nota bene: "Stare decisis" is an abbreviation of the full Latin maxim, "stare decisis et non quieta movere", meaning "stand by decisions and do not disturb the calm". See Telstra Corp. Ltd. v. Treloar (2000) 102 FCR 595 at p. 605 (Fed. Ct. Aust.).

Statutory law - The law found in legislation other than civil codes. Statutory law is basic to both the civil law (supra) and the common law (supra). In common law jurisdictions, most rules are found in the jurisprudence and statutes complete them. In civil law jurisdictions, the important principles are stated in codes, while statutes complete them. See Tetley, Mixed Jurisdictions: common law vs. civil law (codified and uncodified) (Part I) 1999-4 Uniform Law Review 591-619 at p. 597.

Statutory right in rem - In the U.K. and British Commonwealth countries, a right to arrest a ship in an action in rem as security for a maritime claim, usually in respect of a contract for necessaries (supra) provided to the vessel (e.g. repairs, towage, bunkers, stevedoring). Unlike a maritime lien (supra), a statutory right in rem arises only when the writ in rem is issued (as in the U.K.) or when the ship is arrested (as in Canada), rather than when the claim arises, and is expunged by the conventional sale of the ship. It ranks after maritime liens and is sometimes referred to as a "statutory lien". See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 555, 577; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 189-190, 491.

Stay - A procedure whereby a court does not dismiss an action or dismisses it conditionally on grounds of forum non conveniens (supra). See Arctic Explorer, 590 F. Supp. 1346 at p. 1361, 1984 AMC 2413 at p. 2434 (S.D. Tex. 1984); but retains jurisdiction (supra)and calls on the plaintiff to take suit in the more convenient forum. The conditions are usually that the defendant agree to appear in the foreign court within a certain delay, accept jurisdiction there and agree to any final judgment. See Tetley, Int'l C. of L., 1994 at pp. 529, 802-803 and 819; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 312-313.

Stem - See Subject stem (infra).

Story, Joseph - Commentaries on the Conflict of laws, foreign and domestic, 1 Ed., 1834, Hilliard, Gray & Co., Boston.

Straight bill of lading - See "Bills of Lading & Related Documents" (supra).

Strathy, George R. - The Law and Practice of Marine Insurance in Canada, 2003, Lexis Nexis Butterworths, Markham, Ontario.

Strict liability - Liability without regard to mens rea (the guilty mind) or scienter (knowledge). For example, strict liability may result in damages being awarded in the United States in marine pollution cases.

Sturley, Michael F. - Legislative History of the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, in three volumes, 1990, Rothman, Littleton, Colorado.

"Sua sponte" - A Latin term meaning "of one's own accord". The term is frequently used to refer to the right of a court to consider a legal issue "of its own motion", even if none of the parties have raised or addressed the issue in their written or oral pleadings. See, for example, U.S. Express Lines, Ltd. v. Higgins 281 F.3d 383 at pp. 388-389, 2002 AMC 823 at p. 827 (3 Cir. 2002), referring to "... the duty of federal courts to examine their subject matter jurisdiction at all stages of the litigation sua sponte if the parties fail to raise the issue."

Subject stem - In fixing a voyage charterparty (supra), "subject stem" (or "sub. stem") means that the charter is conditional upon the charterer obtaining cargo for the agreed loading period. "Stem" is an abbreviation of "subject to enough merchandise". Both the charterer and the shipowner are relieved of their obligations if the cargo cannot be obtained. See Kokusai Kisen Kabushiki v. Johnson (1921) 8 Ll. L. Rep. 434. See also J. Cooke, J.D. Kimball, T. Young, D. Martowski, A. Taylor, & L. Lambert, Voyage Charters, 2 Ed., LLP, London, 2001 at para. 1.23; P. Brodie, Dictionary of Shipping Terms, 4 Ed., LLP, London, 2003 at p. 223.

Subrogation - A legal fiction whereby a creditor (the "subrogor") is deemed to have assigned his rights and claims against his debtor to a third person (the "subrogee") when he receives payment of the debt in question from that third person. The civil law distinguishes "legal subrogation" (occurring by the sole operation of the law upon payment by the third person) from "conventional subrogation" (occurring by the express assignment (supra) of the creditor's rights at the time he receives payment from the third person). At common law, subrogation may be legal, contractual or by judicial consent. Subrogation to maritime liens is expressly permitted by the Maritime Liens and Mortgages Conventions 1967 (supra) (art. 9) and 1993 (supra) (art. 10). (See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998, at pp. 1211-1240; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 615-616).

"Sue and labour" clause - A clause in a marine insurance policy which permits the assured to recover from the insurer any expenses incurred by the assured in order to minimize or avert a loss to the insured property, for which loss the insurer would have been liable under the policy. See E.R. Hardy Ivamy, Marine Insurance, 4 Ed., Butterworths, London, 1985 (supra) at pp. 442-452; L.J. Buglass (supra), Marine Insurance and General Average in the United States, 3 Ed., 1991 at pp. 354-362; U.K. Marine Insurance Act, 1906, U.K. 6 Edw. 7, c. 41, sect. 78. See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 614-615.

Summerskill, Michael B. - Laytime, 4 Ed., 1989, Stevens & Sons, Ltd., London.

Superseding clause (a.k.a. supersession clause, in the U.K.) - A clause in a bill of lading (supra) providing that the bill of lading itself supersedes all agreements or freight (supra) engagements for the shipment of the goods, and also that all the terms of the bill of lading, whether written, typed, stamped or printed, are binding on the shipper (supra), consignee (supra), owner of the goods and holder of the bill, as if the bill were signed by them, any local customs or privileges to the contrary notwithstanding (see Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 200-221). Superseding clauses in contracts generally the U.S. are also sometimes called "integration clauses" or "merger clauses".

Supplemental Rules - The Supplemental Rules for Certain Admiralty and Maritime Claims, adopted in 1966 as part of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in the United States. The Supplemental Rules are lettered rules (e.g. Rule B re maritime attachment (supra) and Rule C re ship arrest (supra)). See text in Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, Rules 60 - End, United States Code Service (1987). See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 429-431.

Suppression of Unlawful Acts (SUA) Convention 1988 - The Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, adopted by the IMO (supra) on March 10, 1988, which came into force March 1, 1992. The SUA Convention 1988 was amended by a Protocol adopted at London, on October 14, 2005, which is not yet in force. The SUA Convention 1988, arts. 1 to 16, as revised by the 2005 Protocol, together with arts. 17 to 24 of the Protocol and its Annex, constitute the "Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation, 2005 (2005 SUA Convention).

Swedish Maritime Code 1994 - It is the Swedish ratification of the Nordic Maritime Code (in force Oct. 1, 1994) enacted by Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. It is published in Swedish with translation in English by Juristförlaget Stockholm 1995. (See Tiberg, [1995] LMCLQ 527.) See also the 2 Ed., updated to June 30, 2000, published by Jure AB, Stockholm, 2001.

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T.S.S. - See Traffic Separation Scheme, infra.

Tacit acceptance procedure - A procedure for amending limits of liability under various maritime law conventions and protocols drafted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), (supra), without the need to convoke a diplomatic conference to adopt the amendment by protocol. By virtue of this more expeditious procedure, any proposal to amend liability limits under a given convention or protocol, at the request of at least one-quarter of the Contracting States to the convention or protocol concerned, is first circulated by the Secretary General of the IMO to all such States. Any amendment so proposed and circulated is then submitted to the Legal Committee of the IMO for consideration at least six months after the date of its circulation. All Contracting States to the convention or protocol concerned are entitled to participate in the consideration of the proposed amendment at the Legal Committee, even if they are not Member States of the IMO. Amendments may then be adopted by a two-thirds majority of the Contracting States present and voting in the Legal Committee, including those Contracting States not belonging to the IMO, provided that at least one-half of all the Contracting States are present at the time of voting. The amendment is then notified by the IMO to all Contracting States and is deemed to have been accepted eighteen (18) months after the date of such notification, unless within that period not less than one-quarter of the States that were Contracting States at the time of the adoption of the amendment by the Legal Committee have communicated to the IMO that they do not accept the amendment. In that case, the amendment is rejected and without effect. An amendment which is deemed to have been accepted, however, enters into force eighteen (18) months after its acceptance. All Contracting States of the convention or protocol concerned are then bound by the amendment unless they denounce the convention or protocol at least six months before the amendment enters into force. States which become Contracting States of the convention or protocol concerned during the eighteen- month period following the adoption of the amendment by the Legal Committee of the IMO are then bound by the amendment if it enters into force. States that become Contracting States to the convention or protocol concerned more than 18 months after its adoption by the Legal Committee of the IMO are bound by the amendment that has been accepted. The tacit amendment procedure also often provides for certain restrictions on the frequency with which amendments to liability limits may be proposed (e.g. not less than five years after the entry into force of a previous amendment) and for certain restrictions on the percentage increases in such limits. This "tacit acceptance procedure" is a feature of the CLC Convention 1992 (supra) (art. 15), the Fund Convention 1992 (supra) (art. 33), the Hazardous and Noxious Substances Convention 1996 (supra) (art. 48), as well as of the Protocol of 1990 to the Athens Passenger Convention 1974 (supra) (art. VIII), the Protocol of 2002 to the Athens Passenger Convention 1974 (supra) (art. 23) and the Protocol of 2003 to the Fund Convention 1992 establishing the International Supplementary Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (supra).

Terminal Operators Convention 1991 - The United Nations Convention on the Liability of Operators of Transport Terminals in International Trade, adopted at Vienna, April 19, 1991, not yet in force.

T.E.U. ("E.V.P. - équivalent vingt pieds") - Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit. The basic forty-foot container is 2 T.E.U.

Tetley - International Conflict of Laws - Common, Civil and Maritime, 1994, Blais, Montreal. Cited: Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994.

Tetley - Marine Cargo Claims, 4 Ed., 2008. See also Marine Cargo Claims, 3 Ed., 1988, Blais, Montreal. Cited: Tetley, M.C.C., 3 Ed., 1988.

Tetley - Maritime Liens and Claims, 2 Ed., 1998, Blais, Montreal. Cited: Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998.

Tetley - International Maritime Law, being a general text on international maritime law, prepared for the "International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law" of the Max Planck Institute, Hamburg, Germany, 2001.

Tetley - International Maritime and Admiralty Law, 2003, Blais, Montreal. Cited: Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003.

Tetley, International Maritime and Admiralty Law (Chinese version), 2005, Law Press, Beijing.

Tetley, International Conflict of Laws (Chinese version), 2003, Law Press, Beijing.

Thomas, D. Rhidian - The Modern Law of Marine Insurance, vol. 1, 1996 and vol. 2, 2002, LLP Limited, London. See also Journal of International Maritime Law (supra).
Thomas, D. Rhidian - Marine Insurance - The Law in Transition, 2006, LLP Limited, London.

Third party benefit - See Himalaya clause (supra).

Through bill of lading - See "Bills of Lading & Related Documents" (supra).

Through carriage - Through carriage is the transport of goods by two or more carriers (supra) usually of the same type (i.e. either land, or sea or air).

Tiberg, Hugo - The Law of Demurrage, 4 Ed., 1995, Sweet & Maxwell, London.
Tiberg, Hugo - Essays in Honour of Hugo Tiberg (Peter Wetterstein & Anders Beijer, eds.), 1996, Juristförlaget, Stockholm.

Time charterparty - See charterparty (supra).

Todd, Paul - Maritime Fraud, 2003, LLP, London.

Tokyo MOU - Tokyo Memorandum of Understanding. See Port State Control.

Tokyo Rules - The CMI's proposed multimodal convention, adopted at Tokyo, 1969 (not in force).

Tonnage contract [Fr: "contrat de tonnage"] - A contract for the carriage of a certain quantity of goods, usually measured in tons, during a period of time, by ships or other means, ususally to be designated later. The contract often begins inland and is multimodal in nature. The tonnage contract therefore constitutes a promise to conclude a number of contracts, either of carriage or charterparty, for the transportation of the goods to be shipped. Another term for tonnage contract is "volume contract". In English-speaking countries, the tonage contract is sometimes referred to as a "contract of affreightment" (COA). See also space charter, supra.

Tonnage for purposes of shipowners' limitation of liability- See "Tons & Tonnage" (infra).

Tonnage Measurement of Ships Convention 1969 - See "Tons & Tonnage" (infra).

Tons - See "Tons & Tonnage" (infra).

Tons & Tonnage

1) Tons [Fr.: "tonnes"] [Span.: "toneladas"] [Ital.: "tonnellate"] [Gr.: "Tonnen"]:

Short ton (American) 2000 lbs.
Long ton (English) 2240 lbs.
Metric ton (1000 kg.) 2204.6 lbs.

2) Gross tonnage [Fr.: "tonnage brut"] [Span.: "tonelaje bruto"] [Ital.: "stazza lorda"] [Gr.: "Bruttotonnengehalt"] is the actual carrying capacity of the ship's hull below the upper deck, in cubic feet, divided by 100.

3) Gross register tonnage (g.r.t.) [Fr.: "jauge brute"] [Span.: "tonelaje (toneladas) de registro bruto"] [Ital.: "stazza lorda registrata"] [Gr.: "Bruttoregistertonnengehalt"] - The volumetric cargo capacity of the ship according to its certificate of registry.

4) Net tonnage [Fr.: "tonnage net" or "jauge nette"] [Span.: "tonelaje neto"] [Ital.: "stazza neta"] [Gr.: "Nettotonnengehalt"] is gross tonnage less the number of cubic feet reserved for crew's quarters, ships stores, bunkers, engine room space, etc.

5) Deadweight cargo capacity [Fr.: "port en lourd utile" or "portée en lourd utile"] [Span.: "capacidad de carga de peso muerto"] [Ital.: "portata lorda utile"] [Gr.: "Ladefähigket eines Schiffes (Nettoladefähigkeit)"] - In a voyage charterparty (supra), the vessel's deadweight tonnage, from which bunkers, fresh water and "constant" (e.g. galley supplies, paint, lubricating, oil, etc.) are deducted, to determine the ship's actual cargo carrying capacity.

6) Deadweight tonnage [Fr.: "portée en lourd" or "port en lourd"] [Span.: "tonelaje de peso muerto"] [Ital.: "portata lorda"] [Gr.: "Ladefähigkeit eines Schiffes (Bruttoladefähigkeit)"] is the actual cargo carrying capacity of the ship, when she is fully loaded with cargo so that the hull is immersed in water up to her Plimsoll marks (supra).

7) Displacement tonnage is a term usually used in warships to measure the weight of the water displaced by the ship when she is fully loaded with all her crew, bunkers, stores and equipment and armament on board.

8) Register tonnage [Fr.: "jauge au registre"] [Span.: "tonelaje de registro"] [Ital.: "stazza registrata"] [Gr.:"Registertonnengehalt"] is the gross tonnage and/or the net tonnage, as entered on a ship's certificate of registry. A register ton is 100 cu. ft.

9) Tonnage for purposes of shipowners' limitation of liability - Under the Limitation Convention 1976 (supra), art. 6(5), tonnage for purposes of limitation of liability for maritime claims is the tonnage as measured in accordance with the tonnage measurement rules of the International Convention on the Tonnage Measurement of Ships, adopted by IMO on June 23, 1969, which came into force on July 18, 1982. See also Canada's Marine Liability Act, S.C. 2001 c. 6, sects. 28(2) and 30(2), providing a similar rule on tonnage measurement in respect of the limitation of liability of ships having a gross tonnage of less than under 300 tons, as well as for the limitation of liability of owners of docks, canals and ports. See also the Merchant Shipping Act 1995, U.K. 1995 c. 21, sect. 185 and Schedule 7, Part II, para. 5(2) and (3).

Total loss [Fr.: "perte totale"] [Span.: "pérdida total"] [Ital.: "perdita totale"] [Gr.: "Totalschaden"] - "an actual total loss of the vessel or such damage to the vessel that the cost of saving and repairing her would exceed her market value at the time of the collision." (Lisbon Rules 1987, supra).

TOVALOP - Tanker Owners' Voluntary Agreement concerning Liability for Oil Pollution. An agreement subscribed by most of the world's tanker operators whereby the Owners agree to reimburse Governments for oil pollution clean-up costs. Each member insures his potential liability under the agreement. This agreement was in effect until February 20. 1997 but was not renewed after that date.(see also reference to CRISTAL, supra).

Towage [Fr.: "remorquage"] [Span.: "remolque"] [Ital.: "rimorchio"] [Gr.: "Schleppen"] is a contract whereby one ship moves another. Towage, as opposed to salvage (supra), is a service contract, which does not involve a marine peril, and the consideration is an hourly or daily rate or a lump sum, rather than a salvage reward (supra) based on the peril, the work accomplished and the value of the object salved. There are various standard-form towage contracts, including, for example, the "International Ocean Towage Agreement (Lump Sum)" (Code Name: "TOWCON") and the "International Ocean Towage Agreement (Daily Hire)" (Code Name: "TOWHIRE") of BIMCO (supra). See Tetley, Int'l M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 186. See also dominant mind (supra).

TradeWinds - A leading international shipping newspaper, published weekly by TradeWinds A/S. Web site: http://www.tradewinds.no/.

Traffic Separation Scheme (T.S.S.) - A method of regulating the flow of vessel traffic moving in different directions. The term is defined by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in its Resolution A/284 of November 20, 1973, as "a scheme which separates traffic proceeding in opposite or nearly opposite directions, by the use of a separation zone or line, traffic lanes, or by other means." Today, traffic separation schemes are often part of Vessel Traffic Services (V.T.S.), infra, in ports or restricted coastal areas. See Tetley, Int'l M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 237. See also Russell MacWilliam & Darryl Cooke, "VTS: lifting the fog of legal liability" [2006] LMCLQ 362-389.

Trakman, Leon - The Law Merchant: The Evolution of Commercial Law, 1983, Fred B. Rothman, Littleton, Colorado.

Trinity House - The Corporation of Trinity House, established as a guild of mariners by King Henry VIII of England in 1517, in the Parish of Deptford Strond, in the County of Kent (now near the Tower of London). The Trinity House has been responsible, since the time of Queen Elizabeth I, for the erection and maintenance of lighthouses, lightships and buoys in English waters. It is also the authority for the licensing of pilots. The "Elder Brethren" of Trinity House (retired sea captains, also known as "Trinity Masters") serve as nautical assessors (supra) to the High Court, Admiralty Division.

Tulane Admiralty Law Institute - c/o Ann Schumacher, 6329 Freret Street, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118-6231, U.S.A. Tel.: (504) 865-3597; fax: (504) 862-8588. Website: http://www2.law.tulane.edu/tuexp/centers/marcenter/conferences.html. Email: aschumach [at] law [dot] tulane [dot] edu. Robert B. Acomb, Jr., Chairman.

Tul. L.R. - Tulane Law Review. Published six times annually (Nov., Dec., Feb., Mar., May, June). Editorial and business offices are located in Tulane Law School, John Giffen Weinmann Hall, 6329 Freret Street, New Orleans, Louisiana, 70118-5670, U.S.A. Tel: (504)-865-5973; (504)-865-5974. Website: http://www.law.tulane.edu/lawreview/. An example of a citation is [1970] Tul. L.R. 123. Every second year has published the Tulane Maritime Law Institute Symposiums being: The Hull Policy, 1967; the P. & I. Policy, 1969.

Tulane Maritime Law Center - Tulane Law School (as above); Director Emeritus: Prof. Robert Force (tel.: (504) 865-5947); fax: (504) 862-8855; Email: rforce [at] law [dot] tulane [dot] edu); Director: Professor Martin Davies (tel.: (504) 862-8824; fax: (504) 862-8855; Email: mdavies [at] law [dot] tulane [dot] edu). Website: http://www2.law.tulane.edu/tuexp/centers/marcenter/default.html.

Tul. Mar. L.J. - Tulane Maritime Law Journal. See: Mar. Law, supra. Published twice yearly from 1987 to the present by students of the Tulane University Law School. Offices are located in Tulane Law School, John Giffen Weinmann Hall, 6329 Freret Street, New Orleans, Louisiana, 70118-5670, U.S.A. Tel.: (504) 865-5959; fax: (504) 862-8878. Website: http://www.law.tulane.edu/tlsjournals/maritime/index.aspx. An example of a citation is [1995] Tul. Mar. L.J. 123.

Twiss, Sir Travers - The Black Book of the Admiralty, 4 vols., 1871-1876, London.

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"Uberrimae fidei" - "utmost good faith", referring to the basic principle of insurance, requiring the assured and his broker to disclose and truly represent every material circumstance to the underwriter before acceptance of the risk. A breach of "utmost good faith" entitles the underwriter to avoid the contract. See the Marine Insurance Act, 1906 (U.K.) sect. 17. See Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at pp. 595-598.

UCP 500; UCP 600 - See Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits (infra).

U.L.C.C. - Ultra Large Crude Carrier.

UNCID Rules - The "Uniform Rules of Conduct for Interchange of Data by Teletransmission, 1987" were adopted by the ICC Executive Board in Paris, September 22, 1987. (See text: (1992) 16 Tul.Mar.L.J. 372.)

UNCITRAL - The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law was established by a United Nations General Assembly Resolution in 1966. The aim of UNCITRAL is to harmonize and unify international trade law. It was instrumental in the preparation of the Hamburg Rules, 1978 (supra), and prepared the United Nations Convention on the Liability of Operators of Transport Terminals in International Trade, 1991. In addition, UNCITRAL has been active in the area of international commercial arbitration and has prepared the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration, 1985 (infra), the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Conciliation, 2002 (infra), the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules, the UNCITRAL Conciliation Rules, and the UNCITRAL Notes on Organizing Arbitral Proceedings. Website: http://www.uncitral.org/. Email: uncitral [at] uncitral [dot] org.

UNCITRAL Draft Instrument on Transport Law - See CMI/UNCITRAL Draft Instrument on Transport Law (supra).

UNCITRAL Model Law, 1985 - The "United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration" was adopted June 21, 1985. (Text can be found in: Report of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, 18th Session, 3-21 June 1985, Supplement no 17 (A/40/17) of the Official Records of the Fortieth Session of the General Assembly, United Nations, New York, 1985.)

UNCITRAL Model law, 2002 - The "United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Model Law on International Commercial Conciliation", was adopted June 24, 2002. (Text can be found in: Report of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law, published as Annex I to the Report of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law on its 35th session, Supplement no 17 (A/57/17) of the Official Records of the Fifty-Seventh Session of the General Assembly, United Nations, New York, 2002).

UNCTAD - The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development was established on December 30, 1965, by a United Nations General Assembly resolution as a permanent organ of the General Assembly. It is a "policy-making" body with the purpose of promoting international trade especially amongst emerging nations. UNCTAD was instrumental in promoting draft conventions which were then taken over by UNCITRAL for legal drafting and adoption. An example is the Hamburg Rules, 1978 (supra). UNCTAD has also drafted a number of maritime transport conventions, including the Code of Conduct for Liner Conferences 1974, the Multimodal Convention 1980 (supra) and the UN Convention on the Registration of Ships 1986. UNCTAD, working in conjunction with IMO (supra), also helped prepare the Maritime Liens and Mortgages Convention 1993 (supra) and the Arrest Convention 1999 (supra). Website: http://www.unctad.org/. Email: info [at] unctad [dot] org.

UNECE- The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Website: http://www.unece.org/. Email: info [dot] ece [at] unece [dot] org.

UNIDROIT - International Institute for the Unification of Private Law - UNIDROIT is an independent intergovernmental organization, based in Rome. Its purpose is to study needs and methods for modernizing, harmonizing and co-ordinating private and, in particular, commercial law as between States and groups of States. Set up in 1926 as an auxiliary organ of the League of Nations, the Institute was, following the demise of the League, re-established in 1940 on the basis of a multilateral agreement, the UNIDROIT Statute. Website: http://www.unidroit.org/. Email: unidroit [dot] rome [at] unidroit [dot] org.

UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts 1994/2004 - A major restatement of fundamental principles applicable to international commercial contracts, prepared by a working group of respected specialists in contract law and international trade law from all the major legal traditions, approved by the Governing Council of UNIDROIT in 1994, and then amended in 2004 to include a number of new topics, notably the authority of agents, third party rights, set-off, assignment of rights, transfer of obligations and assignment of contracts, limitation periods and waiver. The new edition also has an expanded Preamble and new provisions on "Inconsistent Behaviour" and on "Release by Agreement" and has adapted the 1994 edition to meet the needs of electronic contracting. The Principles constitute a basic formulation of the modern lex mercatoria (supra) in respect of international commercial contracts, which may be applied if the parties to such a contract expressly choose them as the law governing their contract or agree to subject it to the lex mercatoria. The Principles may also be applied when it proves impossible to establish the relevant rule of the applicable law, when the parties have not chosen any law to govern their contract, to interpret or supplement international uniform law instruments, as well as domestic law, and as a model for national and international legislation on commercial contracts. For the English version of the original Principles of 1994, see J.M. Perillo, "UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts: The Black Letter Text and a Review" (1994) 63 Fordham L. Rev. 281. For the text of the Principles 2004, see website: http://www.unidroit.org/english/principles/contracts/main.htm.
For commentary on the Principles 2004, se M.J. Bonell, "UNIDROIT Principles 2004 - The New Edition of the Principles of International Commercial Contracts adopted by the International Institute for the Unification of Private Law", Uniform Law Review 2004, 5-40 and at website: link.

Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits - Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits are rules adopted by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) (supra), defining the rights and duties of parties to letters of credit. The 1993 Revision came into effect on January 1, 1994 and is known as UCP 500 (1994). See ICC Publication No. 500 (1994). UCP 500 has been superseded by the 2007 Revision (UCP 600), adopted by the ICC's Banking Commission on October 25, 2006, which enters into force July 1, 2007. See ICC Publication No. 600 (2006). The ICC, in its role at the forefront of documenting rules for existing or new practices, has developed, with effect from April 1, 2002, a supplement to the UCP 500 (eUCP), covering electronic presentations under letters of credit (ICC Publication No. 500/3). See the ICC website: http://www.iccwbo.org/.

Uniform Rules for Sea Waybills - Uniform rules for sea waybills (supra), prepared by the CMI and adopted in Paris, June 29, 1990. See text in (1991) 22 JMLC 617-619.

United Kingdom (U.K.): Great Britain (i.e. England, Scotland and Wales) and Northern Ireland. N.B. 1) The Channel Islands and the Isle of Man are "British islands", but are not included in the term "United Kingdom", unless otherwise provided by a definition in a particular statute. 2) Also excluded from "the U.K." are British colonies and British overseas territories. See also "English law" and "Law of the United Kingdom", supra.

United States Maritime Law Association - See "Maritime Law Association of the United States".

University of Cape Town - Faculty of Law. Website: http://web.uct.ac.za/depts/shiplaw/. See also "Institute of Marine and Environmental Law" and "Shipping Law Unit".

University College London - See "London Shipping Law Centre".

U.S. - United States Supreme Court decisions. An example of a citation is 422 U.S. 590 (1975).

U.S.F. Mar. L.J. - University of San Francisco Maritime Law Journal - Published semi-annually since 1989 by student members of the University of San Francisco Admiralty and Maritime Law Society of the University of San Francisco School of Law. An example of a citation is 8 U.S.F. Mar. L.J. 29 (1995).

"Utmost good faith" - See "uberrimae fidei", supra.

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V.L.C.C. - Very Large Crude Carrier.

V.L.C.P. - Very Large Crude Partner - of a maritime law firm.

V.M.A.A. - The Vancouver Maritime Arbitrators Association. Website: http://www.vmaa.org/; Email: secretary [at] vmaa [dot] org/">secretary [at] vmaa [dot] org/.

V.T.S. - See Vessel Traffic Services, infra.

Valued Bill of Lading or Ad Valorem Bill of Lading - A valued bill of lading (supra), sometimes called an ad valorem bill of lading, is a bill of lading where the value of the cargo has been declared by the carrier (supra) and "inserted in the bill of lading" by art. 4(5) of the Hague Rules (supra) or art. 4(5)(a) of the Visby Rules (infra).

Vallescura Rule - The rule derived from the United States Supreme Court decision in Schnell Co. v. S.S. Vallescura, 293 U.S. 296, 1934 AMC 1573 (1934), whereby, when cargo loss or damage is caused by two separate causes, one for which the carrier (supra) is exempted from liability and the other for which he is not, the carrier has the burden of establishing what damage was due to the cause for which he is exempted, on pain of being held responsible for the entire damage. The Rule, which is also applied by U.K. courts, has been codified in the Hamburg Rules (supra) at art. 5(7). See Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008 at pp. 324-325, 741-743, 774-777, 2242-2245; Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003 at p. 100.

Vessel Traffic Services (V.T.S.) - Systems facilitating safe and efficient vessel traffic movement to or from ports, or within restricted sea areas adjacent to the coasts of states, under which ship traffic is subject to the supply or exchange of information, or the giving of advice or instructions, by coastal stations. On November 27, 1997, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted Resolution A.857(20), entitled "Guidelines for Vessel Traffic Services". That Resolution defines a V.T.S. as "a service implemented by a Competent Authority, designed to improve the safety and efficiency of vessel traffic and to protect the environment. The service should have the capability to interact with the traffic and to respond to traffic situations developing in the V.T.S. area." See generally Russell MacWilliam & Darryl Cooke, "VTS: lifting the fog of legal liability" [2006] LMCLQ 362-389. V.T.S. systems often operate in conjunction with Traffic Separation Schemes (T.S.S.), supra.

Vialard, Antoine - Droit maritime, Presses Universitaires de France, 1997.

Visby Rules [Fr.: "Règles de Visby"] [Span.: "Reglas de Visby"] [Ital.: "Regole di Visby"] [Gr.: "Visby-Regeln"] - "The Protocol to amend the International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law Relating to Bills of Lading, signed at Brussels on 25th August, 1924." These amendments to the Hague Rules (supra), adopted in Brussels on February 23, 1968, came into force on June 23, 1977, for ten nations and since then for many more. The Visby Rules were the result of the CMI Conference of 1963 in Stockholm, Sweden, which formally adopted the Rules in the ancient town of Visby after the Conference. The Hague/Visby Rules (supra) are the Hague Rules as amended by the Visby Rules. (See text, Tetley, M.C.C., 3 Ed., 1988 at pp. 1111-1139).

A further "Protocol to Amend the International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules of Law Relating to Bills of Lading signed at Brussels on August 25, 1924 as Amended by Protocol of February 23, 1968", was adopted on December 21, 1979 and entered into force on February 14, 1984. Most nations which have adopted Visby have adopted this Protocol, which is called the "Visby S.D.R. Protocol". (See text, Tetley, M.C.C., 3 Ed., 1988 at pp. 1139-1143.)

Volume contract - See tonnage contract, supra.

von Mehren, A.T. - Law and Justice in a Multistate World (James A.R. Nafziger & Symeon C. Symeonides, eds.), 2002, Transnational Publishers Inc., Ardsley, New York.

Vouching in - The common-law procedure (not generally accepted) where a third party is given notice of a suit or arbitration and is deemed to be bound by the facts or law arrived at in the original suit or arbitration. Should there be a subsequent suit or arbitration, however, the vouchee is not a defendant. See Ferrostaal v. American Commercial 2002 AMC 986 at pp. 987-989 (N.D. Ill. 2002). See also Michael H. Bagot, Jr. & Dana A. Henderson, "Not Party, Not Bound? Not Necessarily: Binding Third Parties to Maritime Arbitration" (2002) 26 Tul. Mar. L.J. 413-461.

Voyage charterparty - See charterparty (supra).

Voyage Charterparty Laytime Interpretation Rules 1993 (“Voylayrules 93”) (prepared jointly with BIMCO, FONASBA and Intercargo) (see text in John Schofield, Laytime and Demurrage, 5 Ed., LLP, London, 2004, supra, Appendix). Voylayrules 93 superseded the Charterparty Laytime Definitions 1980 (see CMI, supra).

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W.A. Cover - "W.A." means "With Average". Formerly described a cargo policy covering particular and general average (supra), in addition to total loss, but only in respect of the perils specified in the S.G. policy form and the attached clauses. The term is obsolete now that "A", "B" and "C" cargo clauses are in use.

Warranty - A term of a contract the breach of which will allow the offended party to claim only damages. See condition (supra) and indeterminate term (supra).

Waybill - See "Bills of Lading & Related Documents" (supra).

White, Michael W.D., ed. - Australian Maritime Law, 2 Ed., 2000, Federation Press, Annandale, N.S.W., Australia.

Wijffels, Robert - Liber Amicorum Robert Wijffels, 2001 (Marie-Paule Serck, ed.), Antwerp. See also European Transport Law (supra).

Wilford M., Coghlin, T. and J.D. Kimball - Time Charters, 5 Ed., 2003, LLP, London.

Wilson, John F. - Carriage of Goods by Sea, 5 Ed., 2004, Pearson/Longman, Harlow, England.

Wiswall, Frank L. - The Development of Admiralty Jurisdiction and Practice Since 1800, 1970, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

World Maritime University - A university established under the auspices of the International Maritime Organization (IM0) (supra) in Malmö, Sweden, offering postgraduate degrees in maritime affairs, including courses in maritime law, and short courses to practitioners. Website: http://www.wmu.se/. Email: info [at] wmu [dot] se.

Wreck removal - The operation of clearing navigable waters of sunken vessels or other submerged objects which threaten the safety of navigation. Wreck removal claims are frequently secured by special legislative rights (supra) of detention, sale and/or forfeiture, under national law. See Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998 at pp. 103-125; Tetley, Int'l M. & A. L, 2003 at p. 476. Wreck removal operations are often conducted under the terms of certain standard-form contracts, including, for example, those issued by BIMCO (supra), and approved by the International Salvage Union (supra), viz., the "International Wreck Removal and Marine Services Agreement (Fixed Price - "No Cure, No Pay") (Code Name: "Wreckfixed 99"), the "International Wreck Removal and Marine Services Agreement (Lump Sum - Stage Payments) (Code Name: "Wreckstage 99"), or the "International Wreck Removal and Marine Service Agreement (Daily Hire) (Code Name: "Wreckhire 99").

Writ in personam - In common law jurisdictions, the writ whereby an action was traditionally instituted against a person, including a corporation, rather than against a thing. In the United Kingdom, such an action is now instituted by the issuance by the court of a "claim form". In the U.K., Admiralty claims formerly known as "claims in personam" under the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (S.I. 1998/3132), in force April 26, 1999, are now governed, as of March 25, 2002, by Practice Direction 61 (Admiralty Claims), paras. 12.1 to 12.6 (Other Claims) and such claims proceed in accordance with Part 58 (Commercial Court) (see para. 12.2). The relevant claim form must be in Form ADM1A (see para. 12.3). In Canada, the "action in personam" in Admiralty is now instituted by a "statement of claim" under the Federal Court Rules, 1998 (SOR 98/106), in force April 25, 1998, Part 13 (Admiralty Actions), Rules 477 and 479.

Writ in rem - In common law jurisdictions, the writ whereby an action was traditionally instituted against a thing. In the United Kingdom, under the Civil Procedure Rules 1998 (S.I. 1998/3132), in force April 26, 1999, such an action (called a "claim in rem") is now instituted by a "claim form in rem", under Practice Direction 61 (Admiralty Claims), para. 3.1 and Form ADM 1. Practice Direction 61 was promulgated pursuant to Part 61(Admiralty Claims) at Rule 61.3 of the Civil Procedure Rules 1998, as amended with effect from March 25, 2002. In Canada, the "action in rem" is now instituted by a "statement of claim" under the Federal Court Rules, 1998 (SOR 98/106), in force April 25, 1998, Part 13 (Admiralty Actions), Rules 477 and 479 and Form 477.

Wu, Chao - Pollution from the Carriage of Oil by Sea: Liability and Compensation, 1996, Kluwer Law International, London and Boston.

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York-Antwerp Rules [Fr.: "Règles de York/Anvers"] [Span.: "Reglas de York/Amberes"] [Ital.: "Regole di York-Anversa"] [Gr.: "York-Antwerpener Regeln"] - The rules under which a general average sacrifice (supra) is determined and by which the payments to the party who sacrificed are calculated. The most recent Rules are the York/Antwerp Rules 1994, amended in Sydney, Australia in 1994 at a meeting of the CMI. The Rules are not imposed by a national or international statute, but by agreement of the parties, in the charterparty (supra) or the bill of lading (supra). See English text: (1995) 26 JMLC 1995, 485-502. See French text of "les Règles de York/Anvers": DMF 1996, 137. Also available on the Internet at: http://www.jus.uio.no/lm/cmi.york.antwerp.rules.1994/doc.html. The Rules were considered by the CMI in Vancouver, Canada, in June 2004 but only minor adjustments, rather than real reform, were made. For a comparison of the 2004 Rules with the 1994 Rules, see http://www.jonathansspencer.com/9404.pdf.


 

N.B.

Tetley - International Maritime and Admiralty Law, 2003, Blais, Montreal. Cited: Tetley, Int'l. M. & A. L., 2003;

Tetley - International Maritime Law, being a general text on international maritime law, prepared for the "International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law" of the Max Planck Institute, Hamburg, Germany, 2001;

Tetley - Maritime Liens and Claims, 2 Ed., 1998, Blais, Montreal. Cited: Tetley, M.L.C., 2 Ed., 1998.

Tetley - International Conflict of Laws - Common, Civil and Maritime, 1994, Blais, Montreal. Cited: Tetley, Int'l. C. of L., 1994;

Tetley - Marine Cargo Claims, 4 Ed., 2008, Thomson Carswell Blais, Montreal. Cited: Tetley, M.C.C., 4 Ed., 2008.

Note: "Blais" refers to Les Éditions Yvon Blais Inc., 430 rue St-Pierre, Montreal, Québec, Canada H2Y 2M5. Tel.: (514) 842-3937; 1-800-363-3047; fax: (514) 842-7144.

Other Books By William Tetley

 

Marine Cargo Claims, 1 Ed., 1965, Carswell, Toronto; Stevens, London.

Marine Cargo Claims, 2 Ed., 1978, Butterworths, Toronto & London.

Marine Cargo Claims, 2 Ed., published in Russian by Moscow Transport, Moscow, U.S.S.R., 1983.

Marine Cargo Claims 2 Ed., published in Japanese by The Japan Shipping Exchange Inc., Tokyo, Japan, 1984.

Tetley - Marine Cargo Claims, 3 Ed., 1988, Blais, Montreal.

Marine Cargo Claims, 3 Ed., published in Chinese by Dalian University, Dalian, PRC, 1993.

International Conflict of Laws, published in Chinese by Law Press, Beijing, PRC, 2003.


To order Tetley's books, contact: International Shipping Publications, P.O. Box #554, Station Mount Royal Canada, 1281 Canora, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3P 3C7. For an order form, click here.
Tel.: (514) 398-6619. Fax: (514) 398-4659.
Email: william [dot] tetley [at] mcgill [dot] ca.
Website:http://www.mcgill.ca/maritimelaw/.
To order books, you may also contact: Les Éditions Yvon Blais, C.P. 180, Cowansville, Quebec, Canada J2K 3H6.
Tel.: (450) 266-1068 or (toll-free) 1-800-363-3047; fax: (450) 263-9256.
Email: commandes [at] editionsyvonblais [dot] qc [dot] ca.