In the biomedical sciences and allied health fields, two citation styles prevail: APA Style (American Psychological Association) and Vancouver Style (also known as the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals).
is the preferred citation style guide in the field of Medicine.
- Citing Medicine: the NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 2nd ed. 2007. Excellent guide with examples, from U.S. National Library of Medicine.
- The complete guide is available from The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.
To find the MEDLINE abbreviated journal title, search the full title in
is the preferred citation style guide in the fields of Nursing, Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Communication Sciences.
Council of Science Editors (CSE), Council of Biology Editors (CBE) is the preferred citation style guide in the field of biology.
Special formats in the health sciences
In addition, the health sciences includes many types of publications not covered in either style guide. In these instances, we suggest following the closest approximation possible and including all relevant information in the reference. Suggestions of specific citation formats are offered below.
Citing a review from ACP Journal Club
As ACP Journal Club is a journal, cite a review as you would a journal article.
Bogaisky M, Leipzig RM. Vitamin D3, calcium, or both did not prevent secondary fractures in elderly people. ACP J Club [online]. 2005;143:74.
Citing a section of ACP's PIER
Cite an entry from ACP's PIER using the authors listed at the end of the module under the heading "Contributors." Use the date listed under "Status": Module Updated as the date of publication.
Kinsinger L, Harris R. Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer. ACP's PIER: Physicians' Information and Education Resource 2005 March 1 [cited Apr 18 2005]. URL: http://online.statref.com/document.aspx?fxid=50docid=2874.
Citing a Clinical Evidence topic
Cite information from Clinical Evidence by its topic heading and be sure to include the [online] modification to distinguish the resource from the print version. For the year, check the copyright date at the bottom of each screen to determine the last update.
Wilt T. Prostate cancer: non-metastatic. Clinical Evidence [online] 2005 [cited Apr 18]. URL:http://www.clinical evidence.com/ceweb/conditions/msh/1805/1805.jsp.
Citing a Clinical Practice Guideline:
If the CPG appears in a journal, it is cited as a journal article. If it published independently, follow the format of a book, using the organization as author if no author is specified.
Diabetes Coalition of California, California Diabetes Prevention and Control Program. Basic guidelines for diabetes care. Sacramento (CA): California Diabetes Prevention and Control Program, Department of Health Services; 2003. 26 p.
Citing a review from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
[Authors]. [Title] (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue [number], [year]. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Linde K, Jobst K, Panton J. Acupuncture for chronic asthma (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2001. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
For more citation format suggestions for Cochrane reviews, see the Univeristy of Alberta Libraries' page.
Citing a review from DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects)
Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. The nursing management of fever in children: a systematic review (DARE Review Document 282830). In: DARE, 2005. University of York: NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination.
Citing a POEM from InfoPOEMs
Topical NSAIDs of small benefit for corneal abrasion (POEM). In: InfoPOEMs: The Clinical Awareness System, 2004. Wiley Interscience.
Citing an UpToDate topic review
Cite the UpToDate topic review as a chapter in a book titled UpToDate, edited by Burton D. Rose, published by UpToDate in Wellesley, MA. As an online service, there are no page numbers to cite. Since UpToDate is released every four months, each topic review will appear (i.e., be published) in each released issue, so the publication year for any topic review should be the current year.
Marion, DW. Diaphragmatic pacing. In: UpToDate, Rose, BD (Ed), UpToDate, Wellesley, MA, 2005.
As more information becomes available on the Internet and in electronic form, it is increasingly important to provide accurate and complete references to authorship and responsibility. This information helps to facilitate access to the resources and provides some elements for evaluation of the reliability and validity of the information.
- University of Alberta Libraries provides examples of how to cite different electronic resources in bibliographies:
Citation Style Guides for Internet and Electronic Sources