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Citing business sources

1. About this guide

What's in this guide?

American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is widely used in management and the social sciences. This guide gives APA citation style examples for selected management research sources at McGill, with a focus on online resources.

2. Citing sources in the text of your assignment

With page numbers (print or online)

To cite a source in the text of your report, indicate the last name of the author/s, or if there is no author the first few words of the document title (in quotation marks), then the year of publication, and then the page, chapter, figure or table numbers (if applicable).

Ex: (Halachmi, 2005, p. 315) (Griffiths & Lyle, 2005, p. A.24) (Smith et al., 1997, p. 151) (Savard, 2001; Daniel, 2005) (Ipsos-Reid, 2001) (“Largest DVD Markets,” 2006)

Without page numbers

Indicate the last name of the author/s or if there is no author the first few words of the document title (in quotation marks), then the year of publication, then cite the nearest heading and the number of the paragraphs following, preceded by the paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para.

Ex: (Euromonitor, 2007, Prospects section, para. 1) (Morales, 2007, ¶2)

Two or more works, same author, same year

To differentiate between two or more works by the same author in the same year assign letter suffixes to the publication year, both in text and in the corresponding reference list entries.

Ex: (Marketline, 2007b, p. 14) (Marketline, 2007a, p. 5)

see also

3. Citing sources in your reference list

How to format your reference list

Placement: Start the reference list on a new page, after the body of the assignment.

Title: Type the word References at the top of the page and centered

Order: Order entries by last name of author or, if no author, first word of title (excluding A, An, The, etc.)

Spacing: Double-space all entries

Indentation: The first line of each entry should be left aligned, subsequent lines are indented

see also

Two or more works, same author, same year

To differentiate between two or more works by the same author in the same year, assign letter suffixes to the publication year.

Marketline. (2007a, February). Gaz Métropolitain: Company profile. Retrieved from Marketline database.

Marketline. (2007b, March). Global energy: Industry profile. Retrieved from Marketline database.

Annual reports/company filings

From a company website

Microsoft Corp. (2006). Annual report. Retrieved from http://www.microsoft.com/msft/reports/ar06/

From SEDAR

Canadian Tire Corporation Ltd. (2007, January 19). Form 51-102F3 – Material change report. Retrieved from SEDAR.

From Mergent Online

Weyerhaeuser Co., Ltd. (2004, December 26). Annual report. Retrieved from Mergent Online database.

Legal Materials

Legal materials can be formatted using the APA style; however, it is recommended that legal materials such as case law, regulations, policies, etc. are cited using a legal citation style guides, including the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (Canadian) and The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (US). For more information, ask a librarian.

Articles

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle if applicable. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), start page - end page.

Database restricted to McGill users, e.g. ABI/Inform (ProQuest), Business Source Premier (EBSCO), Factiva, etc.

*Changes to the APA style guide mean that you are no longer required to state which database an article was retrieved from (unless it would be difficult to locate the item otherwise). Cite as if it were a regular print journal article. *

Halachmi, A. (2005). Governance and risk management: Challenges and public productivity. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 18(4), 300-317.

Chou, Y., Lee, C., & Chung, J. (2004). Understanding m-commerce payment systems through the analytic hierarchy process. Journal of Business Research, 57(12), 1423-1430.

Griffiths , R. & Lyle, G. (2005, December 22). Why young people don't vote. National Post, p. A.24.

Online magazine/journal/newspaper, without DOI

Chase, K. (2007, March 26). Confessions of a PVR user. Marketing Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.marketingmag.ca/magazine/current/feature/article.jsp?content=...

Aschkenase, S. & Hedge L. (2010). What healthy companies can learn from distressed companies. Ivey Business Journal, 74(2). Retrieved from http://www.iveybusinessjournal.com/

Morales, S. (2007, February 28). A greying population: What does it mean for Canada? Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/seniors/

Online magazine/journal/newspaper, with DOI

Leeflang, S.P.H. &Wittnik, D.R. (2000). Building models for marketing decisions: Past, present and future. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 17(2-3), 105-126. doi: 10.1016/S0167-8116(00)00008-2

Bloomberg

Bloomberg L.P. (2006). Stock price graph for Bombardier 10/1/06 to 12/1/06.from Bloomberg database.

Books

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (Xth ed.). Location: Publisher.

Kelloway, E.K., Barling, J., & Hurrell, J.J. Jr. (2006). Handbook of workplace violence. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

McCraw, T.K. (Ed.). (1988). The essential Alfred Chandler: Essays toward a historical theory of big business. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

eBook

Fitz-enz, J. (2000). The ROI of human capital: Measuring the economic value of employee performance. Retrieved from NetLibrary database.

Book chapter

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. start page of chapter – end page of chapter). Location: Publisher.

Stoleson, M. (2006). The World Bank: Buy, sell, or hold? In N. Birdsall (Ed.). Rescuing the World Bank (pp. 195 – 201). Washington, D.C.: Center for Global Development.

Case Studies

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of case study. Harvard or Ivey case study ID number. Location: Publisher.

Erskine, J.A., & LeBoldus, M. (2003). Bombardier Aerospace. Ivey ID: 9B03C016. London, Canada: Ivey Publishing.

Corporate Affiliations

LexisNexis. (2007) Centerpoint Data, LLC. Retrieved from Corporate Affiliations database.

Datastream

Datastream International. Constituents of the S&P 500. Retrieved from Datastream database.

EIU

Economist Intelligence Unit. (2006, March). Country commerce: Kenya. Retrieved from Economist Intelligence Unit database.

eMarketer

eMarketer. (2006, April 18). Worldwide e-book revenues, 2004 & 2005 (millions and % increase versus prior year). Retrieved from eMarketer database.

Verna, P. (2007, April). Video game advertising: Getting to the next level. Retrieved from eMarketer database.

Factiva

Reuters. (2007). Google Inc company snapshot. Retrieved from Factiva database.

Reuters Investor. (2007). Daily prices comparison chart for Google and NASDAQ 1/17/07 to 4/17/07. Retrieved from Factiva database.

FP Advisor

FPInfomart.ca. (2007, March 17). Biotechnology industry report. Retrieved from FP Advisor database.

Hoover's Company Records

Colbert, C. (2007, March 15). LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton SA. Retrieved from Hoover’s Company Records database.

Marketline

Marketline. (2007, March). Global energy: Industry profile. Retrieved from Marketline database.

Market Share Reporter

Print format

Largest DVD markets worldwide, 2004. (2006). In R. S. Lazich (Ed.), Market Share Reporter 2007 (Vol. 2, p. 784). Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale.

Electronic format

Largest high-speed ISPs in Canada. (2003). Market Share Reporter (13th ed.). Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database.

Mergent Online

Mergent. (2006). Amazon.com Inc. Retrieved from Mergent Online database.

Mergent WebReports

Mergent. (2006, June). The North America retailing sectors. Retrieved from Mergent WebReports database.

NetAdvantage

Standard and Poor's. (2007, March 31). Verizon Communications Inc. Standard & Poor's Stock Reports. Retrieved from NetAdvantage database.

Milton, D. (2006, October 26). Restaurants. Standard & Poor's Industry Surveys. Retrieved from NetAdvantage database.

Passport GMID

Euromonitor. (2007, February 26). Cat food – Canada. Retrieved from Passport GMID.

PMB

Print Measurement Bureau. (2006). Whether have a mortage. PMB 2006 Category Reports: Total Canada. Retrieved from PMB database.

Statistics Canada

An example of census data

Statistics Canada. (2011). Legal Marital Status (6), Common-law Status (3), Age Groups (17) and Sex (3) for the Population 15 Years and Over of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions, Census Subdivisions and Dissemination Areas, 2011 Census, Catalogue no. 98-312-XCB2011039, [Table]. Retrieved from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/rt-td/index-eng.cfm#tab5

An example of data from CANSIM

Statistics Canada. (2011). Table 282-0010 Labour force survey estimates (LFS), by National Occupational Classification for Statistics (NOC-S) and sex, [Table]. Retrieved from CANSIM database: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a05?lang=eng&id=2820010&pattern=2820010...

Always remember to include either the table number or the catalogue number where applicable (as demonstrated above). Also, always note the how the information was displayed in square brackets (e.g. [Table], [Graph]).

If the information you’re citing from the Statistics Canada website does not have a catalogue number of table number, follow the examples above omitting that information.

Web sites

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication or n.d. if not dated). Title of document.

Bullfrog Power. (n.d.). Clean power. Retrieved from http://www.bullfrogpower.com/clean/clean.cfm

Ipsos-Reid. (2001, November). National camping study. Retrieved from http://www.ccamping.org/study/index.php

Morales, S. (2007, February 28). A greying population: What does it mean for Canada? Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/seniors/

McGill University. (2006, August 22). Administrative microcomputer policies and guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.mcgill.ca/adminhandbook/

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