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ARTH 353 Visual Culture of Slavery

Liaison librarian

  • Jennifer [dot] Garland [at] mcgill [dot] ca (Email) 514-398-4785

Office Hours

jennifer [dot] garland [at] mcgill [dot] ca (Spring/Summer 2014: by appointment)

Rare Books and Special Collections, McGill University (RBSC)

Location and Hours

The primary holdings are in the humanities and social sciences and in particular art and architecture, Canadiana, history, literature, the history of ideas (philosophy and religion), travel and exploration, and the history of the book form the core of the collection. As well, there are some significant scientific holdings both in the general collection and in some of the special collections. The rare book collections of the Blackader-Lauterman, the Blacker-Wood, Islamic Studies and Macdonald Campus libraries are housed with the general rare book collection.

It should be noted that records for a significant portion of the holdings of Rare Books and Special Collections do not yet appear in the library on-line catalogue. For these materials, readers should consult the Library's staff who can provide assistance in locating these materials.

The following RBSC collections have been highlighted by your professor for this class:

  • RBSC Main Collection Details

    Selected objects in this collection that may relate to the theme of slavery include:

    • Anonymous, [Interior scene with slave mothers and children] (1827), wood engraving, 6x8.5cm, [Slavery Pamphlet] The Advantages of Free Labour over the Labour of Slaves, (London: Bagster and Thoms, printer, 1827), Bound with a collection of slavery pamphlets, Volume 6, pamphlet 7 (Call No. HT857 S4 Rare Books and Special Collections).*

    • Julien, Henri, "Songs of the By-town Coons", Montreal Star, Montreal, 1899. (Call No: folio FC550 J85 1899, Rare Books and Special Collections)

    • [Runaway Slave Notice] "Run Away", Quebec Gazette/La Gazette de Quebec, Issue 1319, 11 November 1790, pg 3. (Call no: ELF AP5 Q27, Rare Books and Special Collections)*

    *For more information regarding these objects, please consult the exhibition catalogue, Nelson, Charmaine, "Legacies Denied: Unearthing the Visual Culture of Canadian Slavery".

  • The Lawrence Lande Collection of Canadiana Details

    The Lawrence Lande Collection of Canadiana is searchable in the library catalogue. You may also wish to browse the Lande Bibliography and its supplement, Rare and Unusual Canadiana (in print) as an alternate access point to the collection. These bibliographies allow for indexed or browsing and include several illustrations such as frontispieces, landscapes, and portraits as examples of items in the collection.

    The Lande Collection now consists of some 12,000 items, including pamphlets, maps, prints (among them over fifty early views of Montreal), periodicals, government documents and broadsides, as well as books. The Lande Collection contains material on the discovery and exploration of Canada, and its historical development to the end of the nineteenth century. Among other areas of concentration are the search for the Northwest Passage and Arctic exploration, the controversy over Confederation, and early Canadian imprints. In addition, two smaller collections, donated in 1975, centre upon First Nations peoples and the work of the Moravian missionaries among the Inuit of Labrador. As the Lande Collection encompasses multiple themes and such a wide timeline of Canadian history, it is likely that readers will be able to encounter objects related to slavery in Canada in this collection.

    Selected objects* in this collection that may relate to the theme of slavery include:

    • Unknown, “The Gorilla Quadrille”, black and white lithograph. From the cover page of Charles Marriott’s The Gorilla Quadrille for Piano (1864). (Call No. Folio Lande S870 [bound with S273]. Lawrence Lande Collection of Canadiana).

    • Holloway, Thomas, “Joanna” (1796), engraving, 18.3 x 13.5 cm. From John Gabriel Stedman’s Narrative of the Five Year Expedition Against the Revolted Negroes of Surinam (1796), p. 88. (Call No. Folio Blake 2.1 S7 N3 1796. Lawrence Lande William Blake Collection).

    • Stedman, John Gabriel (drawing), and William Blake (engraving), “Europe Supported by Africa and America” (1792), engraving, 19.4 x 14.1 cm. From John Gabriel Stedman’s Narrative of a Five Year’s Expedition Against the Revolted Negroes of Surinam, Vol 2, p. 394. (Call No. Folio Blake 2.1 S7 N3 1796).

    • “Massachusetts Prohibiting the Negro Slave Trade” (1821), hand-coloured engraving, 4.0 x 6.8 cm. From Isaac Taylor’s Scenes in America: For the Amusement and Instruction of Little Tarry-at Home Travelers, p. 75. (Call No. Lande 2242, Lawrence Lande Collection of Canadiana).

    *For more information regarding these objects, please consult the exhibition catalogue, Nelson, Charmaine, "Legacies Denied: Unearthing the Visual Culture of Canadian Slavery".

  • The Joseph N. Nathanson Collection of Lincolniana Details

    The Lincoln North Collection comprises of approximately four thousand items including books, pamphlets, prints, manuscripts, ephemera and realia, many of which come from a time when abolitionism and slavery were major political and social themes. As a result, several of the objects within this collection are associated with the Emancipation Proclamation, the Civil War, and other themes linked to slavery.

    Search the Lincoln monograph collection in the library catalogue. Find online images of additional objects (busts, coins, prints, pamphlets, and images of selected title pages) on the Lincoln North website.

    Busts, Coins and Memorabilia. These objects may be interesting to study to see how different artists have differing opinions on what important events or figures should be commemorated. For example:
    Cauldon England Pitcher (c.1910), pottery, 19.0 x 20.5 x 22.0 cm.*

    Lincoln Prints. This collection contains political prints, caricatures, and portraits of Lincoln. Prints may be interesting to study because they may serve to critique or advocate prevalent themes of the time. For example: 
    Freedom to the Slaves, hand-coloured lithograph, 9.5 x 13.5 in. New York: Currier and Ives, 1863.*
    • An Heir to the Throne, or the Next Republican Candidate, lithograph, 33.3 x 45.6 cm, New York: Currier and Ives, 1860. (Call No. PRF 0081/Caricature 413, Nathanson Collection).*

    Slave Ads and Bills. These include advertisements for slaves for sale or auction, or notices or reward offers to reclaim escaped slaves. For example:
    • Rare Bill of sale in the State of South Carolina of a "Brown Girl named Mary Warranted Sound," for Eight Hundred and Fifty dollars.
    Choice Slaves at Auction without limit at City Hotel (1859).
    Reward Notice: $2,500 Reward Notice for Four Runaway Slaves.

    Pamphlets. Often political in nature, the pamphlets in the Lincoln North collection serve to inform or argue issues of the American Civil War. For example:
    • Pamphlet M68. Motley, John Lothrop. The Causes of American Civil War, A Letter to the London Times. New York: James G. Gregory, 1861.

    *For more information regarding these objects, please consult the exhibition catalogue: Nelson, Charmaine, "Legacies Denied: Unearthing the Visual Culture of Canadian Slavery".

  • Roy States Black History Collection Details

    This collection of some 1,200 items includes monographs, newspapers, off-prints, articles and some photographs. While much of the material relates to North America in general, there is material relating to Canada and Montreal.

    The monographs in this collection have been catalogued and are searchable in the library catalogue. For a list of other items, please ask at the reading room desk.

    This collection contains objects that have direct associations with black history. As a result, the objects offer readers a close look at the issues and responses surrounding the black community over recent history. In addition, black writers and artists produce many of the objects in this collection. From this, readers are able to take on a first-person perspective of the black community and see what issues were important to them. Select categories of objects in this collection that may relate to the theme of slavery include:

    Print Books. These books include early histories of black Canadian organized settlements and urban cities. Books can also be found on topics such as Canadian travel, the history of black women in Canada and religious congregations within the black community. Possible objects of interest include:
    • French, Gary E. Men of Colour: An Historical Account of the Black Settlement on Wilberforce Street and in Oro Township, Simcoe County, Ontario, 1819-1949.*
    • The Ontario Black History Society and the City of Toronto. Black History in Early Ontario: A Travelling Exhibition.
    • Kilian, Crawford. Go Do Some Great Thing: the Black Pioneers of British Columbia.

    Serials (Call Section A). Serials (journals/newspapers) provide an insight on changing opinions over time. Possible objects of interest include: • Black Labour. Black Workers Alliance. April, 1975, and Nov. 1975. Toronto. (Call No. A11) Please consult Roy States finding aid at the front desk for further information.

    Brochures and Programs (Call Section B and D). Brochures and programs serve to inform the public the issues that the issuing organization wish to advocate or criticize. They often reveal what themes a community or group finds important. Possible objects of interest include:
    • African Voice. Organ of African Progressive Study Group. March, 1973. Montreal. (Call No. B9)
    • Caribbean Association of Nova Scotia. 1976. Halifax. (Call No. B11)
    • African United Baptist Association. “Social Change Through Black Self-determination.” Halifax. (Call No. B15)
    • Black Student Coalition. Toronto, Feb. 16, 1974. (Call No. D3)
    • Multiculturalism and the Black Presence in the Canadian Mosaic – Symposium. Sponsor: OISE and University of Windsor, May 19-21, 1977. (Call No. D5)
    • Black Community Calendar. Black United Front of Nova Scotia. 1977. (Call No. D6) Please consult Roy States finding aid at the front desk for further information.

    Academic Essays and Papers (Call Section C). The works of sociologists, psychologists, historians and other researchers who study the issues associated with black history and their respectable fields can be found in the collection. Possible objects of interest include:
    • C12. Hutson, R. Leighton. “Identity, Power, Education and the Black Community in Canada.” 1976, pp. 3.
    • C41. Hill, Daniel G. “Negroes in Toronto.” Ontario History, Vol. LV (1963) No. 2.
    • C44. Jack, I. Allen. “The Loyalists and Slavery in New Brunswick. RSC Section 11, 1898.
    • C61. Wedderburn, H.A. J. “From Slavery to the Ghetto: The Story of the Negro in the Maritimes.” Paper to New Brunswick Human Rights Commission, Mar. 1968.
    • C76. Potter, Harold H. “Negroes in Canada.” Nov. 1961.
    • C79. Grizzle, Stanley G. S. “Blacks in Toronto.” Address, Black Intercultural Centre, Nov. 1973.
    • C88. Wright, W. Roy. “Blacks in Canada: An Historical Overview.” Please consult Roy States finding aid at the front desk for further information. Mounted Materials (Call Section MM).

    Mounted materials are framed, physical copies of newspaper clippings, journal articles, or prints. Possible objects of interest include: • MM4. Fugitive Slaves Arrive in Canada, 1837.
    • MM5. British Use of Slaves in Battle.
    • MM6. Lynching. Please consult Roy States finding aid at the front desk for further information.

    Collection of Black Canadian Journals and Newspapers. These serials were produced by and produced for members within a black community and provide a unique perspective into important themes and subjects. Please consult Roy States finding aid at the front desk for further information. Possible objects of interest pertaining to slavery beyond Canada include:
    • A-NC10. Throckmorton, Peter. “Middle Passage.” International History Magazine, May, 1973. Editions Horizons, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 109-123.
    • A-NC13. Toppin, Edgar A. “Blacks in America: Then and Now.” Christian Science Monitor, Boston, 1969.
    • B-NC 56. Black Studies: Bobbs-Merrill Reprint Series. Includes papers such as “African Slavery and Other Forms of Social Oppression on the Guinea Coast” and “The Professional Fugitive in the Abolition Movement.” Please consult Roy States finding aid at the front desk for further information.

    Ephemeral material, including: material by and about Roy States; material related to black history in Montreal; material related to the National Black Coalition of Canada, may be searched using the finding aid, available at the desk in Rare Books.

    *For more information regarding these objects, please consult the exhibition catalogue: Nelson, Charmaine, "Legacies Denied: Unearthing the Visual Culture of Canadian Slavery".

  • Print Collection Details

    Includes Canadian, American, European prints and more. The major strengths of the Collection are prints on Napoleon and the Napoleonic era, old master and other European prints, and Canadian prints, both historical and contemporary. Many framed views of Montreal are on display in the reading room. There are also significant holdings of late eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century caricatures, Japanese woodblock prints, optical views, religious chromolithographs, and American historical prints. A large collection of posters is strong in those from the two World Wars, and in travel posters from the 1920s to the 1960s.

    Ask for the print list at the desk in Rare Books and Special Collections.

    Prints may be interesting to study because they may serve to critique or advocate prevalent themes financial, political and social issues of the time, some of which may include issues associated with slavery. Select categories of objects in this collection that may relate to the theme of slavery include:

    Historical Events. These prints may reveal how historical events had effected society and the various reactions from the different groups of a community. Potential objects of interest include:
    • Julien, Henri. Supplement Montreal Daily Star – Carnival Number (1889), Chromolithograph, 38 x 114.5 cm. Promotional Material for Quebec Carnival. (Call No. Canadian Prints Folio 161).*
    • Thulstrup, Thure. Battle of Gettysburg (1887), chromolithograph, 21 x 14.5 in. (Call No. American Prints Folio 22).
    • Knowlton, Ken. Declaration of Human Rights (1975), computer-silkscreen, 20.625 x 26 in. (Call No. Computer Art Folio 29).

    City and Country Scenes, Landscapes and Seascapes. Scenery, landscapes and seascapes are useful for a visualization of historic political, geographical, and economic boundaries and locations of the past. Potential objects of interest include:
    • Elliot, William. A View of the Intendant’s Palace (18th c.), 20.875 x 14.25 in. (Call No. Canadian Prints Folio 3).
    • Hornyansky, Nicholas. The Frozen St. Lawrence at Quebec (20th c.), etching and aquatint in colour, 6.375 x 4.75 in. (Call No. Canadian Folio 430).
    • Smith, Harvey, Francis Swaine and Pierre Charles Canot. A View of Quebec from the Basin (1761), hand-coloured lithograph, 17.5 x 11.25 in. (Call No. Canadian Prints Folio 101).
    • Sandy, Paul after Thomas Pownall. A View of Bethlem, the Great Moravian Settlement in the Province of Pennsylvania (1761), engraving, 32.4 x 50.8cm. (Call No. American Folio 18).*

    Portraits. Portraits do not just offer a visual record of a historical figure, but they also reveal how a sitter is seen or wished to have be seen by others. They also reveal who the target audience may be, and judging by the material used, where they came from in society. Potential objects of interest include:
    • Rowlandson, Thomas, Augustus Charles Bugin and Joseph Constantin Stadler. Quaker’s Meeting (1809), hand-coloured aquatint, 10.625 x 8.75 in. (Call No. European Prints Octavo 9).

    Artistic Works. Artistic prints often show the spirits of the times. For example, one artist might ridicule abolitionism, while another artist may liken Quakers to saints. Studying these objects may offer a glimpse as to how various themes produced clashing ideas amongst different group of the population. Potential objects of interest include:
    • Sadelar, Jan. Africa (16th c.), engraving, 9 x 7.25 in. (Call No. European Prints Octavo 599).
    • Anonymous. Afrique: culte rendu au serpent dans le pays de Juida (n.d.), hand-coloured engraving, 5.25 x 7.75 in. (Call No. European Prints Octavo 346).

    *For more information regarding these objects, please consult the exhibition catalogue, Nelson, Charmaine, "Legacies Denied: Unearthing the Visual Culture of Canadian Slavery".

  • Map Collection Details

    Discover Montreal and Quebec Maps and more in the library catalogue. Our earliest Canadian maps are available online.

    Maps may be of interest to the slavery researcher as they reflect political boundaries of different time periods and contain valuable information such as trade routes, exploratory passages, and migration patterns. Selected maps in this collection that may relate to the theme of slavery* include:

    • Anonymous, “A Map of the Harbour of Louisbourg and Parts Adjacent” (1758), The London Magazine, printed map, 11.0 x 18cm. (Call No. G3422 L6 1758 M3).
    • Didier Robert de Vaugondy (drawing), E. Dussy (engraving). “Canada, Louisiane, Possessions Angl” (1762), Atlas Portatif, Plate 43, hand-coloured map, 25 x 29cm. (Call No. G3300 1762 R62).
    • Aaron Arrowsmith (engraving), “Map of the British Possessions in North America” (1827), engraved map outlined in colour, 37 x 65 cm. (Call No. G3400 1827 A7).

    *For more information regarding these objects, please consult the exhibition catalogue, Nelson, Charmaine, "Legacies Denied: Unearthing the Visual Culture of Canadian Slavery".

  • The Napoleon Collection Details

    The collection comprises some 2,275 monographs, 3,500 prints (including 110 maps and plans), 200 pictorial documents, 50 broadsides, 350 pamphlets, 100 related printed documents such as declarations, proclamations and decrees, manuscript material and some realia. The collection covers all aspects of the Napoleonic era and the monographs are particularly rich in pre-1850 imprints.

    Search the Napoleon monographs in the library catalogue. For prints and maps, search McGill's online database.

    This collection may be of interest to researchers looking at slavery as many of the objects date from a time of slavery. In addition, caricatures and manuscripts may encompass themes and contexts of slavery. For example*:

    • Broadley, A.M. Napoleon in Caricature 1795-1821. 

    • Oman, Carola. Britain against Napoleon.

    • Buttura, Eugène-Ferdinand (drawing), and Alexandre Lacauchie (engraver), “Cap Français Saint Domingue” (1838), black and white print, 15.5 x 10 cm. From Abel Hugo’s France militaire: Histoire des armées fran çaises de terre et de mer de 1792 à 1837, Vol 3, p. 213.

    *For more information regarding these objects, please consult the exhibition catalogue, Nelson, Charmaine, "Legacies Denied: Unearthing the Visual Culture of Canadian Slavery"

  • McGill Archives Details

Liaison librarian

  • Jennifer [dot] Garland [at] mcgill [dot] ca (Email) 514-398-4785

Office Hours

jennifer [dot] garland [at] mcgill [dot] ca (By appointment)

Electronic Resources for Finding Primary Documents (beyond McGill Rare Books)

Liaison librarian

  • Jennifer [dot] Garland [at] mcgill [dot] ca (Email) 514-398-4785

Office Hours

jennifer [dot] garland [at] mcgill [dot] ca (By appointment)

See the Art History subject guide for key resources

Liaison librarian

  • Jennifer [dot] Garland [at] mcgill [dot] ca (Email) 514-398-4785

Office Hours

jennifer [dot] garland [at] mcgill [dot] ca (By appointment)

Images

  • Locating Images Details

    Images: 

    • A list of general online sources for images available here.
    • Online image collection From the Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec (BANQ)
    • Advertising images
    • Images in Books:
      • An illustrated book will have at least one of the following terms in the Description field:

        ill. (for "illustrated"), maps, pl. (plates), col. (color), plans

        Here are two examples:

        x, 414 p. illus., diagrs., 23 col. plates. tables. 26 cm.

        71 p. illus., 9 pl., 2 col. maps. 25 cm.

        Commonly-used subject headings include:

        pictorial works

        editorial cartoons

        caricatures and cartoons

        exhibitions

        photography

        maps
    Source:
    http://guides.library.cornell.edu/content.php?pid=85264&sid=634500

Primary Sources

    • Working with special collections Details

      ...edit in progress...

Writing

  • Finding a Topic Details

    Consider your course readings: which topics were you most engaged with?

    State your topic as a question: this will help you to clarify the topic and help you begin to form a response

    Discuss with your professor or TA: they will let you know if you are on the right track

    See also these selected websites:

  • The Information Cycle Details

    Consider the information cycle to decide what types of resources you will need for your paper. Ask yourself: who created this information? When was it created? For which audience was it created?

    The information cycle is connected to the amount of time that has passed after an event:

    Day of event

    Mainstream media (TV, Newspapers, Internet news)

    Social Networking (Twitter, Facebook)

    Other personal accounts (diaries, letters)

    Following day(s)

    Mainstream media (TV, Newspapers, Internet news)

    Social Networking (Twitter, Facebook)

    Following week(s) Popular magazines
    Months later

    Scholarly or peer-reviewed journal

    One year +

    Books

    Reference sources (encyclopedia, dictionaries)

  • Types of Sources Details

    Background Information (e.g. Encyclopedias): Once you have identified a topic, find one or more sources of background information to read. These sources will help you understand the broader context of your research and tell you in general terms what is known about your topic. They will give you an idea of how much and what kind of information is available on a given topic.

    Television, Radio, Internet
    The information:

    • provides up-to-the minute information and breaking news stories
    • is frequently updated as more information becomes available
    • is quick, short and generally not very detailed
    • explains the event's who, what, when, and where
    • may prove to be inaccurate as new details emerge
    • is primarily written by journalists (e.g., TV, radio, Internet news, Twitter) or by the general public (e.g., facebook, twitter)
    • is intended for a general audience

    Popular magazines
    The information:

    • more detailed and usually written in longer articles than previous information
    • begins to provide analysis and discuss the impact the event has on society, culture, the environment, the economy, public policy, etc.
    • offers particular groups' perspectives on the event or may gear the information towards specific audiences
    • may reflect the publication's general editorial bias
    • written mostly by journalists or freelance writers, but may also include commentary by scholars or experts in the field
    • is intended for a general audience or specific, targeted non-professional groups
    • e.g. Time, Vogue, Reader's Digest

    Newspapers
    The information:

    • provides more detailed information (i.e., more facts) and a deeper investigation into the immediate context of the event
      • chronology
      • quotes from experts and/or government officials
      • statistics
      • photographs
      • editorial coverage
      • local perspectives
    • begins to explain why the event occurred
    • is primarily written by journalists
    • is intended for a general audience

    Scholarly Journals (aka academic journals or peer-reviewed journals)
    This information:

    • provides comprehensive analysis, empirical research reports, and learned commentary related to the event
    • is often theoretical and analyses the event's impact on society, culture, the economy, the environment, public policy, etc.
    • is peer-reviewed
    • is written in highly technical and formal language
    • includes detailed bibliographies
    • is written by scholars, researchers, and professionals, usually with PhD's in related fields
    • is intended for other scholars, researchers in the field, and university students in the field. NOT for the general public

    Books
    The information:

    • provides in-depth, comprehensive coverage of an event, expanding upon themes, subjects, and analysis previously published in scholarly journals
    • may be a compilation of scholarly articles or essays on the topic
    • provides a broad overview of the event and places it in historical context
    • may provide different perspectives of the event
    • may range from in-depth scholarly analysis of the topic to popular books which provide general discussions and are not as well-researched
    • may include bibliographies (the more scholarly the book, the better the bibliography)
    • may reflect the perspective of the sponsoring association or political group
    • is often written by scholars, researchers, and professionals, but credentials of authors may vary
    • may be intended for a broad audience, depending on the book, ranging from scholars to a general audience.

    Primary Sources: 
    Primary sources provide first-hand testimony or direct evidence concerning a topic under investigation. They are created by witnesses or recorders who experienced the events or conditions being documented. Often these sources are created at the time when the events or conditions are occurring, but primary sources can also include autobiographies, memoirs, and oral histories recorded later. Primary sources are characterized by their content, regardless of whether they are available in original format, in microfilm/microfiche, in digital format, or in published format.


    Sources:
    http://libguides.tru.ca/content.php?pid=228191&sid=1887960#6280995
    http://www.yale.edu/collections_collaborative/primarysources/primarysour...
    http://guides.library.cornell.edu/content.php?pid=85264&sid=634500

Liaison librarian

  • Jennifer [dot] Garland [at] mcgill [dot] ca (Email) 514-398-4785

Office Hours

jennifer [dot] garland [at] mcgill [dot] ca (By appointment)

    Subject Guides: Humanities

    For more resources, you may also wish to search subject guides prepared by McGill librarians in Canadian History, African Studies, and more.

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