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Ph.D.-WORKSHOP: The Executive Branch and The Law. Reception, Reinterpretation, Rewriting (1789-1804); Lille, Lille III University, 4 Dec 2015; DEADLINE 15 SEPTEMBER 2015

 (image: Grand Place, Lille; Source: Wikimedia Commons)




The universities of Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne and Lille III Charles de Gaulle organize a Ph.D.-workshop on "The Executive Branch and the Law; Reception, Reinterpretation, Rewriting (1789-1804)", to be held in Lille on 4 December 2015. The deadline for abstracts is 15 September 2015.

Description:
Cette journée d’études doctorales vise à éclaircir l'inévitable écart entre la lettre de la loi et son exécution, entre 1789 et 1804, à travers l'étude des mots employés par le pouvoir exécutif pour faire appliquer la loi, afin de mettre en évidence les éventuelles discordances par rapport à ceux utilisés par le pouvoir législatif dans le texte même de la loi. Pour ce faire, l’étude privilégiera les actes du pouvoir exécutif, dans toute leur diversité, de l’échelon local à l’échelle centrale – c'est-à-dire les promulgations royales, arrêtés du conseil exécutif provisoire et du Directoire, circulaires et instructions ministérielles et arrêtés des corps administratifs (communes, districts, départements). C’est cette latitude dans l’interprétation de la loi, qu’autorise le droit ou que s’octroient les administrateurs, qu’il conviendra d’examiner en fonction des périodes et des régimes, afin de mesurer la manière dont l’exécutif s’emploie à « refaire » la loi, dès lors qu’il la traduit dans ses propres mots. Concept:
Cette journée d’études doctorale s’inscrit dans la continuité d’une première journée qui s’est tenue en Sorbonne le 5 décembre 2014 et qui avait pour but d’explorer un champ encore trop peu étudié par les historiens : l’exécution de la loi. D’une part, l’étude des pratiques des acteurs institutionnels chargés de l’application de la loi a permis de mettre au jour des parcours différenciés et un investissement polymorphe à tous les échelons du pouvoir exécutif où la lettre de la loi, toujours invoquée comme légitimité de l’action, fait cependant l’objet d’arrangements, voire de détournements. D’autre part, cette première session a permis de mettre en évidence la diversité les pratiques des acteurs non institutionnels que sont les citoyens dans le processus d’application ou d’affranchissement de la loi.C’est précisément sur cet inévitable écart entre la lettre de la loi et son exécution que cette deuxième journée d’études doctorales voudrait se concentrer. Il s’agira plus particulièrement de s’intéresser aux mots employés par le pouvoir exécutif pour faire appliquer la loi, afin de mettre en évidence les éventuelles discordances par rapport à ceux utilisés par le pouvoir législatif dans le texte même de la loi. Pour ce faire, l’étude privilégiera les actes du pouvoir exécutif, dans toute leur diversité, de l’échelon local à l’échelle centrale – c'est-à-dire les promulgations royales, arrêtés du conseil exécutif provisoire et du Directoire, circulaires et instructions ministérielles et arrêtés des corps administratifs (communes, districts, départements)[1]. Tous ces actes n’ont cependant pas la même importance, le même degré de légitimité, ni la même portée, selon l’autorité qui la produit et ses destinataires variés (citoyens, fonctionnaires publics, administrateurs élus puis nommés…).Si les quatre Constitutions de la période révolutionnaire confient toujours à la tête de l’exécutif (successivement, au roi, au Conseil exécutif provisoire, au Directoire, aux Consuls) le pouvoir de donner « force à la loi », toutes cantonnent cependant les administrations à un stricte rôle passif d’exécution. Or, comme l’a souligné Virginie Martin, si « les députés ont toujours dénié aux agents de l’exécutif le pouvoir de faire la loi, en vertu du dogme tenace que la loi se suffit à elle-même, ou qu’elle parle suffisamment d’elle-même pour n’avoir pas à être expliquée ni commentée »[2], jamais les actes du pouvoir exécutif, entre 1789 et 1804, n’ont été de simples reproductions neutres de la loi : toute reformulation de la loi est de fait une interprétation, dès lors qu’il s’agit de l’expliquer aux fonctionnaires ou aux citoyens. C’est cette latitude dans l’interprétation de la loi, qu’autorise le droit ou que s’octroient les administrateurs, qu’il conviendra d’examiner en fonction des périodes et des régimes, afin de mesurer la manière dont l’exécutif s’emploie à « refaire » la loi, dès lors qu’il la traduit dans ses propres mots. Ce faisant, il s’agira de remettre en cause le dogme tenace d’un pouvoir exécutif sinon faible, du moins structurellement inféodé au pouvoir législatif, en faisant apparaître son rôle d’ingérence dans le processus même de diffusion et de réception de la loi, au point, sinon de compromettre l’idéal de stricte séparation des pouvoirs[3], du moins de contribuer à l’émergence de ce pouvoir refusé en droit à l’exécutif, mais exercé de fait par ses organes : le pouvoir réglementaire[4].
[1] Bien qu’émanant d’un organe de nature « législative », les actes du Comité de salut public relatifs à l’exécution de la loi ou à valeur exécutive pourront également être retenus.
[2] Virginie Martin, introduction à la journée d’études Appliquer la loi : acteurs, modalités et limites de l’exécution de la loi (1789-1815), Paris, 5 décembre 2014.
[3]Michel Troper, La séparation des pouvoirs, Paris, Librairie générale de droit et de jurisprudence, 1980.
[4]Michel Verpeaux, La naissance du pouvoir réglementaire 1789-1799, Paris, PUF, 1991.

Themes:
Dans cette optique, deux axes seront plus particulièrement privilégiés : 1/Les multiples formes de « réception » de la loi à travers les actes de l’exécutif.On entend par « réception de la loi » toute la palette des moyens mobilisés par l’exécutif, à toutes les échelles, pour transmettre et donner sens à la loi, autrement dit pour la rendre aussi bien effective que légitime, en fonction de toutes les contingences qui favorisent ou qui s’opposent à sa connaissance (matérielle et sémantique).La question de la réception de la loi pose d’abord celle de la diffusion des textes de loi aux autorités en charge d’en assurer l’application mais aussi la publicité. Comment s’assurer de la disponibilité et de la fiabilité de la loi ? Comment y pallier lorsque la loi fait défaut : faut-il statuer provisoirement ou attendre la réception de la loi officielle ? Comment faire connaître la loi aux citoyens qui sont tenus d’y obéir ? Il convient donc de s’interroger sur les multiples « relais » de la loi, depuis les journaux qui l’impriment en passant par l’administration des postes qui s’en fait le véhicule jusqu’aux organes de l’exécutif qui en sont les passeurs. Promulguée et envoyée par le ministère de la Justice, transmise par les directoires des départements et des districts, les corps municipaux, proclamée par le crieur public au son de la trompe ou du tambour, placardée dans l’espace urbain, lue publiquement dans les églises ou sur les places publiques, la loi est aussi la manière dont les agents de l’exécutif la font connaître à leurs concitoyens. A côté de tous les habitus et rouages administratifs mobilisés pour « publier » la loi, on prendra donc en compte cette culture visuelle et orale qui participe pleinement de la visibilité de la loi dans l’espace public.Il conviendra également d’aborder le problème de la sélection de la loi. Face au corpus monumental des lois publiées par Baudouin au fur et à mesure de leur adoption, quelles logiques ou quels intérêts guident les instances supérieures et inférieures de l’exécutif pour procéder à des tris, ou du moins des hiérarchies – certaines lois semblant devenir plus prioritaires que d’autres du point de vue de leur diffusion et de leur application ? Cette sélection se retrouve-t-elle dans les projets de « codes de lois » initiés, en vain, à l’échelle centrale, parallèlement à ceux qui ont été produits, à l’échelle locale, pour guider les fonctionnaires dans l’application de la loi (codes municipaux par exemple) ? En quoi ces diverses sélections (officielles ou officieuses) permettent-elles de déterminer le degré de soumission ou a contrario d’indépendance du pouvoir exécutif face au pouvoir législatif ?Enfin, il est nécessaire de s’interroger sur le degré de « transparence » et de « faisabilité » de la loi. En effet, si le sens littéral est souvent questionné par les administrateurs et par les citoyens, il est aussi précisé et explicité par les instances de l’exécutif (ministères) ou du législatif (comités). Ce processus de « questions / réponses » pour éclaircir la signification même de la loi permet ainsi d’appréhender ses difficultés de compréhension, et donc, d’application. 2/ Circulation et circularité des actes de l’exécutif : les multiples échelles de l’application de la loi.La transmission des lois doit ainsi être interrogée via la circulation et la circularité des actes du pouvoir exécutif à travers les différents échelons de la machine administrative.Au niveau central, ce sont les ministères, étroitement soumis au roi, au Comité de Salut public, au Directoire puis aux Consuls, qui doivent non seulement relayer la loi aux fonctionnaires publics et aux autorités intermédiaires et locales, mais également les éclairer sur le sens et les modalités de l’application de la loi, et enfin en contrôler l’exécution effective.  Dans les circulaires et instructions ministérielles, comme dans les lettres échangées entre les ministres et les administrateurs, quels mots sont mobilisés tant pour expliciter la loi que pour circonscrire, encadrer et même réprimander l’action de ceux qui sont chargés de la faire appliquer suivant les recommandations de leur autorité de tutelle ?A l’inverse, à l’échelle locale, les administrateurs ne cessent de réclamer le droit à « l’aménagement » de la loi pour pouvoir l’adapter aux réalités du terrain local dans lequel ils exercent – contrevenant ainsi plus ou moins ouvertement à leur strict devoir d’exécution. Les administrateurs se permettent également de contourner la verticalité de la hiérarchie administrative au profit d’une collaboration horizontale avec les autres agents de l’exécutif qui opèrent à l’échelle locale, pour s’éclairer mutuellement sur le sens même des lois, ou encore sur les modalités les plus appropriées d’application des lois. C’est ce travail de remise en forme et de mise en application de la loi à l’échelle locale qui peut se mesurer à travers les procès-verbaux des séances des conseils de communes, districts et départements ou encore à travers les correspondances échangées par ces conseils et leurs directoires avec les agents qui représentent successivement l’exécutif en province : d’abord les procureurs, procureurs syndics et procureurs généraux syndics ; puis les agents nationaux sous le Gouvernement révolutionnaire, les commissaires sous le Directoire, et enfin les préfets sous le Consulat.Les entorses à la loi ne se mesurent pas seulement à l’aune des désaveux émanant de leur hiérarchie, mais également à travers les contestations dont elles font l’objet de la part des citoyens. La surveillance citoyenne s’exerce en effet en premier lieu sur ces agents de l’exécutif « infidèles » qui en dénaturent la lettre et l’esprit. En cas de contestation, un écart constaté entre le texte de loi et un acte de l’exécutif peut-il être résorbé ? Alors que le recours en contentieux n’existe pas, le « tribunal de l’opinion » suffit-il ou faut-il faire appel au législateur ou au juge pour corriger cet écart ? Les sanctions que les actes de l’exécutif reçoivent dans la sphère judiciaire permettent ainsi de questionner la vitalité et la viabilité des lois. En effet, le juge, « bouche de la loi » selon Montesquieu, doit devant chaque cas concret d’infraction ou d’appel à la loi par le requérant, s’assurer du respect de la lettre de la loi. Les sentences du juge posent donc la question de la cohérence des actes de l’exécutif face aux lois (en amont) et face à leur terrain d’application (en aval). En quoi ces sentences peuvent-elles rendre compte du pouvoir normatif du juge en Révolution et jusqu’à quel point participent-elles de l’émergence d’une jurisprudence? Practical information:

Date limite du rendu des propositions de contribution: 15 septembre 2015Taille des propositions : 2000 signes environ.
À envoyer à j.e.appliquerlaloi@gmail.com et  jeannelaurelequang@gmail.com  Scientific Committee:
  • Alexandre Guermazi (Université Lille 3),
  • Jeanne-Laure Le Quang (Université Paris 1),
  • Virginie Martin (Université Paris 1).


Source: calenda.org.
Categories: Comparative Law News

BOOK ANNOUNCEMENT: Thomson on The Nobile Officium: The Extraordinary Equitable Jurisdiction of the Supreme Courts of Scotland

Juris Diversitas - Wed, 07/01/2015 - 05:28
Stephen Thomson,The Nobile Officium:  The Extraordinary Equitable Jurisdiction of the Supreme Courts of Scotland
An ambitious new text has just been published on the nobile officium – the extraordinary equitable jurisdiction of the Supreme Courts of Scotland.  The author, Stephen Thomson, spoke about this unusual jurisdiction at the conference “Filling the Gaps:  The Study of Judicial Creativity and Equity in Mixed Jurisdictions and Beyond” at the University of Catania in May 2013, co-organised by the World Society of Mixed Jurisdiction Jurists.

The nobile officium enables the Supreme Courts of Scotland to (i) supply a legal norm where an existing norm is deficient, unavailable or absent, or (ii) provide alleviation where the application of an existing norm would be unduly excessive, oppressive or burdensome.  The jurisdiction has found application across broad areas of civil and criminal jurisdiction, and continues to form an important aspect of procedural law.
Dr. Thomson has brought his research forward to the point of publication and produced the first ever text to systematically examine the nobile officium.  Of potential interest to Juris Diversitas readers, this text provides a unique national case study in equitable jurisdiction (and moreover in a mixed jurisdiction).  Dr. Thomson launched the book with a lecture to distinguished practitioners, scholars and invited guests at the Faculty of Advocates and Supreme Courts of Scotland, Parliament House, Edinburgh.  The text has been well received, carrying a foreword by Lord Hope of Craighead KT, former Deputy President of the UK Supreme Court.
COVER TEXT
The nobile officium of the Court of Session and the High Court of Justiciary is a long-established but elusive power. The extraordinary equitable jurisdiction of the Supreme Courts of Scotland continues to be relevant and useful today but its scope and limitations are poorly understood. This is the first book to systematically examine the nobile officium. Placing it in its historical and conceptual context, the book explores the development and application of the nobile officium in such diverse areas as:ñ  Trustsñ  Judicial factors, curators, tutors and guardiansñ  Bankruptcy, insolvency and sequestrationñ  Custody of childrenñ  Public officersñ  Statutory omissionsñ  Civil procedureñ  Criminal law and procedureThis ambitious text provides original and informative commentary and analysis for practitioners, teachers and students of Scots law.“A work of real scholarship which makes a significant contribution to the literature on Scots law.” Lord Hope of Craighead
THE AUTHOR
Stephen Thomson is an Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Law, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.  He holds a Ph.D. in constitutional and administrative law from the University of Edinburgh.
BOOK DETAILS
Avizandum PublishingMay 2015300 pagesISBN 9781904968337£48.00

The book is available for purchase here and at a number of other outlets.
Categories: Comparative Law News

CALL FOR APPLICATIONs: Editorship of Legal Studies

Juris Diversitas - Tue, 06/30/2015 - 05:37
The Society of Legal Scholars invites applications from members for the editorship of its prestigious journal Legal Studies.
The Society is looking for an editorial team or individual editor who can build on the success
of both the present and past editors. The editors are ex officio members of the Society’s Council and Executive Committee and are appointed for five years.
The current editors, Professors Imelda Maher, Blanaid Clarke, Fiona de Londras and Colin Scott have indicated their wish to stand down by September 2016, allowing a handover period to ensure a smooth transition so the new editor or editorial team can take responsibility for the first issue of 2017.
The journal is in a healthy position: competition for space in the journal is intense, with a large number of high quality submissions, and it has one of the biggest print-runs of UK academic law journals.  The Society is also well served by its current publishers, Wiley-Blackwell. It now has an International Advisory Board and submissions and reviews are managed via ‘ScholarOne’.
Individuals, pairs or teams of individuals who wish to be considered for the editorship of Legal Studies should submit applications which include the following:
(1) A “mission statement” setting out the following:
(a) the proposed editorial policy for the journal;
(b) any proposed changes to the journal’s format;
(c) a brief description of how the administration of the journal would be dealt with and, where there would be a team editorial board, how the responsibilities would be divided.
Statements should be limited to 2,000 words.
(2) A summary CV (max 2 sides of A4) for each individual who is proposed to have an editorial role, which should provide details of previous editorial experience.
(3) The name, address and full contact details of either the individual applicant or a nominated individual contact where two or more individuals are applying together.
Applications should be sent by email to the Honorary Secretary, Professor Richard Taylor (RDTaylor@uclan.ac.uk) to arrive by 31 December 2015. The Society's Executive Committee is expected to appoint a sub-committee to consider applications. That sub-committee may decide to invite shortlisted applicants for interview in February or March 2016.
Professor Imelda Maher would be happy to respond to enquiries to the current Editors.  She can be contacted at imelda.maher@ucd.ie
Categories: Comparative Law News

CALL FOR PAPERS: The International Influence of the 1814 Norwegian Constitution (1814-1920); DEADLINE 15 AUGUST 2015 (Oslo)

(image: King Oscar I of Norway and Sweden; Source: Wikimedia Commons )
The University of Oslo (Prof. dr. D. Michalsen) hosts a conference on the "International Influence of the 1814 Norwegian -Constitution", from 1814 to 1920 (18-20 Nov 2015).

After 1814, the Norwegian Constitution was the only European constitution in force based on modern popular sovereignty. All other constitutions from the revolutionary period had been abolished. The idea of the Conference is to study the interest in and impact of the Norwegian Constitution in constitutional and political debates in other countries.

A hypothesis is that the Norwegian Constitution was a closer possible model for liberal or democratic opposition in monarchies that the US presidential system. The conference will explore the emanation of knowledge of the Constitution as well as the understanding of how it worked in practice in all relevant countries, also including Latin America with its constitutional reforms. Possible influence can also be discussed in the light of different national post 1814 constitutional developments.
More information on the University of Oslo's website.
Categories: Comparative Law News

JOB: Two Ph.D.-positions at Augsburg (Prof. dr. Philip HELLWEGE, ERC-project "comparative history of insurance law in Europe"; DEADLINE 1 AUGUST 2015

(image the Peace of Augsburg, 1555; source: Wikimedia Commons)
The University of Augsburg (Germany) invites all interest candidates to apply for two part-time positions as Ph.D.-Researcher on the European Research Council (ERC) Consolidator Grant "A Comparative History of Insurance Law in Europe".

Details:

The positions are part of the research project on ‘A Comparative History of Insurance Law in Europe’ funded by the European Research Council (ERC Consolidator Grant). The positions are offered with a start date on 1 September 2015 and they are fixed-term appointments for two years, with the possibility of renewal for a further half year.  Successful candidates will complete a doctoral thesis in the field of the history of insurance law. Furthermore, successful candidates are expected to publish their findings and to participate in the research project. The positions do not involve a teaching obligation.

Applicants should hold a first class degree in law (Master or four year Bachelor-degree). Experiences of working in the fields of legal history or comparative law are desirable. Applicants should be able to work independently and should have knowledge of the German and/or the French language.
The remuneration may be according to salary group 13 TV-L.
Augsburg University seeks to increase the number of women in sciences and therefore explicitly encourages women to apply. Applicants with severe disabilities will be favoured when having substantially the same qualifications as applicants without severe disabilities.

Applications should include a cover letter, a detailed CV, transcript, and a sample of writing (eg a seminar paper or a short publication). Closing date for receipt of application is 1 August 2015

Prof. Dr. Phillip Hellwege
Lehrstuhl für Bürgerliches Recht, Wirtschaftsrecht und Rechtsgeschichte
Juristische Fakultät der Universität Augsburg
Universitätsstrasse 24
86159 Augsburg
Germany
E-mail: phillip.hellwege@jura.uni-augsburg.de.
Categories: Comparative Law News

JOURNAL: Journal on European History of Law VI (2015), N°1

(image source: historyoflaw.eu
Nomôdos reports the publication of the first issue of the Journal on European History of Law (vol. VI).
Table of contents(abstracts)
  • Tony Murphy: Introduction
  • Morris Silver: Reinstating Classical Athens: The Production of Public Order in an Ancient Community
  • Mark Horsley, Justin Kotzé, Steve Hall: The Maintenance of Orderly Disorder: Modernity, Markets and the Pseudo-Pacification Process
  • Diane Roussel: A Mosaic of Controls: The Plurality of Order Maintenance Mechanisms in 16th Century Paris
  • John Walliss: Crime and Justice in Georgian Cheshire. The Chester Court of Great Sessions, 1760 – 1830
  • Scott Gilfillan: Institutional Imperialism. Extraterritoriality and the British Consular Court System in Japan
  • Jonas Campion: Maintaining Law and Order in a Democratic and Pillarised country: the Belgian Gendarmerie between 1918 and 1957
  • Martin Doherty: Tackling the Terrorists: the Experience of Internment without Trial in Northern Ireland
  • Alan Sked: Hollywood: Propaganda and Control
  • Tony Murphy: The Nomenclature of the Underserving Poor: an Enduring History of Marginalisation
  • John Lea: Back to the Future: Neoliberalism as Social and Political Regression
  • Bob Jeffery, Waqas Tufail, Will Jackson: Policing and the Reproduction of Local Social Order: a case study of Greater Manchester
Book reviews
  • Zwischen Sisyphos und Herakles: Zu Heinz Barta: „Graeca non leguntur“. Zu den Ursprüngen des europäischen Rechts im antiken Griechenland. Band III Teil 1: Das griechische Recht in seinem kulturhistorischen Umfeld – Beispiele aus Dichtung, Geschichtsschreibung, Philosophie und (Kautelar)- Jurisprudenz
  • Hanno Rebhan: Österreich wird Verfassungsstaat. Entstehung und Entwicklung moderner Verfassungsstaatlichkeit (1918 – 1948)
  • Johannes Michael Rainer: Das Römische Recht in Europa. Von Justinian zum BGB. Kurzlehrbuch
  • Katalin Gönczi/Wieland Carls, unter Mitwirkung von Inge Bily: Sächsisch-magdeburgisches Recht in Ungarn und Rumänien. Autonomieund Rechtstransfer im Donau- und Karpatenraum
  • Éva Jakab, Norbert Pozsonyi (eds.): Essays in Honour of Professor Imre Molnár in Occasion of His Eightieth Birthday
Reports from history of law
  • Werner Ogris
  • Drei Szegediner Rechtshistoriker und das Tripartitum (Tagungsbericht)
  • Das Symposium über den Einfluss des deutschen Rechtsdenkens in Mitteleuropa am 22. Oktober 2014 an der Andrássy Universität Budapest
  • Guidelines for authors
Categories: Comparative Law News

JOURNAL: Jus Politicum, N°14: Can We Conceive of Empire as a Political Form in Legal Terms ?


The e-journal Jus Politicum: revue de droit politique published a theme issue on Empire and legal thought.

Contents:
Chaire Villey 2014S. Romano, « L’État moderne et sa crise »ArchivesVariaNotes de lectureMémoires
Categories: Comparative Law News

CALL FOR ABSTRACTS: Doing Justice. Multiple Interplays between Justice & Populations during the Two World Wars (Brussels, 3-4 December 2015); DEADLINE 22 JULY 2015


The Interuniversitary Attraction Pole Justice & Populations ("BeJust 2.0"/Belgian Federal Science Policy) organizes a conference in Brussels (CEGESOMA) on 3-4 December 2015. The event is the result of a cooperation between the universities of Ghent, St Louis, Louvain, The Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, the Research Foundation Flanders (FWO) and the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique (FRS/FNRS).  

The elaborate description and axes can be found below.

Presentation:
Periods  of  wars  and  foreign  domination  are  of  crucial  importance  in  the  history  of  justice.  They  have led to important shifts in the expectations, practices and actors involved in the field of justice. As  a  result  of  the  often  sudden  change  provoked  by  war,  existing  routines  in  the  broad  field  of justice came under serious pressure. The disruption of predictable patterns stimulated inventiveness.
The  way  in  which  actors  of  justice  dealt  with  those  sweeping  changes  is  an  important  research question. Although different aspects of the impact of armed conflict on justice  have been studied, the dominant approach of most of this work is top-down and highly institutional. As a result of this bias, the actual actors of justice and their practices and expectations in war settings have been largely neglected so far. Drawing from current trends in criminology and the social history of justice, this international conference starts from a grassroots perspective. It focuses on the impact of war on the complex interactions between different actors of justice (individuals and social groups on the one hand, ‘the justice system’ (police, judiciary and penitentiary professionals) on the other hand). The conference  aims  to  highlight  the  emergence  of  new  expectations  of  justice  among  these  actors,  resulting  from  the  war.  It  also  tackles  justice  practices,  strategies  to  cope  with  the  changing circumstances,  new  forms  of  negotiation,  interaction,  relationships  between  populations  and  the formal justice system in this particular context, and the impact of this renegotiation in the long run. Thematic axes:
ACTORS
War led to the redefinition of the roles of the different actors involved in justice. New roles emerged and  room  to  operate  shifted.  The  claim  of  the  professionals  of  the  formal  justice  system  on  the monopoly of justice was of course to a large extent fictional even in peace time. ‘Doing justice’ is, even in a context of a consolidated state, always the outcome of a complex interplay of informal and formal  actors  of  justice,  as  indicated  for  instance  by  the  importance  of  the  willingness  to  report crimes. 
In war time, the balance in this interaction seems to have shifted at the expense of the formal justice system. Military justices experienced exceptional growth and their authority gradually extended at the expense of regular courts. In areas occupied by foreign armies, the impact on the judicial system was even more substantial. When they were not simply removed, the national courts had to coexist with those of the occupant; new bodies and players then competed with the traditional authorities of
the  judiciary.  Moreover,  people  seemed  to  be  more  inclined  to take  justice  into  their  own  hands.
Significantly,  all major waves of informal justice in Europe during the last two centuries took place in wartimes and revolutions. The distinction between insiders and outsiders of the formal justice system tended to blur as a result of warfare. Informers of secret polices and political factions (like collaborators  and  resistance  fighters)  acquired  a  share  of  the  power  of  constraint  which  was monopolized  in  peacetime  by  state  agents.  Unusual  collaborations,  sometimes  at  the  margins  of legality,  were  established  between  judges  and  civil  society  (like  charity  organizations).  The proliferation  of  judicial  actors  altered  the  balance  of  power  within  the  system.  However,  justice  officials did not passively undergo these changes. Even if their autonomy was reduced from above and rival forces gained power, judges retained discretion in the application and implementation of laws, and in a broader sense tried to cope with the changing circumstances.  

EXPECTATIONS OF JUSTICE
Wars also changed the margins of tolerance of all the actors of justice mentioned above. This was marked  by  a  blurring  of  the  distinction  between  normal  and  abnormal,  tolerated  and  prohibited behavior. New forms of ‘crime’ and new ‘criminals’ emerged. These shifts are particularly revealing in  the  frame  of the  expectations  of  justice  of  these  actors.  These  expectations could  converge,  as shown  by  the  generally  shared  ambition  to  see  pro-German  collaborators  punished  at the  end  of both  occupations,  but  could  also  diverge.  The  reconstruction  of  the  expectations  of  justice  of different actors does not only constitute an access to the moral framework of these actors in the war context, but it is also revealing for the possible conflicts caused or intensified by the experience of the occupation.   
As  a  result  the  concept  of  the  transgressor  was  of  course  redefined.  Specific  categories  of  people facing sanctions emerged (i.e. the enemy, collaborators, foreigners, new citizens, Jews, minorities, black marketers), while existing categories extended due to the exceptional circumstances. Finally, certain  categories  of  the  population  became  subjects  of  increased  surveillance,  being  considered dangerous in view of the continuing tension (e.g. juveniles, tramps, etc.). 

PRACTICES
The diversification of the actors in the justice system and the shifting thresholds of tolerance had of course impact on the practices of justice. Indeed, we can observe a blurring of the borders between popular, criminal, military, administrative and colonial law. Criminal punishment was supplemented by non-standard popular, military or administrative practices. Exceptional measures were taken and often  became  semi-permanent,  as  for  example  the  administrative  internment  of  different  types  of ‘suspects’. Usual sanctions were equally transformed, as judges adapted penalties to the changing circumstances. 
The relationship between the different (formal and informal) actors of justice could take different shapes, ranging from cooperation to hostility. In the occupied zone, through competition between domestic and foreign jurisdictions, lobbyists hoped to benefit from the most favorable jurisprudence.
As  far  as  the  citizens,  individually,  were  concerned, they  were  far  from  passive.  Denunciations,  a quintessential way for ‘weaker’ groups to be heard by the authorities, were growing exponentially. 

A GRASS-ROOTS PERSPECTIVE
In order to reconstruct the complex landscape of actors of justice in war time, and their expectations and practices, a grass-roots approach imposes itself. For this approach to be feasible, it is essential to prioritize archives resulting from actual justice activities. Judicial archives form not only the main track,  but  also  constitute  an  ideal  observatory  for  the  interactions  between  the  different  actors.
Archives  stemming  from police  operations,  the  prison  system  and  administrative  surveillance  are equally suitable. The privileging of this kind of ‘operational sources’ of the criminal justice system in its  broadest  sense  enables  us  to  go  beyond  a  top-down  approach  predominately  based  on  policy sources.

BELGIUM AS A TEST-CASE
Due  to  the  diversity  of  its  war  experiences  in  the  twentieth  century,  Belgium  is  a  particularly interesting  case  to  study  the  impact  of  war  on  the  relations  between  justice  &  populations.  The Belgian army fought in both world wars, for five years in WWI and for 18 days in WWII. The vast majority of the Belgian population experienced both world wars as a period of occupation. Belgium as a colonial power mobilized its African empire as part of the war effort during both world wars, a mobilisation that influenced populations & justice relations. 
Practical information:
Candidates are invited to submit their paper proposal (between 500 and 1000 words) and a short biography to melanie.bost@cegesoma.be and antoon.vrints@UGent.be the 22th of July 2015
 at the latest. The conference will be conducted in English.
Selected proceedings of the conference will be published. 
Categories: Comparative Law News

Call for Papers: 'Urban Africa' - Turin, October 2015

Juris Diversitas - Mon, 06/22/2015 - 10:53
Turin, 16-17 October 2015
Urban Africa Economy,populations, cultures 
Call for papers 
The Centre for African Studies (CSA) and the Association for African Studies in Italy (ASAI), in collaboration with the Department of Cultures, Politics and Society of the University of Turin and the Department of Architecture and Design of the Polytechnic University of Turin, organize an interdisciplinary conference on “Urban Africa”

See the call for papers at http://urbanafrica.it and download in English from this link
Categories: Comparative Law News

JOURNAL: The Journal of Legal History XXXVI (2015), No. 2

(image source: Routledge)


The Journal of Legal History (Routledge) just published its second issue of 2015.

Contents:
  • "Coke, Collusion, and Conveyances: Unearthing the Roots of Twyne's Case" (Constantin Willems)
  • "Equity without Chancery: The Fusion of Law and Equity in the Field Code of Civil Procedure, New York 1846–76" (Kellen Funk)
  • "The Transatlantic Origins of the Business Trust" (Jonathan Silberstein-Leib)
  • "Making Money: Coin, Currency and the Coming of Capitalism" (Victoria Barnes)
    Categories: Comparative Law News

    CALL FOR PAPERS: Law Collecting and Law Collections (Edinburgh, 14-15 April 2016); DEADLINE 30 SEPTEMBER 2015

    (image: conference poster; source: prof. dr. J. Cairns)
    The Scottish Council of Law Reporting and the University of Edinburgh organize a conference on "Law Collecting and Law Collections" (convener: Prof. dr. J. Cairns).
    A conference to address the broad topic of the history of law reporting and the collecting of legal decisions, primarily in Scotland but with the development of law reporting situated in its broader British, European and comparative context. The conference is intended to consider subjects such as how the role of precedent developed, in what form were the earliest records of judicial opinions or decisions, how the form of the modern law report emerged and related issues.

    Confirmed keynote speakers include Professor Sir John Baker, Professor John Ford, Professor Thomas Rüfner, and Lord Woolman. Practical details:
    Proposals for papers (proposals should not be more than 400 words in length) should be submitted to secretary@sclr.scot no later than 30th September 2015. The conference is open to all interested in this subject area. It is expected that the fee, to include meals and refreshments during the conference and a conference dinner (but not overnight accommodation) will be in the order of £150. Please email secretary@sclr.scot if you wish to be sent a booking form.
    Categories: Comparative Law News

    BOOK: Cairns on Codification, Transplants and History: Law Reform in Louisiana (1808) and Quebec (1866)

    John Cairns (Edinburgh)'s Codification, Transplants and History: Law Reform in Louisiana (1808) and Quebec (1866) (The Lawbook Exchange, 2015) is now available:
    When Louisiana enacted its Digest of the Civil Laws in 1808 and Quebec its Civil Code of Lower Canada in 1866, both jurisdictions were in a period of transition economic, social and political. In both, the laws had originally been transplanted from European nations whose societies were in many ways different from theirs. 
    This book offers the first systematic and detailed exploration of the two new codes in light of social and legal change. Cairns examines the rich, complex, and varying legal cultures French, Spanish, Civilian and Anglo-American on which the two sets of redactors drew in drafting their codes. He places this examination in the context surrounding each codification, and the legal history of both societies.
    Cairns offers a detailed analysis of family law and employment in the two codes, showing how their respective redactors selected from a defined range of sources and materials to construct their codes. He shows that they acted relatively freely, attempting to inscribe into law rules reflecting what they understood to be the needs of their society from an essentially intuitive and elite perspective. While not propounding a universal theory of legal development, Cairns nonetheless shows the types of factors likely to influence legal change more generally. xlv, 559 pp.
    Categories: Comparative Law News

    BOOK: Cairns on Codification, Transplants and History

    Juris Diversitas - Mon, 06/22/2015 - 04:12

    John Cairns (Edinburgh)'s Codification, Transplants and History: Law Reform in Louisiana (1808) and Quebec (1866) (The Lawbook Exchange, 2015) is now available:
    When Louisiana enacted its Digest of the Civil Laws in 1808 and Quebec its Civil Code of Lower Canada in 1866, both jurisdictions were in a period of transition economic, social and political. In both, the laws had originally been transplanted from European nations whose societies were in many ways different from theirs.


    This book offers the first systematic and detailed exploration of the two new codes in light of social and legal change. Cairns examines the rich, complex, and varying legal cultures French, Spanish, Civilian and Anglo-American on which the two sets of redactors drew in drafting their codes. He places this examination in the context surrounding each codification, and the legal history of both societies.

    Cairns offers a detailed analysis of family law and employment in the two codes, showing how their respective redactors selected from a defined range of sources and materials to construct their codes. He shows that they acted relatively freely, attempting to inscribe into law rules reflecting what they understood to be the needs of their society from an essentially intuitive and elite perspective. While not propounding a universal theory of legal development, Cairns nonetheless shows the types of factors likely to influence legal change more generally. xlv, 559 pp.

    Categories: Comparative Law News

    BOOK: "The Nobile officium" by Stephen Thomson


    Stephen Thomson, The nobile officium. The Extraordinary equitable Jurisdiction of the Supreme Courts of Scotland
    all information here
    The Nobile Officium of the Court of Session and the High Court of Justiciary is an ancient but elusive concept. The equitable jurisdiction of the Supreme Courts of Scotland continues to be relevant and useful today but its scope and limitations are poorly understood. This is the first book to systematically examine the Nobile Officium. Placing it in its historical and conceptual context, the book explores the development and application of the Nobile Officium in such diverse areas as:
    • Trusts
    • Judicial factors, curators, tutors and guardians
    • Bankruptcy, insolvency and sequestration
    • Custody of children
    • Public officers
    • Statutory omissions
    • civil procedure
    • Criminal law and procedure
    This ambitious text provides original and informative commentary and analysis for practitioners, teachers and students of Scots law.Stephen Thomson is Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Law, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
    Categories: Comparative Law News

    JOB: Ph.D.-position in European Legal History (KULeuven, deadline 26June 2015)

    The Research Unit Roman Law and Legal History at the University of Leuven offers a Ph.D.-position for a year, renewable twice (one year, two year, amounting to four years in total).

    Applicants should have a Master degree in Law and a sufficent proficiency in Latin
    More information on the vacancy: KULeuven website, or contact prof. dr. L. Waelkens (Laurent.Waelkens@law.kuleuven.be).
    (source: Rechtshistorische Courant)
    Categories: Comparative Law News

    JOB: Ph.D.-position at Ghent University (project "François Laurent's draft civil code for Belgium: a missed opportunity ?"); DEADLINE 10 JULY 2015

     (image: François Laurent, source: UGentMemorie)
    The Ghent Legal History Institute currently has a vacancy for one Ph.D.-researcher (two year-contract, renewable once) in the framework of a project granted by the University's Special Research Fund (BOF).

    Project description:
    The history of codification traditionally only mentions winners. François Laurent's draft Civil Code for Belgium (1879-1885), probably the most important text ever written by a Belgian legal scholar after 1804, is seen as a "loser". It was never enacted by the legislator. The reason for this failure is its too progressive and anti-clerical character. Laurent inter alia favoured equal rights for women.

    Until now, a thorough study of this original and influential text has been lacking. Besides this, we should re-appreciate Laurent as a legal scholar, especially regarding the label "exegetic school" often associated with his writings. On a more general level, Belgian law and its dependence on the French legal tradition come into the scope of this research, as well as the influence of the project on Belgian law.Profile:
    The candidate will analyse Laurent's project and his legal thinking, uncover the sources used by François Laurent, contextualise contemporary criticism of Laurent and investigate the national as well as the international afterlife of the text.

    The required profile is that of a Master in law and/or history (the latter implying a familiarity with legal research), graduated at the latest by 30 June 2016. Precision, independence and a full commitment to research are a minimum requirement. The applicant should demonstrate a positive team spirit, and master Dutch, French and English, as well as (more passively) German.

    The Ghent Legal History institute offers an appointment of 2 years, renewable once, starting between 1 September 2015 and 1 July 2016. Ghent University offers free public transport from home to work, a bicycle allowance and access to universitary sporting and dining facilities. Contact:
    Project supervisor, Prof. dr. D. Heirbaut (Dirk.Heirbaut@UGent.be). Candidacies will be received until 10 July 2015. A full curriculum vitae is required.

    More information at the same address or with Karin.Pensaert@UGent.be (+32 9 264 68 53).
    Categories: Comparative Law News

    WORKSHOP: French Association of Young Legal Historians (26 June 2015, Paris)

    (image: Place du Panthéon, Paris; source: paris.fr)
    The French Association of Young Legal Historians announced its annual workshop, sponsored by the Legal History Institute (Paris II) and the Cujas Institute. The event will take place in the dean's appartment.

    Programme:
    VENDREDI 26 JUIN 2015
    Appartement décanal, Université Panthéon-Assas
    12, place du Panthéon, Paris (V e )

    9h30 ― 12h30
    Contraindre ou réglementer ? Étude des mesures de lutte contre les crises sanitaires du XVIII e au XIX e siècle
    THIBAULT DESMOULINS, Université Panthéon-Assas (Paris II)

    Coercion in contract : Robert Hale and his legacy
    NOFAR SHEFFI, Institut d’études politiques de Paris

    Quelle philosophie de la peine dans une société libérale ? La contrainte pénale et ses enjeux
    BENOÎT MONTAY, Université Panthéon-Assas (Paris II)

    Existe-t-il une coercition judiciaire ?
    RUDY LAHER, Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne

    14h ― 17h

    Fragments d’une généalogie constitutionnelle de la contrainte administrative pour les créances publiques : l’expérience des assignats
    JEAN GROSDIDIER, Institut d’études politiques de Paris

    La décision Société Immobilière de Saint-Just et la théorie de l’exécution forcée des lois dépourvues de sanction : une théorie problématique
    BENJAMIN BLAQUIÈRE, Université Panthéon-Assas (Paris II)

    Une mesure de coercition administrative : le placement administratif des marginaux
    PIERRE-OLIVIER RIGAUDEAU, Université Panthéon-Assas (Paris II)

    Conclusion
    P r JEAN-JACQUES BIENVENU
    More information here.
    Categories: Comparative Law News

    JOB: Seven Ph.D.-positions for legal research in Oslo; DEADLINE 1 SEPTEMBER 2015

    (image: Oslo Law Faculty, source: Wikimedia Commons)
    International Law Observer signals seven Ph.D.-positions at the University of Oslo in diverse areas of legal research, among which legal history:

    Applicants are asked to write a PhD project description of 5-10 pages outlining the research issue, the choice of scientific theory and method, as well as its importance and relevance to Norwegian legal science. The candidate is expected to complete the project within the fellowship period as determined.
    Of the announced positions, five fellowships are reserved for the following Norwegian legal disciplines: Legal History, tax law, civil procedure, criminal procedure, property law, administrative law, family law, and law of succession. Applicants for these fellowships must prepare a project description within one of the legal disciplines mentioned above.
    The purpose of the Fellowship is research training leading to the successful completion of a PhD degree, and the candidate need to qualify for admission to the PhD programme at the Faculty of Law.
    The Fellowships are for a period of up to 4 years, with teaching constituting 25 % of the workload. Alternatively they are for 3 years without any teaching duties. A 4 year Fellowship requires the candidate to meet current teaching needs at the Faculty. The Fellowship period may be reduced within the framework of pertaining regulations based on previously held research fellowship positions.
    The PhD candidate must hold a Norwegian master degree in Law or its equivalent. Other education at the same level may be accepted, based on an assessment in each case, if the education is relevant to the conduct of a project in Law. The candidates are required to master or learn Norwegian or any other Scandinavian language.
    The candidate’s grades, previous works in legal science, the project description, and the applicant’s professional and personal qualifications will be taken into consideration in the evaluation of the applications. Of importance is also the project's relevance to research plans of the departments and the research groups, the faculty’s research strategy and to the faculty's recruitment needs. Applicants may be called for an interview.
    We offer
    • Salary based on salary level 50 - 57 (NOK 429 700,- - 482 800,- per year)
    • An inspiring and friendly working environment
    • Favourable pension arrangement
    • Position in an Inclusive Workplace
    • Attractive welfare arrangements
    The application should include
    • A letter of application
    • Project description (5-10 pages)
    • Curriculum vitae with documentation of education, former positions, and academic work.
    • Certified copies of certificates, diplomas with all grades, and a complete list of publications. Foreign diplomas (Master, Bachelor, and the like) must be provided in the original language as well as in an English or Scandinavian translation.
    • It is required to attach an explanation of foreign university grading systems.
    • Up to 3 scholarly publications. If the publications are written by more than one author, a declaration of authorship and of the contribution of the applicant should be submitted.
    Please remember that all documents must be in English or a Scandinavian language.
    See the guidelines concerning appointment to post doctoral and research posts at UiO for more details.
    The University of Oslo has an agreement for all employees, aiming to secure rights to research results.
    According to the Norwegian Freedom of Information act § 25 (Offentleglova) information about the applicant may be included in the public applicant list, even though the applicant has requested non-disclosure.
    The government workforce should as far as possible reflect the diversity of the population. In accordance with the University of Oslo’s equal opportunities policy, we invite applications from all interested individuals regardless of gender or ethnicity.
    More information here.
    Categories: Comparative Law News

    CONFERENCE: "Anti-Democratic Ideology and Criminal Law under Fascist, National Socialist and Authoritarian Regimes – IALS", (London, September 10-11 2015)



    WHAT Anti-Democratic Ideology and Criminal Law under Fascist, National Socialist and Authoritarian Regimes – IALS, Conference
    WHEN September 10-11  2015
    WHERE London
    all information here
    Speakers Abstract

    Keynote Speakers: Professor David Fraser, University of Nottingham and Senior Associate Research Fellow at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies; Professor Luigi Lacchè, University of Macerata, Italy.Academic Convenor: Dr Stephen Skinner, University of Exeter.The Fascist, National Socialist and other forms of authoritarian regimes that emerged in the twentieth century used criminal law as a key component of their repressive and social control strategies. Criminal law was both an instrument in such regimes’ exertion of power, and a medium through which their core ideologies were expressed and could be identified. Although such regimes were not merely negative movements grounded on opposition to other political forces, many of them included elements of anti-democratic ideology in the formulation, application and interpretation of criminal law. This involved rejecting concepts identified with liberal democracy, and purporting to overcome their inadequacies. Whereas for some regimes such as Fascism and National Socialism this was an explicit, self-declared component of their identity, for others anti-democratic ideology was arguably more implicit in their turn away from liberal methods and models of criminal law.This conference invites participants to question the nature and extent of anti-democratic ideology in criminal law under Fascist, National Socialist and other authoritarian regimes during the 20th century. 
    Categories: Comparative Law News

    CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENT: Annual International Conference on Comparative Law 2015 - Law of Obligations Surrounded by Other Normative Systems

    Juris Diversitas - Tue, 06/16/2015 - 09:23
    Subject areas:
    1. Morality, customs, praxeology and the content of an obligation.
    2. Agreements which are not contracts, relevant to the law of obligations. 
    3. Obligations of the creditor: are they just correlates of the obligations of the debtor, or do they constitute a functionally separate category?
    4. The history of the relationship of contract law and other normative systems. Interpretation, law-making and science of law.
    5. "Socialist law" in the capitalist reality (and vice versa). Interaction of the legal system with the extra-legal environment. The impact of socio-political formations on the shape of state, the content and the evolution of the law.
    6. The future of the state law in terms of economic globalization.
    7. The nature of the obligations in terms of the various normative systems.
    8. Facts as obligations vs legal systems.
    9. Cultural diversity - a challenge to the law of obligations?
    Registration is open until June 30, 2015.
    Draft programme will be available on July 31, 2015.

    Click here for further information.
    Categories: Comparative Law News

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