The works and presentations done at the 2nd Manfred Lachs International Conference have led to the Montreal Declaration [.pdf], published on June 4, 2014.
7:30 – 8:30 Registration
8:30 – 9:00 Welcoming remarks
• Daniel JUTRAS – Dean, Faculty of Law, McGill University
• Ram S. JAKHU – Institute of Air and Space Law, McGill University (Presentation [.pdf])
• Cynda Collins ARSENAULT – President, Secure World Foundation
• George S. ROBINSON – Former NASA International Relations Specialist, and Legal Counsel, Smithsonian Institution (ret.)
9:00 – 10:30 Plenary session 1
Human evolution, space migration, and a need for global space governance
This session will focus on the history of human evolution and the role of global governance in advancing human exploration, migration, and settlement of outer space
• Does the humankind bio evolutionary process “anticipate” or incorporate a migration of the human species and its descendants into outer space? If so, what are the conditions and processes necessary for this to occur?
• Does the history of human biological evolution on Earth provide support for the re-creation of terrestrial governance mechanisms in non-terrestrial environments, such as outer space?
• How should the international community address and assist in resolving the economic and political disparities of certain spacefaring nations that tend to inhibit the cooperation necessary to establish the global governance necessary for humankind space migration and settlement?
• In the evolving era of developing relations between and among terrestrial nations and space societies, can corporate and government-backed settlements be expected to form their own independent governments? What types of independent and/or interdependent social and cultural characteristics might result from such occurrences?
• What international and global values and prerequisites must be established and achieved for a reasonably smooth transition from space-capable nations on Earth to genuine spacefaring nations cooperating to establish long duration and permanent space habitats?
- Margaret SOMERVILLE (Samuel Gale Chair in Law, Founding Director, Centre for Medicine, Ethics and Law, Faculty of Law, McGill University)
- Xavier Li Wen LIAO (Ghent Institute for Int'l Studies, Dept. of Political Science, Ghent University, BELGIUM)
- Jim PASS co-authored with Kathleen TOERPE, Christopher HEARSEY, Katrina JACKSON and Renato RIVERA RUSCA (Astrosociology Research Institute, USA).
- George S. ROBINSON – Former NASA International Relations Specialist, and Legal Counsel, Smithsonian Institution (ret.)
10:30 – 11.00 Refreshment break
11:00 – 12.30 Plenary session 2: Current and emerging trends in general global governance
This session will identify and examine current and emerging trends in general global governance
• What is occurring and developing with respect to principles of global governance and their implementation, both on Earth and in space?
• What are the mechanisms currently being used (and what mechanisms are falling out of use) by the international community to achieve effective global governance in other areas of international endeavor?
• Are the concepts of state-centrism and multilateral diplomacy still relevant in the effort to achieve and maintain global governance?
• Is there a special case to be made for a specific global governance regime for outer space?
- Jan WOUTERS (Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies, BELGIUM)
- Graham S. GIBBS (Canadian Space Agency (retired), CANADA) (Presentation [.pdf])
- Warren E (Ted) HEWITT (Professor, Department of Sociology, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON CANADA) co-authored with Lorna Jean EDMONDS (Vice Provost for Global Affairs and Professor, College of Health Sciences and Professions, Ohio University, USA) (Presentation [.pdf])
- Paul MEYER (Adjunct Professor of International Studies and Fellow in International Security, Simon Fraser University; Senior Fellow, The Simons Foundation CANADA)
- Francesca Ines MORETTO (Fellow, National and International Relations Unit, Italian Space Agency (ASI) ITALY) co-authored with Gabriella ARRIGO (Deputy Head, National and International Relations Unit, Italian Space Agency (ASI) ITALY) (Presentation [.pdf])
12:30 – 14:00 Lunch. Keynote address by Walter NATYNCZYK (President Canadian Space Agency)
14:00 – 15:30 Plenary session 3: Global governance in international law
This session will consider how the concept of global governance has evolved in other areas of international law and what implications it may have for global space governance:
• The Law of the Sea – particularly how it addresses the question of establishing a global framework to govern the reasonable extraction, use, and sharing of the deep sea bed resources
• The Antarctic Regime – particularly as it relates to reasonable international access to and use of natural resources in Antarctica
• International Environmental Law - lessons from how international law has addressed issues of global environmental concerns to humanity (e.g., global warming and climate change, loss of several biotic species daily, etc.)
• Private Military and Security Companies (PMSCs) – lessons from how the international community proposes to address the global governance challenges arising from the proliferation of PMSCs, and the potential for collaborative efforts with such entities to achieve common goals
- Armand DE MESTRAL (Professor emeritus, Jean Monnet Chair in the Law of International Economic Integration, McGill University, CANADA)
- Tare BRISIBE, (Director, Regulatory Affairs, OnAir – SWITZERLAND) (Presentation [.pdf])
- Steven FREELAND (Professor of International Law, Co-Director of Research and HDR, University of Western Sydney School of Law, AUSTRALIA) (Presentation [.pdf])
- Sergio MARCHISIO (Professor of International Law, University Sapienza of Rome-ITALY)
- Lucien RAPP (Space Institute for Researches on Innovative Usages of Satellites (SIRIUS), University Toulouse1-Capitole FRANCE) (Presentation [.pdf])
- John D. RUMMEL (Visiting Scholar, Institute of Air and Space Law, Faculty of Law, McGill University and East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA) (Presentation [.pdf])
- Isavella VASILOGEORGI (Erin J.C. Arsenault Fellow in Space Governance, Institute of Air and Space Law, McGill University, CANADA)
- Jan WOUTERS (Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies, Belgium)
15:30 – 16:00 Refreshment break
16:00 – 17:30 Plenary Session 4: Addressing the adequacy of existing mechanisms of global space governance
This session will focus on the adequacy and/or effectiveness of existing global space governance mechanisms
• International space law as a tool for achieving global space governance: Are the 5 existing UN space law treaties adequate for future global space governance? What is the current role of the United Nations in global space governance? Is the United Nations the best organization to regulate space activities and policies?
• Other specific international space governance regimes, e.g., ITU, UNIDROIT, CD, etc.
• Customary law principles in international space law: Have international customs been formed (and/or are they emerging) in international space law, and to what extent, and in what manner, do they influence global space governance?
• How and to what extent do existing and emerging "soft law" regimes influence global space governance?
• Are there alternative or complementary mechanisms available for achieving an internationally acceptable form of global governance in outer space, taking into account current and future uses of space, including long term and permanent humankind habitation ?
- Karl DOETSCH (former Chair of COPUOS, former President of CSA and of ISU)
- Karl DOETSCH (former Chair of COPUOS, former President of CSA and of ISU) (Presentation [.pdf])
- Bradley HAYWARD (Solicitor, Carneys Lawyers, Sydney, AUSTRALIA) (Presentation [.pdf])
- Michael SIMPSON (Executive Director, Secure World Foundation, USA) (Presentation [.pdf])
- Kaiwen SUN (China University of Political Science and Law, CHINA) (Presentation [.pdf])
17:30 – 20:00 Networking reception - OMNI HOTEL
9:00 – 10:30 Concurrent session 1-A: global governance of human space flight
• What is the current legal status of humans involved in spaceflight? Should all such persons be considered "Astronauts" under the Rescue and Return Agreement?
• Should ICAO (or another international organization) exert jurisdiction over regulatory issues surrounding safety and navigation of emerging modes of aerospace transportation?
• The definition and delimitation of outer space: Is there a present need to determine where and under what circumstances ‘space activities’ begin, transition, and end with respect to space travelers?
9:00 – 10:30 Concurrent session 1-B: global governance of natural resources indigenous to space
• Should the prohibition of state sovereignty in outer space be re-evaluated in order to encourage long duration and permanent habitation of space and internationally agreed upon uses of its natural resources?
• Are the "Common Heritage of Mankind" and "Benefit of All Countries" principles still relevant in the context of the use of space resources?
• What will be the financial and market effects of using space resources on Earth?
• Does the Moon Agreement provide a good basis for interim global space governance of resources indigenous to space?
10:30 – 11:00 Refreshment break
11:00 – 12:30 Concurrent session 2-A: global governance of the satellite telecommunications sector
• Is the ITU framework optimal in guaranteeing equitable and sustainable use of orbital slots and radio frequencies for space applications?
• Is current global space governance conducive to the commercialization of space? How best can commercial considerations be balanced with issues of global space governance in the telecommunications sector?
• Are there any alternative or complementary global governance mechanisms for the satellite telecommunications sector?
11:00 – 12:30 Concurrent session 2-B: Global governance of space-based solar power
• What role(s) can space-based solar power play in meeting the energy needs of Earth populations?
• What is the best global governance regime(s) for the purpose of launching and operating space-based solar power systems?
12:30 – 14:00 – LUNCH
14:00 – 15:30 Concurrent session 3-A: Global space environmental regulation and governance
• Do the existing legal regimes of global space governance address the environmental aspects of human exploration and uses of outer space?
• Does a combination of emerging rules and guidelines addressing space debris and sustainability of space activities provide an adequate solution?
• Is there a need to establish an international space traffic control/management system for space objects? If so, what would be the best way to accomplish this objective in the context of global space governance?
• What are the global governance challenges posed by the proliferation of small satellites (i.e., cube, micro, nano and pico satellites etc.)
• What would be the best governance framework for regulating the destructive use of celestial bodies?
14:00 – 15:30 Concurrent session 3-B: Global space governance and the challenges of space security
• What are the global governance challenges inherent in the deployment and use of ASAT weapons in space?
• What are the global governance challenges posed by military use of commercial satellite payloads and applications?
• How should the international community handle nations that actively promote military uses and weaponization of outer space?
• What are the implications of Transparency and Confidence Building Mechanisms (like the Missile Technology Control Regime, the Hague Code, etc.,) for effectively achieving space security?
• What are the implications of the US AEC act and ITAR regulations for space business and global governance?
• How and to what extent do national space surveillance systems influence global space governance?
15:30 – 16:00 Refreshment break
16:00 – 17:30 Concurrent session 4-A: National space policy and law, and global space governance
• Problems of fragmentation and conflicting legal regimes: How do we harmonize national space laws?
• What is the interaction between national space policy and national space law?
• How does national space policy and implementing laws influence global space governance and vice versa?
• Why is it important for a state to have a clear national space policy and national space law(s)?
16:00 – 17:30 Concurrent session 4-B: Balancing commercial considerations against global space governance
• Are the existing mechanisms of global space governance compatible with the increasing trend of space commercialization?
• How best can commercial considerations be balanced against issues of global space governance?
• Is there a need for a dedicated international settlement mechanism for dispute resolution arising from space commercialization?
• Are there any alternative or complementary global governance mechanisms that are likely to facilitate space commercialization?
18:00 – 21:00 Speaker's dinner - Faculty Club
9:00 – 10:30 Concurrent session 5-A: Global space governance of remote sensing and earth observation
• Access to geo-spatial data: Are the 1986 UN Remote Sensing Principles sufficient, or is a new/enhanced governance framework needed to facilitate access to geo-spatial data?
• What are the global governance implications of Earth observation initiatives, such as the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)?
• Does the Charter on Disaster Management provide a good model for certain aspects of enhancing global space governance?
9:00 – 10:30 Concurrent session 5-B: Global space governance from a regional perspective
• Intra-regional and inter-regional space governance initiatives, such as the EU, ESA UN triangle, the proposed African Space Agency, etc.
• What are the governance implications of regional cooperative regimes, such as the Asia-Pacific Regional Agency Forum (APRSAF) and the Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization (APSCO)?
• Are there any other alternative or complementary regional space governance mechanisms?
10:30 – 11:00 Refreshment break
11:00 – 12:30 Plenary session: Conference wrap-up and closing roundtable
• What is the current status regarding global space governance?
• What are the major challenges to achieving effective and acceptable global space governance, and how can they be best addressed?
• What form(s) should global space governance take, both in terms of format and substance, in the next 20-50 years?
• Given the multifarious nature of global space governance, are there any emerging non-traditional trends that should be encouraged?
- Paul DEMPSEY (Director, McGill Institute of Air and Space Law)
- Elisabeth BACK-IMPALLOMENI
- Tare BRISIBE
- Steven FREELAND
- Ram JAKHU
- Stephan HOBE
- Sa’id MOSTESHAR
- Joseph PELTON
- Tommaso SGOBBA
- Isabelle SOURBÈS-VERGER
- Jan WOUTERS