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Appendix C

Appendix C

General Properties of Some Radionuclides Currently Used in Research

Radio-
nucli-
ides
Half-life Particles
type, energy in MeV (int. %)
Photons
type, energy in Mev (int. %)
Gamma dose rate
(mR/h at 1m/ mCi)
ALI(1)
ingestion (MBq/ Yr)
ALI
inhalation (MBq/ Yr)
3 H 12.3 y beta -,.018(100) - - 1000 1000(2)
13 N 9.97 s beta +,1.2(100) gamma ,0.511(200) - Contact RSO(3) -
14 C 5720 y beta -,0.156(100) - - 34 3000(4)
15 O 122 s beta +,1.7(100) gamma ,0.511(200) - Contact RSO -
18 F 109 m beta +,0.633(97) gamma ,0.511(194) - 400 200
22 Na 2.6 y beta +,0.545(90) gamma ,1.23(100)
gamma ,0.511(180)
1.2 6 10(5)
24 Na 15 h beta -,1.39(100) gamma ,1.37(100)
gamma ,2.75(100)
1.84 Contact RSO -
32 P 14.3 d beta -,1.71(100) - - 8 7
33 P 25.4 d beta -,0.249(100) - - 80 20
35 S 87.2 d beta -,0.167(100) - - 26 200(6)
36 Cl 3 X 105 y beta -,0.714 - - 20 40
42 K 12.4 h beta -,2.0(18)
beta -,3.5(82)
gamma ,1.5(17.9) 0.14 Contact RSO -
45 Ca 163 d beta -,0.357(100) - - 30 9
46 Sc 84 d beta -,0.357(100) gamma ,0.89(100)
gamma ,1.12(100)
1.1 Contact RSO -
51 Cr 27.8 d - X-ray,0.005(18)
gamma ,0.320(9.8)
0.016 530 600(7)
55 Fe 2.7 y - X-ray,0.006(28) - 100 60(8)
59 Fe 44.5 d beta -,0.130(1.2)
beta -,0.273(46)
beta -,0.465(53)
beta -,1.565(0.18)
gamma ,0.142(1.0)
gamma ,0.192(3.0)
gamma ,1.099(56)
gamma ,1.291(44)
0.64 10 6(8)
57 Co 271 d - X-ray,0.006(56)
gamma ,0.014(9.5)
gamma ,0.122(85)
gamma ,0.136(10.6)
gamma ,0.692(0.16)
0.09 95 30(9)
58 Co 71.4 d beta +,0.474(15) gamma ,0.810(99.4)
gamma ,0.511(31)
0.55 27 10(9)
60 Co 5.261 y beta -,0.320(100) gamma ,1.17(100)
gamma ,1.33(100)
1.32 6 1(9)
63 Ni 92 y beta -,0.67(100) - - 100 10(10)
65 Zn 244 d beta +,0.329(1.4) X-ray,0.008(34)
gamma ,1.12(51)
gamma ,0.511(2.9)
0.27 Contact RSO -
67 Ga 78 h e-,0.009(32) X-ray,0.009(56)
gamma ,0.093(41)
gamma ,0.184(21)
gamma ,0.208(2.3)
gamma ,0.300(16.8)
gamma ,0.393(4.7)
gamma ,0.887(0.15)
0.11 100 70(11)
75 Se 119 d - X-ray,0.01(50)
X-ray,0.012(7.6)
gamma ,0.066(1.1)
gamma ,0.096(3.5)
gamma ,0.121(17.7)
gamma ,0.136(61)
gamma ,0.198(1.5)
gamma ,0.264(59)
gamma ,0.279(25.2)
gamma ,0.303(1.3)
gamma ,0.400(11.4)
0.2 Contact RSO -
85Kr 10.7 y beta -,0.67(99) gamma ,0.514(42) 0.004 Contact RSO -
86 Rb 18.7 d beta -,0.698(8.7)
beta -,1.774(91.2)
gamma ,1.076(8.8) 0.05 Contact RSO -
85 Sr 65.1d - X-ray,0.514(99) - 36 40(12)
90 Sr 28.1 y beta -,0.546(100) - - 0.7 0.3(12)
99 Mo 66 h beta -,0.436(16.6)
beta -,0.847(1.2)
beta -,1.214(82)
X-ray,0.018(3.3)
gamma ,0.366(1.2)
gamma ,0.739(12.2)
gamma ,0.778(4.3)
0.18 Contact RSO -
99m Tc 6.0 h e-,0.119(8.0)
e-,0.137(1.1)
X-ray,0.018(6.2)
X-ray,0.021(1.2) gamma ,0.14(88.9)
0.07 900 700(13)
109 Cd 464 d e-,0.062(42)
e-,0.084(44)
e-,0.07(10.2)
X-ray,0.022(84)
X-ray,0.025(18) gamma ,0.088(3.7)
- Contact RSO -
119m Sn 293 d e-,0.023(16.8)
e-,0.036(32)
e-,0.062(52)
e-,0.065(16)
X-ray,0.025(23)
X-ray,0.029(5)
gamma ,0.024(16)
- 60 10
123 I 13.3 h e-,0.022(12)
e-,0.127(14)
e-,0.154(2)
X-ray,0.027(71)
X-ray,0.031(16)
gamma ,0.159(83)
gamma ,0.0528(1.4)
- 95 200
125 I 59.6 d e-,0.003(156)
e-,0.004(80)
e-,0.023(21)
e-,0.031(10.5)
e-,0.035(3)
X-ray,0.0004(15)
X-ray,0.027(114)
X-ray,0.031(26)
gamma ,0.035(6.7)
0.15 1 1(14)
129 I 1.57 X 107 y beta -,0.1544(100) gamma ,0.0396(7.5) - Contact RSO -
131 I 8.04 d beta -,0.248(2)
beta -,0.303(0.6)
beta -,0.334(7.4)
beta -,0.606(89.4)
beta -,0.806(0.4)
X-ray,0.029(3.9)
X-ray,0.033(0.9)
gamma ,0.08(2.6)
gamma ,0.284(6.1)
gamma ,0.364(81)
gamma ,0.636(7.3)
gamma ,0.722(1.8)
0.22 1 1(14)
133 Xe 5.3 d e-,0.045(52)
e-,0.075(8.5)
e-,0.08(2.3)
beta -,0.346(99.3)
X-ray,0.031(38)
X-ray,0.035(8.8) gamma ,0.081(37)
0.01 Contact RSO for DAC(15) -
133 Ba 10.7 y e-,0.045(47) X-ray,0.043(17)
X-ray,0.031(97)
X-ray,0.035(23)
gamma ,0.053(2.2)
gamma ,0.079(2.6)
gamma ,0.081(34)
gamma ,0.276(7.1)
gamma ,0.302(18.4)
gamma ,0.356(62.1)
gamma ,0.383(8.9)
0.24 20 10
137 Cs 30 y beta -,0.511(94.6)
beta -,1.173(5.4)
e-,0.624(8.2)
e-,0.655(1.6)
e-,0.66(0.5)
X-ray,0.032(4)
X-ray,0.036(1.4) gamma ,0.661(90)
0.33 2  


(1) Annual Limit of Intake
(2) as tritiated water
(3) Radiation Safety Officer
(4) as CO2
(5) all compounds
(6) as vapour
(7) as oxides and hydroxides
(8) as oxides, hydroxides and halides
(9) as oxides, hydroxides, halides and nitrates
(10) as carbonyl gas
(11) as oxides, hydroxides, carbides, halides and nitrates
(12) most compounds
(13) as oxides, hydroxides, halides and nitrates
(14) as vapour
(15) Derived Air Concentration
Half lives: y = year; d = day; h = hour; s = second