Dieter P. Reinhardt

dieter.reinhardt [at] (Email)
Tel:(514) 398-4243

Click here to watch on YouTube.


Research Interests

Extracellular matrix macromolecules are often large oligomers that polymerize into supra-structures at several hierarchic levels. They form insoluble fibrils or filaments that further assemble into tissue supramolecular structures. These supra-structures can be visualized as building blocks for formation and homeostasis of tissues and organs. On one hand, such supra-structures often confer structural support to tissues, and on the other hand they have numerous functional roles in development and homeostasis of tissues and organs. Deficiencies in formation and/or function of such supra-structures can lead to numerous genetic and degenerative disorders, affecting essentially all organs and tissues. One subset of these supramolecular structures is represented by microfibrillar systems, which are ubiquitously distributed in most elastic and non-elastic tissues. The fibrillin family of proteins forms the core of these supra-structures. Mutations in individual components of these systems give rise to a broad spectrum of genetic disorders generally termed microfibrillopathies including the Marfan syndrome (fibrillin-1), contractural arachnodactyly (fibrillin-2), and related disorders characterized by clinical symptoms in the skeletal, dental, cardiovascular, and the ocular systems. In order to advance our understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships in such disorders, information about microfibrillar systems in terms of biogenesis and functional aspects is urgently needed. The research in my group is driven by the "long term" hypothesis of the laboratory that microfibrillar systems are essential for biogenesis, homoeostasis, and degeneration processes of skeletal and cardiovascular tissues. Basically, my research projects address three important aspects of microfibril biology, which are (i) biogenesis of microfibrils, (ii) genotype-phenotype relationships of genetic disorders, and (iii) the ligand interaction repertoire and its functional significance. My laboratory uses a combined biochemical, cell biological, genetic, proteomic and recombinant protein technology approach to identify the components and mechanisms involved in these basic pathways of microfibril biology in health and disease. I expect that information obtained from this work will directly contribute to the design of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for associated disorders.



Votteler M., Carvaja Berrio D.A., Horke A., Sabatier L., Reinhardt D.P., Nsair A., Aikawa E., Schenke-Layland K. (2013). Elastogenesis occurs at the early onset of human cardiac valve development. Development 140:2345-2353.

Bader H.L., Wang L.W., Ho J., Tran T., Holden P., Fitzgerald J., Atit R.P., Reinhardt D.P., Apte S.S. (2012). A disintegrin-like and metalloprotease domain containing thrombospondin type 1 motif-like 5 (ADAMTSL5) is a novel fibrillin-1-, fibrillin-2-, and heparin-binding member of the ADAMTS superfamily containing a netrin-like module. Matrix Biol. 31:398-411.

Hummitzsch K., Irving-Rodgers H.F., Hatzirodos N., Bonner W., Sabatier L., Reinhardt D.P., Sado Y., Ninomiya Y., Wilhelm D., Rodgers R.J. (2012). A new model of development of the mammalian ovary and follicles. PLoS ONE 8:e55578.

Kaur J., Reinhardt D.P. (2012). Immobilized metal affinity chromatography co-purifies TGF-beta1 with histidine-tagged recombinant extracellular proteins. PLoS ONE 7:e48629.

Piha-Gossack A., Sossin W.S., Reinhardt D.P. (2012). The evolution of extracellular fibrillins and their functional domains. PLoS ONE 7:e33560

Lammers G., Roth G., Heck M., Tjabringa G.S., Versteeg E.M., Hafmans T., Wismans R., Reinhardt D.P., Verwiel E., Zeeuwen P.L., Schalkwijk J., Brock R., Daamen W.F., van Kuppevelt T.H. (2012). Construction of a microstructured collagen membrane mimicking the papillary dermis architecture and guiding keratinocyte morphology and gene expression. Macromol. Biosci. 12:675-691.

Hatzirodos N., Bayne R.A., Irving-Rodgers H.F., Hummitzsch K., Sabatier L., Lee S., Bonner W., Gibson M.A., Rainey W.E., Carr B.R., Mason H.D., Reinhardt D.P., Anderson R.A., Rodgers R. (2011). Linkage of regulators of TGF-beta activity in the fetal ovary to polycystic ovary syndrome. FASEB J. 25:2256-2265.

Hubmacher D., Sabatier L., Annis D.S., Mosher D.F., Reinhardt D.P. (2011). Homocysteine modifies structural and functional properties of fibronectin and interferes with the fibronectin-fibrillin-1 interaction. Biochemistry 50:5322-5332.

Hubmacher D., Reinhardt D.P. (2011). Microfibrils and fibrillin. In Biology of Extracellular Matrix. R.P.Mecham, editor. Springer, 233-265.

Kirschner R., Hubmacher D., Iyengar G., Kaur J., Fagotto-Kaufmann C., Bromme D., Bartels R., Reinhardt D.P. (2011). Classical and neonatal Marfan syndrome mutations in fibrillin-1 cause differential protease susceptibilities and protein function. J. Biol. Chem. 286:32810-32823.

Sabatier L., Miosge N., Hubmacher D., Lin G., Davis E.C., Reinhardt D.P. (2011). Fibrillin-3 expression in human development. Matrix Biol. 30:43-52.

Brinckmann J., Hunzelmann N., Kahle B., Rohwedel J., Kramer J., Hubmacher D., Reinhardt D.P. (2010). Enhanced fibrillin-2 expression is a general feature of wound healing and sclerosis: Potential alteration of cell attachment and storage of TGF-beta. Lab. Invest. 90:739-752.

Hubmacher D., Cirulis J.T., Miao M., Keeley F.W., Reinhardt D.P. (2010). Functional consequences of homocysteinylation of the elastic fiber proteins fibrillin-1 and tropoelastin. J. Biol. Chem. 285:1188-1198.

Schenke-Layland K., Xie J., Magnusson M., Angelis E., Li X., Wu K., Reinhardt D.P., MacLellan W.R., Hamm-Alvarez S.F. (2010). Lymphocytic infiltration leads to degradation of lacrimal gland extracellular matrix structures in NOD mice exhibiting a Sjögren's syndrome-like exocrinopathy. Exp. Eye Res. 90:223-237.

Hubmacher D., Reinhardt D.P. (2009). One more piece in the fibrillin puzzle. Structure 7:635-636.

Koenders M.M.J.F., Yang L., Wismans R.G., van der Werf K.O., Reinhardt D.P., Daamen W., Bennink M.L., Dijkstra P.J., van Kuppevelt T.H., Feijen J. (2009). Microscale mechanical properties of single elastic fibers: The role of fibrillin-microfibrils. Biomaterials 30:2425-2432.

Sabatier L., Chen D., Fagotto-Kaufmann C., Hubmacher D., McKee M.D., Annis D.S., Mosher D.F., Reinhardt D.P. (2009). Fibrillin assembly requires fibronectin - Incytes Highlight. Mol. Biol. Cell 20:1119.

Sabatier L., Chen D., Fagotto-Kaufmann C., Hubmacher D., McKee M.D., Annis D.S., Mosher D.F., Reinhardt D.P. (2009). Fibrillin assembly requires fibronectin. Mol. Biol. Cell 20:846-858.

Cirulis J.T., Bellingham C.M., Davis E.C., Hubmacher D., Reinhardt D.P., Mecham R.P., Keeley F.W. (2008). Fibrillins, fibulins and MAGP modulate the kinetics and morphology of in vitro self-assembly of a recombinant elastin-like polypeptide. Biochemistry 47:12601-12613.

Daamen W.F., Nillesen S.T.M., Wismans R., Reinhardt D.P., Hafmans T., Veerkamp J.H., van Kuppevelt T. (2008). A biomaterial composed of collagen and solubilised elastin enhances angiogenesis and elastic fibre formation without calcification. Tissue Eng. 14:349-360.

Fricke M., Langer C., Brunner E., Sakai L.Y., Füzesi L., Reinhardt D.P., Quondamatteo F. (2008). Fibrillin-1 in incisional hernias. An immunohistochemical study in scar and non-scar regions of human skin and muscle fasciae. J. Anat. 212:674-685.

Hubmacher D., El-Hallous E.I., Nelea V., Kaartinen M.T., Lee E.R., Reinhardt D.P. (2008). Biogenesis of extracellular microfibrils-Multimerization of the fibrillin-1 C-terminus into bead-like structures enables self-assembly. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:6548-6553.

Kloepper J.E., Tiede S., Brinckmann J., Reinhardt D.P., Fässler R., Paus R. (2008). Immunophenotyping of the human bulge region: The quest to define useful in situ markers for human epithelial hair follicle stem cells and their niche. Exp. Dermatol. 17:592-609.

Wilkinson G.A., Schittny J.C., Reinhardt D.P., Klein R. (2008). A role for ephrinB2 in postnatal lung alveolar development and elastic matrix integrity. Dev. Dyn. 237:2220-2234.

El-Hallous E.I., Sasaki T., Hubmacher D., Getie M., Tiedemann K., Brinckmann J., Bätge B., Davis E.C., Reinhardt D.P. (2007). Fibrillin-1 interactions with fibulins depend on the first hybrid domain and provide an adapter function to tropoelastin. J. Biol. Chem. 282:8935-8946.

Gnainsky Y., Kushnirsky Z., Bilu G., Hagai Y., Genina O., Volpin H., Bruck R., Spira G., Nagler A., Kawada N., Yoshizato K., Reinhardt D.P., Libermann T.A., Pines M. (2007). Gene expression during chemically induced liver fibrosis - effect of halofuginone on TGF-beta signaling. Cell Tissue Res. 328:153-166.

Schaefer L., Tsalastra W., Babelova A., Baliova M., Minnerup J., Sorokin L., Gröne H.-J., Reinhardt D.P., Pfeilschifter J., Iozzo R.V., Schaefer R.M. (2007). Decorin-mediated regulation of fibrillin-1 in the kidney involves the IGF-I receptor and mTOR. Am. J. Pathol. 170:301-315.

Drumea-Mirancea M., Wessels J.T., Müller C.A., Essl M., Eble J.A., Tolosa M., Koch M., Reinhardt D.P., Sixt M., Sorokin L., Stierhof Y.-D., Schwarz H., Klein G. (2006). Characterization of a laminin-5 containing conduit system in the human thymus - a transport system for small molecules. J. Cell Sci. 119:1396-1405.

Hartner A., Schaefer L., Porst M., Cordasic N., Gabriel A., Klanke B., Reinhardt D.P., Hilgers K.F. (2006). Role of fibrillin-1 in hypertensive and diabetic glomerular disease. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 290:F1329-F1336.

Hubmacher D., Tiedemann K., Reinhardt D.P. (2006). Fibrillins: From Biogenesis of Microfibrils to Signaling Functions. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 75:93-123.

Porst M., Daniel C., Plank C., Schocklmann H.O., Reinhardt D.P., Hartner A. (2006). Induction and coexpression of latent transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 1 (LTBP-1) and fibrillin-1 in experimental glomerulonephritis. Nephron Exp. Nephrol. 102:e99-e104.

Porst M., Plank C., Bieritz B., Konik E., Fees H., Dötsch J., Hilgers K.F., Reinhardt D.P., Hartner A. (2006). Fibrillin-1 regulates mesangial cell attachment, spreading, migration and proliferation. Kidney Int. 69:450-456.

Reinhardt D.P. (2006). Connective Tissue (German). In Marfan-Syndrom - Ein Ratgeber für Patienten, Angehörige und Betreuende. Marfan Hilfe (Deutschland) e.V., editor. Steinkopff Verlag, Darmstadt (Germany). 26-33.

Robinson P., Arteaga-Solis E., Baldock C., Collod-Beroud G., Booms P., De Paepe A., Dietz H.C., Guo G., Handford P.A., Judge D.P., Kielty C.M., Loeys B., Milewicz D.M., Ney A., Ramirez F., Reinhardt D.P., Tiedemann K., Whiteman P., Godfrey M. (2006). The molecular genetics of Marfan syndrome and related disorders. J. Med. Genet. 43:769-787.

Robinson P.N., Reinhardt D.P. (2006). Research Outlook (German). In Marfan-Syndrom - Ein Ratgeber für Patienten, Angehörige und Betreuende. Marfan Hilfe (Deutschland) e.V., editor. Steinkopff Verlag, Darmstadt (Germany). 143-148.

Wu J., Reinhardt D.P., Batmunkh C., Lindenmaier W., Kretschmer-Kazemi Far R., Notbohm H., Hunzelmann N., Brinckmann J. (2006). Functional diversity of lysyl hydroxylase 2 in collagen synthesis of human dermal fibroblasts. Exp. Cell Res. 312:3485-3494.

Booms P., Pregla R., Ney A., Barthel F., Reinhardt D.P., Pletschacher A., Mundlos S., Robinson P.N. (2005). RGD-containing fibrillin-1 fragments upregulate matrix metalloproteinase expression in cell culture: A potential factor in the pathogenesis of the Marfan syndrome. Hum. Genet. 116:51-61.

Bouzeghrane F., Reinhardt D.P., Reudelhuber T., Thibault G. (2005). Enhanced expression of fibrillin-1, a constituent of the myocardial extracellular matrix, in fibrosis. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 289:H982-H991.

Brinckmann J., Kim S., Wu J., Reinhardt D.P., Batmunkh C., Metzen E., Notbohm H., Bank R.A., Krieg T., Hunzelmann N. (2005). Interleukin 4 and prolonged hypoxia induce a higher gene expression of lysyl hydroxylase 2 and an altered cross-link pattern: Important pathogenetic steps in early and late stage of systemic scleroderma? Matrix Biol. 24:459-468.

Brinckmann J., Hunzelmann N., El-Hallous E.I., Krieg T., Sakai L.Y., Krengel S., Reinhardt D.P. (2005). Absence of autoantibodies against correctly folded recombinant fibrillin-1 protein in systemic scleroderma patients. Arthritis Res. Ther. 7:R1221-R1226.

Hubmacher D., Tiedemann K., Bartels R., Brinckmann J., Vollbrandt T., Bätge B., Notbohm H., Reinhardt D.P. (2005). Modification of the structure and function of fibrillin-1 by homocysteine suggests a potential pathogenetic mechanism in homocystinuria. J. Biol. Chem. 280:34946-34955.

Sixt M., Kanazawa N., Selg M., Samson T., Roos G., Reinhardt D.P., Pabst R., Lutz M.B., Sorokin L. (2005). The conduit system transports soluble antigens from the afferent lymph to resident dendritic cells in the T cell area of the lymph node. Immunity 22:19-29.

Tiedemann K., Sasaki T., Gustafsson E., Göhring W., Bätge B., Notbohm H., Timpl R., Wedel T., Schlötzer-Schrehardt U., Reinhardt D.P. (2005). Microfibrils at basement membrane zones interact with perlecan via fibrillin-1. J. Biol. Chem. 280:11404-11412.

Gaber Y., Tiedemann K., Reinhardt D.P., Brinckmann J. (2004). Changes in crosslinks in the collagenous connective tissue of lipodermatosclerosis. Phlebologie 33:8-11.

Hartner A., Eifert T., Haas C.S., Tuysuz C., Hilgers K.F., Reinhardt D.P., Amann K. (2004). Characterization of the renal phenotype in a mouse model of Marfan Syndrome. Virchows Arch. 445:382-388.

Kassner A., Tiedemann K., Notbohm H., Ludwig T., Mörgelin M., Reinhardt D.P., Chu M.L., Bruckner P., Grässel S. (2004). Molecular structure and interaction of recombinant human type XVI collagen. J. Mol. Biol. 339:835-853.

Lorena D., Darby I.A., Reinhardt D.P., Sapin V., Rosenbaum J., Desmouliere A. (2004). Fibrillin-1 expression in normal and fibrotic rat liver and in cultured hepatic fibroblastic cells: Modulation by mechanical stress and role in cell adhesion. Lab. Invest. 84:203-212.

Schaefer L., Mihalik D., Babelova A., Krzyzankova M., Grone H.J., Iozzo R.V., Young M.F., Seidler D.G., Lin G., Reinhardt D.P., Schaefer R.M. (2004). Regulation of fibrillin-1 by biglycan and decorin is important for tissue preservation in the kidney during pressure-induced injury. Am. J. Pathol. 165:383-396.

Tiedemann K., Bätge B., Reinhardt D.P. (2004). Assembly of microfibrils. In Marfan Syndrome: A Primer for Clinicians and Scientists. P.N.Robinson and M.Godfrey, editors. Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, Texas, USA. 130-142.

Vollbrandt T., Tiedemann K., El-Hallous E.I., Lin G., Brinckmann J., John H., Bätge B., Notbohm H., Reinhardt D.P. (2004). Consequences of cysteine mutations in calcium-binding epidermal growth factor modules of fibrillin-1. J. Biol. Chem. 279:32924-32931.

Charbonneau N.L., Dzamba B.J., Ono R.N., Keene D.R., Corson G.M., Reinhardt D.P., Sakai L.Y. (2003). Fibrillins can co-assemble in fibrils, but fibrillin fibril composition displays cell-specific differences. J. Biol. Chem. 278:2740-2749.

Eisenbeiss C., Martinez A., Hagedorn-Greiwe M., Reinhardt D.P., Bätge B., Brinckmann J. (2003). Reduced skin thickness - a "new" minor symptom of the classical and hypermobile type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Br. J. Dermatol. 149:850-852.

Isogai Z., Ono R.N., Ushiro S., Keene D.R., Chen Y., Mazzieri R., Charbonneau N.L., Reinhardt D.P., Rifkin D.B., Sakai L.Y. (2003). Latent transforming growth factor beta-binding protein 1 interacts with fibrillin and is a microfibril-associated protein. J. Biol. Chem. 278:2750-2757.

Kassner A., Hansen U., Miosge N., Reinhardt D.P., Aigner T., Bruckner-Tuderman L., Bruckner P., Grässel S. (2003). Discrete integration of collagen XVI into tissue-specific collagen fibrils or beaded microfibrils. Matrix Biol. 22:131-143.

Tiedemann K., Bätge B., Reinhardt D.P. (2003). Marfan-Syndrom: Eine genetische Erkrankung des mikrofibrillären Systems. Bioforum 7-8:456-457.

Isogai Z., Aspberg A., Keene D.R., Ono R.N., Reinhardt D.P., Sakai L.Y. (2002). Versican interacts with fibrillin-1 and links extracellular microfibrils to other connective tissue networks. J. Biol. Chem. 277:4565-4572.

Lin G., Tiedemann K., Vollbrandt T., Peters H., Bätge B., Brinckmann J., Reinhardt D.P. (2002). Homo- and heterotypic fibrillin-1 and -2 interactions constitute the basis for the assembly of microfibrils. J. Biol. Chem. 277:50795-50804.

Piecha D., Wiberg C., Mörgelin M., Reinhardt D.P., Deak F., Maurer P., Paulsson M. (2002). Matrilin-2 interacts with itself and with other extracellular matrix proteins. Biochem. J. 367:715-721.

Quondamatteo F., Reinhardt D.P., Charbonneau N.L., Pophal G., Sakai L.Y., Herken R. (2002). Fibrillin-1 and fibrillin-2 in human embryonic and early fetal development. Matrix Biol. 21:637-646.

Areida S.K., Reinhardt D.P., Müller P.K., Fietzek P.P., Köwitz J., Marinkovich M.P., Notbohm H. (2001). Properties of the collagen type XVII ectodomain. Evidence for N- to C-terminal triple helix folding. J. Biol. Chem. 276:1594-1601.

Jensen S.A., Reinhardt D.P., Gibson M.A., Weiss A.S. (2001). MAGP-1, Protein interaction studies with tropoelastin and fibrillin-1. J. Biol. Chem. 276:39661-39666.

Tiedemann K., Bätge B., Müller P.K., Reinhardt D.P. (2001). Interactions of fibrillin-1 with heparin/heparan sulfate: Implications for microfibrillar assembly. J. Biol. Chem. 276:36035-36042.

Winkler J., Wirbelauer C., Lünsdorf H., Reinhardt D.P., Laqua H. (2001). Immunohistochemical and charge-specific localization of anionic components of aggregates on the central anterior lens capsules from individuals with Pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 239:952-960.

Handford P.A., Downing A.K., Reinhardt D.P., Sakai L.Y. (2000). Fibrillin: from domain structure to supramolecular assembly. Matrix Biol. 19:457-470.

Reinhardt D.P., Gambee J.E., Ono R.N., Bächinger H.P., Sakai L.Y. (2000). Initial steps in assembly of microfibrils. Formation of disulfide-cross-linked multimers containing fibrillin-1. J. Biol. Chem. 275:2205-2210.

Reinhardt D.P., Ono R.N., Notbohm H., Müller P.K., Bächinger H.P., Sakai L.Y. (2000). Mutations in calcium-binding epidermal growth factor modules render fibrillin-1 susceptible to proteolysis: A potential disease-causing mechanism in Marfan syndrome. J. Biol. Chem. 275:12339-12345.

Wirbelauer C., Reinhardt D.P., Lünsdorf H., Weber E., Laqua H., Winkler J. (2000). Charakterisierung der extrazellulären Matrix beim Pseudoexfoliationssyndrom. Focus MUL 17:82-87.

Lönnqvist L., Reinhardt D.P., Sakai L.Y., Peltonen L. (1998). Evidence for furin-type activity-mediated C-terminal processing of profibrillin-1 and interference in the processing by certain mutations. Hum. Mol. Genet. 7:2039-2044.

Keene D.R., Jordan C.D., Reinhardt D.P., Ridgway C.C., Ono R.N., Corson G.M., Fairhurst M., Sussman M.D., Memoli V.A., Sakai L.Y. (1997). Fibrillin-1 in human cartilage: developmental expression and formation of special banded fibers. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 45:1069-1082.

Pereira L., Andrikopoulos K., Tian J., Lee S.Y., Keene D.R., Ono R.N., Reinhardt D.P., Sakai L.Y., Jensen-Biery N., Bunton T., Dietz H.C., Ramirez F. (1997). Targeting of fibrillin-1 recapitulates the vascular phenotype of Marfan syndrome in the mouse. Nat. Genet. 17:218-222.

Reinhardt D.P., Mechling D.E., Boswell B.A., Keene D.R., Sakai L.Y., Bächinger H.P. (1997). Calcium determines the shape of fibrillin. J. Biol. Chem. 272:7368-7373.

Reinhardt D.P., Ono R.N., Sakai L.Y. (1997). Calcium stabilizes fibrillin-1 against proteolytic degradation. J. Biol. Chem. 272:1231-1236.

Pfaff M., Reinhardt D.P., Sakai L.Y., Timpl R. (1996). Cell adhesion and integrin binding to recombinant human fibrillin-1. FEBS Lett. 384:247-250.

Reinhardt D.P., Keene D.R., Corson G.M., Pöschl E., Bächinger H.P., Gambee J.E., Sakai L.Y. (1996). Fibrillin 1: organization in microfibrils and structural properties. J. Mol. Biol. 258:104-116.

Reinhardt D.P., Sasaki T., Dzamba B.J., Keene D.R., Chu M.L., Göhring W., Timpl R., Sakai L.Y. (1996). Fibrillin-1 and fibulin-2 interact and are colocalized in some tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 271:19489-19496.

Mayer U., Zimmermann K., Mann K., Reinhardt D.P., Timpl R., Nischt R. (1995). Binding properties and protease stability of recombinant human nidogen. Eur. J. Biochem. 227:681-686.

Reinhardt D.P., Chalberg S.C., Sakai L.Y. (1995). The structure and function of fibrillin. In The molecular biology and pathology of elastic tissues. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, England. 128-147.

Aumailley M., Battaglia C., Mayer U., Reinhardt D.P., Nischt R., Timpl R., Fox J.W. (1993). Nidogen mediates the formation of ternary complexes of basement membrane components. Kidney Int. 43:7-12.

Reinhardt D.P., Mann K., Nischt R., Fox J.W., Chu M.L., Krieg T., Timpl R. (1993). Mapping of nidogen binding sites for collagen type IV, heparan sulfate proteoglycan, and zinc. J. Biol. Chem. 268:10881-10887.

Kübler D., Reinhardt D.P., Reed J., Pyerin W., Kinzel V. (1992). Atrial natriuretic peptide is phosphorylated by intact cells through cAMP-dependent ecto-protein kinase. Eur. J. Biochem. 206:179-186.

Fox J.W., Mayer U., Nischt R., Aumailley M., Reinhardt D.P., Wiedemann H., Mann K., Timpl R., Krieg T., Engel J., Chu M.L. (1991). Recombinant nidogen consists of three globular domains and mediates binding of laminin to collagen type IV. EMBO J. 10:3137-3146.