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Showan N. Nazhat

Showan Nazhat Headshot showan [dot] nazhat [at] mcgill [dot] ca (Email)

Assistant Professor
Department of Mining and Materials Engineering
Wong Building, Rm 2090
3610 University Street
Montreal, QC H3A 2B2

Office: 514-398-5524

Dr Nazhat is a Materials Engineer who specializes in the development and characterization of polymers and composites for biomaterials applications. In 1991, after completing his B.Eng. in Materials Science and Engineering at the Department of Materials, Queen Mary University of London (QMUL), he undertook an MSc in Materials Research Techniques at the same department. He was then awarded his PhD in Biomedical Materials in 1997 at the Interdisciplinary Research Centre (IRC) in Biomedical Materials, QMUL, the UK centre of excellence in Biomaterials. His PhD research, which was funded by UK EPSRC focused on the characterization of bioactive and degradable composites developed as bone substitute materials. This research has since enabled him to carry out a series of international collaborations investigating the effect of a number of bioactive reinforcing agents in polymeric systems and composites developed as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Along with bioactive ceramics, bioactive glasses that are either silica or phosphate glasses have been investigated as fillers. Phosphate based glasses are degradable, and their degradation is controlled by their chemistry, releasing ions that are present in the body or that can have an antimicrobial effect. Both non-porous composites and porous scaffolds using foaming techniques such as supercritical carbon dioxide, and thermally induced phased separation have been investigated. His postdoctoral experience (1997-2000) within the IRC further widened his experience in working as part of a multi-disciplinary team for biomaterials research where the focus was on dental materials. There he developed soft prosthetic materials, based on elastomer toughened methacrylates for potential uses in areas such as prosthetic dentistry, drug delivery, and maxillofacial surgery applications.

In October 2000, he was appointed as Lecturer at UCL Eastman Dental Institute (University College London). At UCL, he was part of a team that developed a novel method of engineering tissue analogous materials based on collagen gels. This introduced a new concept for the cell-independent, controlled engineering of biomimetic scaffolds by rapid removal of fluid from hyper-hydrated collagen gel (or other) constructs, using plastic compression (PC). PC fabrication produces in minutes, dense, cellular, mechanically strong native collagen structures with controllable, nano-micro scale structures. The significant scale shrinkage provides the ability to introduce fillers, controllable mechanical properties, micro-layering, embossed interface topography, without cell participation but with high cell viability and has opened a new route for the production of biomaterials, and patient-customized tissues.

Now at the Department of Mining, Metals and Materials Engineering, and with a cross-appointment with the Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, his main research interest is to investigate the structure-property relationship of polymeric and composite scaffolds developed for tissue engineering applications. Current research, also in collaboration with UCL, is investigating the behaviour of PC fabricated dense collagen matrices, in terms of the effect of collagen density on the properties of the constructs, as well as their in vitro and in vivo biological behaviour in terms of their effect on the viability, proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of primary cells including fibroblasts, osteoblasts and bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells.

Furthermore, by the incorporation of micro-channelling within these constructs, through degradable phosphate fibres, it is predicted that these could play an important role in hypoxia/perfusion limitations and also in the long distance transportation of cells, nutrients, and potentially blood vessels through dense implants.

PUBLICATIONS

Dynamic mechanical characterisation of hydroxyapatite particulate reinforced polyethylene: Effect of particle size. S.N. Nazhat, R. Joseph, M. Wang, R. Smith, K.E. Tanner, W. Bonfield. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 11, (2000) 621-8.

Dynamic mechanical characterisation of biodegradable composites of hydroxyapatite and polylactides. S.N. Nazhat, M. Kellomäki, K.E. Tanner, P. Tormälä, W. Bonfield. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research (Applied Biomaterials) 58, (2001) 335-343.

Blends of Isoprene-styrene/methacrylate monomer mixtures as potential soft lining material. S.N. Nazhat, S. Parker, P.D. Riggs, M. Braden. Biomaterials 22, (2001) 2087-2093.

Mechanical strength of bovine tooth fragment reattachment. R. De Santis, D. Prisco, S.N. Nazhat, F. Riccitiello, L. Ambrosio, S. Rengo, L. Nicolais. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 55, (2001) 629-636.

Isoprene-styrene copolymer elastomer and tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate mixtures for soft prosthetic applications. S.N. Nazhat, S. Parker, M.P. Patel and M. Braden. Biomaterials 22, (2001) 2411-2416.

Effect of filler content on mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties of particulate biphasic calcium phosphate polylactide composites. N.C. Bleach, S.N. Nazhat, K.E. Tanner, M. Kellomäki, P. Törmälä. Biomaterials 23, (2002) 1579-1585.

Lactic acid based PEU/HA and PEU/BCP composites: dynamic mechanical characterization of hydrolysis. J. Rich, J. Tuominen, J. Kylmä, J. Seppälä, S.N. Nazhat, K.E. Tanner. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research (Applied Biomaterials) 63, (2002) 346-353.

Comparative study of bone cements prepared with either HA or a-TCP and functionalized methacrylates. A. Canul-Chuil, R. Vargas-Coronado, J.V. Cauich-Rodríguez, A. Martínez-Richa, E. Fernandez, S.N. Nazhat. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research (Applied Biomaterials) 64B, (2003) 27-37.

Effect of triphenyl bismuth on glass transition temperature and residual monomer content of acrylic bone cements. S. Abdulghani, S.N. Nazhat, J.C. Behiri, S. Deb. Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition 14, (2003) 1229-1242.

Development and characterisation of silver doped bioactive glass coated sutures for tissue engineering and wound healing applications. J.J. Blaker, S.N. Nazhat, A.R. Boccaccini. Biomaterials 25, (2004) 1319-1329.

Silica filled elastomer/methacrylate systems as soft liners. S.N. Nazhat, S. Parker, M. Braden. Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition 15, (2004) 727-739.

In vitro attachment of Staphylococcus epidermidis to surgical sutures with and without Ag-containing bioactive glass coating. J. Pratten, S.N. Nazhat, J.J. Blaker, A.R. Boccaccini. Journal of Biomaterials Applications 19, (2004) 47-58.

Physicochemical, mechanical and biological properties of bone cements prepared with functionalised methacrylates. M.A. Sabino, D. Ajami, V. Salih, S.N. Nazhat, R. Vargas-Coronado, J.V. Cauich-Rodríguez Ma. Pau Ginebra. Journal of Biomaterials Applications. 19, (2004) 147-161.

Mechanical behavior of bioactive glass-polyvinyl alcohol hybrid foams obtained by the sol-gel process. M.M. Pereira, S.N. Nazhat, JR Jones, L.L. Hench. Key Engineering Materials 284-286, (2005) 757-761.

Characterisation of antibacterial copper releasing degradable phosphate glass fibres. E.A. Abou Neel, I. Ahmed, J. Pratten, S.N. Nazhat, J.C. Knowles. Biomaterials 26, (2005) 2247-2254.

Quantification of Anion and Cation Release from a Range of Ternary Phosphate-Based Glasses with Fixed 45 mol% P2O5. I. Ahmed, M.P. Lewis, S.N. Nazhat and J.C. Knowles. Journal of Biomaterials Applications 20, (2005) 65-80.

Thermal characterisations of silver containing bioactive glass coated sutures. J.J. Blaker, A.R. Boccaccini, S.N. Nazhat. Journal of Biomaterials Applications 20, (2005) 81-98.

Effect of iron on the surface, degradation and ion release properties of phosphate-based glass micro-fibres. E.A. Abou Neel, I. Ahmed, J.J. Blaker, A. Bismarck, A.R. Boccaccini, M.P. Lewis, S.N. Nazhat, J.C. Knowles. Acta Biomaterialia, 1, (2005) 553-563.

Mechanical properties of highly porous PDLLA/Bioglass composite foams as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. J.J. Blaker, V. Maquet, R. Jérôme, A.R. Boccaccini, S.N. Nazhat. Acta Biomaterialia, 1, (2005) 643-652.

Ultra-rapid engineering of biomimetic tissues: A Plastic Compression Fabrication Process for Nano-Micro Structures. R.A. Brown, M. Wiseman, C.B. Chuo, U. Cheema, S.N. Nazhat. Advanced Functional Materials, 15, (2005) 1762-1770.

Supercritical carbon dioxide foaming of elastomer/heterocyclic methacrylate blends as scaffolds for soft tissue engineering. J.J.A. Barry, S.N. Nazhat, F.R.A.J. Rose, A.H. Hainsworth, C.A. Scotchford, S.M. Howdle. Journal of Materials Chemistry. 15, (2005) 4881-4888.

Setting kinetics observation of a brushite cement by FTIR and DSC. M.P. Hofmann, A.M. Young, S.N. Nazhat, U. Gbureck, J.E. Barralet. Key Engineering Materials 309-311, (2006) 837-840.

Surface characterisation of various bone cements prepared with functionalised methacrylates/bioactive ceramics in relation to HOB behaviour. V. Salih, N. Mordan, E.A. Abou Neel, D.A. Armitage, F.H. Jones, J.C. Knowles, S.N. Nazhat, R. Vargas-Coronado, J.V. Cauich-Rodriguez. Acta Biomaterialia 2, (2006) 143-154.

Poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) foams with TiO2 nanoparticles and PDLLA/TiO2-Bioglass foam composites for tissue engineering scaffolds. A.R. Boccaccini, J.J. Blaker, V. Maquet, W. Chung, R. Jerome, S.N. Nazhat. Journal of Materials Science 41, (2006) 3999-4008.

FTIR-monitoring of a fast setting brushite bone cement: Effect of intermediate phases. M.P. Hofmann, A.M. Young, U. Gbureck, S.N. Nazhat, J.E. Barralet. Journal of Materials Chemistry 16, (2006) 3199-3206.

Use of multiple unconfined compression for control of collagen gel scaffold density and mechanical properties. E.A. Abou Neel, U. Cheema, J.C. Knowles, R.A. Brown, S.N. Nazhat. Soft Matter 2, (2006) 986-992.

Real-time monitoring of the setting reaction of brushite-forming cement using isothermal differential scanning calorimetry. M.P. Hofmann, S.N. Nazhat, U. Gbureck, J.E. Barralet. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research (Applied Biomaterials) 79B, (2006) 360-364.

The surface functionalization of 45S5 Bioglass® scaffolds and its impact on bioactivity. Q.Z Chen, K. Rezwan, D. Armitage, S.N. Nazhat, A.R. Boccaccini. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 17, (2006) 979-987.

Polylactic acid-Phosphate glass composite foams as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. G. Georgiou, L. Mathieu, D.P. Pioletti, P-E. Bourban, J-A.E. Månson, J.C. Knowles, S.N. Nazhat. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research (Applied Biomaterials) 80B, (2007) 322 – 331.

Mechanical properties and bioactivity of porous PLGA/TiO2 nanoparticle-filled composites for tissue engineering scaffolds. F.G. Torres, S.N. Nazhat, S.H. Sheikh Md Fadzullah, V. Maquet, A. R. Boccaccini. Composites Science and Technology 67, (2007) 1139-1147.

Effect of multiple unconfined compression on cellular dense collagen scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. M. Bitar, V. Salih, R.A. Brown, S.N. Nazhat. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine 18, (2007) 235-242.

Controlled micro-channelling in dense collagen scaffolds by soluble phosphate glass fibres. S.N. Nazhat, E.A. Abou Neel, A. Kidane, I. Ahmed, C. Hope, M. Kershaw, P.D. Lee, E. Stride, N. Saffari, J.C. Knowles, R.A. Brown. Biomacromolecules 8, (2007) 543-551.

Effect of ternary phosphate based glass compositions on osteoblast and osteoblast-like proliferation, differentiation and death in vitro. K.L. Skelton, J.V. Glenn, S.A. Clarke, G. Georgiou, S.N. Nazhat, J.C. Knowles, G.R Jordan. Acta Biomaterialia. In press. DOI:10.1016/j.actbio.2006.11.008.

Surface functionlisation of bioglass®-derived porous scaffolds. Q.Z. Chen, K. Rezwan, D. Armitage, S.N. Nazhat, F.H. Jones, A.R. Boccaccini. Acta Biomaterialia. In press.

Papers in Press

Polylactic acid-Phosphate glass composite foams as scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. G. Georgiou, L. Mathieu, D.P. Pioletti, P-E. Bourban, J-A.E. Månson, J.C. Knowles, S.N. Nazhat. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research (Applied Biomaterials). In press. DOI: 10.1002/jbm.b.30600.

Mechanical properties and bioactivity of porous PLGA/TiO2 nanoparticle-filled composites for tissue engineering scaffolds. F.G. Torres, S.N. Nazhat, S.H. Sheikh Md Fadzullah, V. Maquet, A. R. Boccaccini. Composites Science and Technology. In press. DOI: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2006.05.018.

The surface functionalization of 45S5 Bioglass® scaffolds and its impact on bioactivity. Q.Z Chen, K. Rezwan, D. Armitage, S.N. Nazhat, A.R. Boccaccini. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine. In press.

Effect of multiple unconfined compression on cellular dense collagen scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. M. Bitar, V. Salih, R.A. Brown, S.N. Nazhat. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine. In press

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