Marc Angenot, Département de langue et littérature françaises
Eric Belanger, Political Science
Charles Boberg, Linguistics
Kenneth Borris, English
Brian Cowan, History and Classical Studies
Kenneth Dean, East Asian Studies
Diane Desrosiers, Département de langue et littérature françaises
Michael Fronda, History and Classical Studies
Allan Hepburn, English
Adrienne Hurley, East Asian Studies
Thomas Lamarre, East Asian Studies
Jacob Levy, Political Science
Ngo Long, Economics
Lorenz Luthi, History and Classical Studies
Fernanda Macchi, Languages, Literatures, and Cultures (Hispanic Studies)
Kristin Norget, Anthropology
Calvin Normore, Philosophy
Jason Opal, History and Classical Studies
Maria Popova, Political Science
Markus Poschke, Economics
Marc Raboy, Art History and Communication Studies
Carrie Rentschler, Art History and Communication Studies
Filippo Sabetti, Political Science
Brian Trehearne, English
Angela Vanhaelen, Art History and Communication Studies
Michael Wagner, Linguistics
Lydia White, Linguistics
Controverses intellectuelles et débats publics: histoire et théorie
Amount awarded: $79,426
Keywords: controverses intellectuelles, polémiques publiques, querelle des historiens, conjoncture politique, hégémonie, doxa, histoire des idées, rhétorique de l’argumentation, analyse du discours
As Professor Angenot observes, there is a noticeable absence of French language research addressing the problematization, typology, methods, assumptions, theory and history of major intellectual and public controversies. In addressing this shortcoming, this program of research will constitute a major contribution to development of the history of ideas, currently undertheorized in the francophone milieu. Along with co-researcher Régine Robin-Marie of the Université du Québec à Montréal, Professor Angenot will examine two examples, the Historikerstreit and the controversy surrounding the Bicentenary of the 1789 French revolution in order to construct a theory and methodology associated to long-standing public and intellectual debates. They will add to this by identifying issues, concepts and relevant methods, using examples documented in the last half century from France and French Europe. In addition, they will compare their research methods with those used in the study of Streiten and Kontroversen in contemporary Germany. Graduate students will work with Professors Angenot and Robin-Marie constructing and maintaining bibliography, filmography and webography. Students will also participate in data collection and evaluation as well as research and analysis of primary sources and presentation of research results. Ultimately, this joint project will culminate in a book, which will address most of the research issues.
The aim of this research program is to analyze the impact of the sovereignty debate in Quebec and Scotland in terms of its effects on voting behavior and the strategies of political parties. What positions do Québécois and Scottish political parties take vis-à-vis the sovereignty question? How does the institutional context in which these parties compete affect their electoral strategies? To what extent are voters influenced by issues of constitutional change and national identity? By answering these questions, Professor Belanger, along with Professors Ailsa Henderson and Eve Hepburn from the University of Edinburgh and Université de Montréal’s Richard Nadeau, will shed light on the electoral dynamics of these two sub-state nations. Their program of research will be divided into two parts. The first relates to the strategies of political parties in Quebec and Scotland. This will be completed through an in-depth analysis of both parties' election platforms and semi-structured interviews conducted with party strategists. In the second, the team will seek to identify the motivations of voters using two opinion surveys, one conducted in Québec and the other in Scotland. Graduate students will be integrated in all phases of this research project, including data collection (surveys, interviews) and analysis. The final product of this project will be a monograph on Québécois and Scottish politics integrated with the research results. The team also will communicate results in English and French through conference presentations and journal articles.
When one language borrows words from another, these words undergo nativization: each sound (phoneme) in the foreign word is matched to a native sound, to make the word pronounceable. This process is often straightforward, but when foreign words spelled with the letter <a> enter English, it is complicated by the fact that English <a> has 3 values: the /æ/ of fat, the /ey/ of fate and the /ah/ of father (in North America the same as the /o/ of bother). This research program, directed by Professor Boberg, seeks to advance our understanding of one of the main effects of contact among languages: the ways in which speakers of one language adapt words borrowed from another language to their native phonological systems, making them pronounceable. It will consist of a detailed analysis of the particular pattern of nativization associated with the treatment of foreign-a words in Canadian English (CE). More specifically, it will address an important problem in the phonology of CE that is connected with nativization of foreign-a words: the structure of the low vowel system. Many accounts of CE phonology suggest that it has two low vowel phonemes, the /æ/ of pat in the low-front space and a low-back vowel that is used in three sets of words, represented by pot, paw and pa. However, Professor Boberg’s previous research has shown that many foreign-a words occupy an intermediate position between these front and back qualities. Following from this, he will investigate whether these intermediate productions constitute a third low vowel of CE. Data will be collected through sociolinguistic interviews from a cross-national sample of Canadian English speakers, compared with a smaller sample of American English speakers. Students involved in this study will assist in data collection, entry and analysis, website maintenance and the presentation and publication of research results. The results of this project will be communicated to academic audiences through journal articles and conferences and to popular audiences through a website and through mass media outlets such as newspapers, radio and television.
Platonism in early modern poetics: Spenser and the development of Elizabethan literary authorship
Amount awarded: $64,382
Keywords: early modern poetics, Spenser, Elizabethan literary history, literary Platonism, intellectual history, cultural history, Renaissance literature
Early modern literary theories are important for understanding the literature and culture of that time. The Renaissance owes much to the recovery and new dissemination of the full series of Plato's dialogues after around 1450, and Platonic tradition could be used either to condemn or champion literature. This research program, the first of its kind, will define the scope and currency of Platonism's effects on sixteenth-century literary thought and practice, while allowing for former intellectual eclecticism. By applying those findings to the major English poet Edmund Spenser, Professor Borris will not only address an important gap in Spenser studies, but newly clarify the strategies and challenges of Elizabethan poetic achievement as he and other poets sought to develop a culturally transformative basis for an English national literature between around 1575 and 1600. In the first of three phases, Professor Borris will complete a comprehensive, comparative survey of early modern European poetics. Second, as a means to explore the particular applications of those findings, Edmund Spenser’s oeuvre will be reassessed, exploring its relations with Platonizing literary theories and detailing Spenser’s vigorous participation in the central literary debates of his time. The third phase of the research will show how Elizabethan poetics, informed by humanist and continental influences, interacted with the sociopolitical context to shape literary practice, reception, and reputations. Professor Borris’ research approach will entail an immersion in the documents of early modern culture, including the canvassing of Platonic texts from antiquity to around 1600, as well as a representatively broad selection of treatises on poetics in Latin, Italian, French, and English. Further, the Spenserian aspects will require study of literary intertextualities and both primary and secondary sources on theology, iconography, mythography, and natural science. Student participation in this study will involve the collection, review and critical reading of primary and secondary materials and considerable discussion of the research themes, data, and results with careful attention to textual, intertextual, and cultural contexts. The findings of this study will be disseminated through conference presentations, refereed essays, and a comprehensive refereed scholarly monograph.
Charismatic things: celebrity, materiality and partisan politics in Britain, circa 1678-1789
Amount awarded: $50,000
Keywords: celebrity, material culture, partisanship, British history, charisma, eighteenth-century
In the century after the Glorious Revolution, a distinctive aspect of the political culture was the emergence of a number of influential and charismatic figures who became icons for various political causes despite the fact that they were neither royalty nor aristocratic grandees. Their charisma was cultivated in unprecedented ways through the new media and the rich material culture of the age. This interaction between traditional and novel forms of political charisma will be the focus of this research. Professor Cowan will examine the ways in which personal charisma operated in the formation of partisan political identities, and in particular, he will study the role of ‘things’ as media for the communication of political ideas and as means for the reinforcement of political allegiances. In order to do so, he will engage in some detailed case studies of the ways in which the charismatic personae of these important non-royal, non-aristocratic political celebrities were produced, marketed, sold, consumed and variously understood in eighteenth century Britain. In particular, he will study the role of ‘things’ broadly conceived as not only books and newspapers, but also manuscripts, advertisements, images, music, performance, clothing, figurines and everyday objects such as ceramic dishes, chamber pots, lady’s fans and wax seal-dies, as important conveyors of political concepts and as means for the reinforcement of political allegiances. Students involved with this study will receive extensive experience in working with electronic, printed, and manuscript source materials, as well as organizing source materials, references, and research results. The research results will provide a revised understanding of eighteenth-century British history in which the history of political partisanship, popular celebrity, and commercialization are fully integrated, to be communicated through a monograph, journal articles, and conference presentations.
Networks of the Gods: Mapping transnational Chinese temple networks linking China and Southeast Asia
Amount awarded: $204,000
Keywords: Chinese religion, Taoist studies, Chinese local religion, transnational networks, epigraphy, cultural studies
During the 16th and 17th century, with spread of the Southeast Fujian (Hokkien) coastal trading empire, transnational networks linking Chinese temples in Southeast Asia to their founding temples in Southern China began to develop. These temples served as centers of diasporic communities, and functioned as key political, commercial, and migration sites for local dialect groups spread across the region. This study, led by Professor Kenneth Dean, will produce the first in-depth analysis of these networks. In order to do this, Professor Dean will create a historically deep, comprehensive and accurate database, that will compile confirmed and georeferenced data from existing sources as well as new data collected through site visits and complementary archival research, on several topics such as deities, ritual activities, and temple membership. From these data, Professor Dean will develop GIS maps of the historical spread of Chinese temples in Singapore. These maps will trace the distribution of the principal Chinese temple networks of Southeast Asia and the renewal over the past thirty years of contemporary networks linking these sites with their founding temples in Fujian. Students involved in this research will receive interdisciplinary mentoring and training in a broad range of theoretical literature as well as data collection, management and analysis (historical, GIS, epigraphical). The results of this program will be made available through a published monograph, published primary source materials on several topics, the online publication of the GIS maps and a web-based, searchable database for further research on transnational Chinese temple networks.
L’éloquence en armes: les femmes et la rhétorique éristique (1500-1650)
Amount awarded: $72,278
Keywords: littérature française, XVIe-XVIIe siècles, femmes libellistes, rhétorique au féminin, argumentation polémique, éristique, ethos
The period from 1500 to 1650, a troublesome period of the Old Regime in France marked by civil infightings and political unrest, was also a time when women were typically excluded from religious, literary and political activism. However, despite the censorship and repression of the period, several women became publicly outspoken activists. For example, Marie d'Ennetières, one of the first women to join the Protestant reform, wrote to the Queen of Naravarre in 1539 seeking support for her cause, and Suzanne de Nervèze wrote publicly about her political allegiances during la Fronde. To date, little research has addressed the polemic strategies used by these women, whose contributions to political, religious and literary debates marked the beginning of the modern era. Along with co-researcher, Jean-Philippe Beaulieu (Université de Montréal), Professor Diane Desrosiers will conduct the first in-depth study on the rhetorical strategies used by female polemicists from 1500 to 1650. The project will be divided into two parts. Part I will involve the publication of the written works of Suzanne de Nervèze, one of the most important yet unknown female writers of la Fronde. The second part of the project will consist of a detailed examination of the semantic and rhetoric strategies used by various women throughout this time period. Research will involve archival work at several archives including the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Bibliothèque Mazarine, la Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève, la Bibliothèque de l’Arsenal and la Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris. Students participating in this project will make contributions through the annotation and editing of the printed works of Suzanne Nervèze as well as various other tasks including bibliography research and preparation and data collection. Study results will be presented at scholarly conferences, as well as in a monograph entitled L’Éloquence en armes : les femmes et la rhétorique éristique (1500-1650) and a critical edition of the collected works of Suzanne Nervèze.
Between c. 350 BC and 270 BC, Rome conquered the culturally, ethnically and linguistically diverse peoples of Italy. Throughout the following two centuries, the Romans exerted hegemony over the entire Mediterranean. Their imperial success was made possible through the military support of the Italian polities, which became increasingly integrated with Rome. This process of “unification” is the point of departure for Professor Fronda’s research program. His project work is based on the hypothesis that the repetition of certain “performances” contributed to the gradual normalization of the Roman rule and to a sense of common identity among Roman Italians. The main focus will be to explore how Rome’s hegemony in Italy during the republic was reinforced by the display of images, monuments, gestures, behaviors, rituals and so forth, enacted before an “Italian” (i.e. non-Roman) audience. According to Michael Fronda, these displays were often encoded with meaning and pregnant with symbols of Roman power. His research aims to offer a novel and sophisticated interpretation of Roman-Italian relations and “integration”, and to disclose much about a wide range of key issues in study of the Roman Republic. Students participating in this study will gain experience in working with databases, bibliographies, referencing, and data collection and will be encouraged to present an aspect of their research at a scholarly conference. The research findings of this study will be communicated at presentations at meetings of learned societies, in the classroom and through the publication of a scholarly monograph.
Faith and British Culture, 1939-1962
Amount awarded: $85,465
Keywords: faith, belief, doubt, disbelief, prophets, prophecy, children, war, postwar, prayer, cathedral, bombs, bombardment, reconstruction, ecumenical, ecclesiastical, literature, Compton-Burnett, Graham Greene, Muriel Spark, Louis MacNeice, Barbara Pym, Coventry
Modern culture is often described as godless, yet Professor Allan Hepburn finds this description to be inaccurate. His study will show that modernism and faith are not mutually exclusive; modern culture is vitally engaged with questions of faith. More particularly, faith transforms all areas of cultural production during and after the Second World War. Examining the period from 1939-1962, Professor Hepburn will research the relationship between faith and cultural production to produce the first book on faith in Britain during this period. Using an interdisciplinary approach, it will present a detailed conception of mid-century modernism that brings faith into line with postwar reconstruction and the Welfare State. Visiting archives in Britain, Canada, and the United States, Professor Hepburn will draw upon mid-century cultural documents including periodicals, letters, scripts, communiqués and papers from the Church of England, as well as photographs and architectural plans related to bombed and rebuilt churches. Students will participate in the research through bi-weekly discussions and the organization and analysis of archival documents; they will also participate in conference presentations and publishing. In addition to the monograph publication, research results will be communicated through conference presentations and the project website.
Narratives of Violence and the Emperor System in Heisei Japan
Amount awarded: $94.719
Keywords: literature, Japan, media, Japan`s emperor system, social movements, violence, gender and sexuality
The modern Japanese emperor system has provided a rich and varied metaphorical vocabulary for family, state, cultural, political, legal, and social relationships since its inception in the 19th century. Yet despite the fact that for many people in Japan the emperor system is little more than a vestige of a national or cultural tradition, violent defenses of and oppositions to the emperor system, whether fictional, real, or suggested, continue. Professor Hurley’s research program documents and interprets how such violence is advocated and represented in narratives. She focuses on texts produced during the current Heisei era, which began in 1989 with the first succession of a new emperor, Akihito, under the post-war symbolic emperor system. Furthermore, she will investigate post-war construction of the symbolic emperor system and the competing ideological and cultural aspirations underwriting the various responses to that system today. In order to do this, she will collect and analyze three types of text-based data depicting, advocating, or considering violent responses in defense of or opposition to the emperor system: 1) literary fiction, 2) scholarly writing, and 3) narratives produced for lay audiences such as journalism and texts produced by social and political movements. Graduate students will be trained and integrated into the research activities, participating in archival, database, bibliographic and translation work as well as analysis and presentation of the results. The results of this study will be communicated through journal publications and a scholarly book. They will also be made accessible to Japanese scholars in form of a translated version of the findings and to general audiences through lectures and workshops.
Cartoon animals and media networks in Japan, 1900-2000
Amount awarded: $159,395
Keywords: media mix, Japan, convergence culture, animation, anime, manga, comics, video games, cartoons, media networks, caricature art, moving image, Japanese history, history of science, evolutionary theory, social Darwinism, animal studies
Cartoon animals like Mickey Mouse, Bugs Bunny, Hello Kitty, or Pikachu are so common and visible that they often escape our notice. Yet as Professor Lamarre observes, they sit at the center of billion-dollar global media franchises and also play a significant role in shaping our sense of what animals are and how we interact with them, in childhood and beyond. In this study, Professor Lamarre will further our understanding of the history and significance of cartoon animals and media networks. His goal is to understand both the material dynamics and the emotional appeal of Japanese multi-media franchises such as Pokemon, Hello Kitty, or Digimon that have become important in global entertainment and our social imaginary. Professor Lamarre will pursue three lines of inquiry at four historical moments: the 1900s, the 1930s, the 1960s, and the 1990s. First, he will look at the history of media networks in Japan. Secondly, he will study how and why media networks came to center on animal characters, particularly on animal helpers or companion animals. Finally, he will examine the cultural concerns associated with animals in Japan that derived from Japanese attempts in science and philosophy to create a theory of evolution that resisted social Darwinism. This research program will span across and contribute to a number of fields: animal studies, media studies, history of science, Japanese studies and the emerging fields of comics and animation studies. Graduate students involved in this study will participate in an on-going database project of Japanese archival materials as well as in academic conferences, non-academic outreach, editorial work, and in collaborative research initiatives. In addition, through popular conventions, a database building and media program, this research results will reach beyond the academic community, to fan communities and animal advocacy.
As Professor Levy observes, while a rejection of teleology is sometimes taken to be characteristic if not definitive of modernity, several teleologies of political forms have indeed persisted to present day political theory. This is problematic, he explains, because there is no kind of citizenship, metaphorical or otherwise, that we should understand as representing the core or the pinnacle or the telos of moral personhood. The goal of Prof. Levy’s research is to investigate how pervasively teleological beliefs have been imported into modern and contemporary normative theories of political forms. This will involve the study of at least two kinds of teleologies—of moral personhood or agency, and of historical purpose or meaning—in at least four kinds of arguments: statist, nationalist, federation-cosmopolitan, and world-state cosmopolitan. If, as he expects, teleological arguments of both sorts run through all four kinds of arguments, an explanation for this phenomenon will be elaborated and presented. In the later stages of his study, he intends to critique these teleologies and offer an alternative, non-teleological account of political forms. Professor Levy will work with several graduate students who will perform literature surveys and reviews of secondary literature and participate the critical reading and analysis of several key theoretical literatures. The final results, which are intended to make a significant difference in political theory, will be communicated through free standing articles and an academic monograph.
Professor Ngo Long and co-researcher Gerard Gaudet (Université de Montréal) will conduct four studies dealing with various theoretical aspects of trade liberalization, and trade policy in the context of the global movement toward freer trade. Their first project will be an analysis of the effect of trade liberalization on changes in property rights regimes. More specifically, the researchers will examine the effects of increasing trading opportunities on emerging-market economies. The second project will also involve property rights enforcement as it relates to the protection of trade secrets such as technological knowledge within a firm or an international joint venture (JV). Here, their focus will be on the importance of effective enforcement of contracts for maintaining the rate and level of technology transfer between countries. The third project of this program will consist of an examination of the international Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), signed in 1994 under the aegis of the World Trade Organization (WTO) to harmonize national patent laws. It is thought that this agreement may prompt governments of poor countries to adopt the same effective patent length as that adopted in advanced economies resulting in higher prices of pharmaceutical products for people in less developed countries. Professors Long and Gaudet ask, should the effective length of patent protection for drugs vary according to the stage of development of the emerging market economies? Finally the fourth project will study the implications of international pressure for reducing government bias in favor of domestic firms in the context of government procurements of goods and services. Students will be directly involved in this study and will attend regular group meetings to discuss their research. Their work, along with Professor Long and Professor Gaudet’s final research results, will be communicated in the form of working papers to be revised and submitted to refereed journals and presented at national and international conferences.
Recent research on international relations in twentieth century has focused almost exclusively on the early Cold War, while the second half of that conflict has been largely neglected. Professor Lorenz Luthi’s primary aim for this research program is to address this neglect and produce a re-interpretation of the second half of the Cold War. In doing so, he will challenge the prevailing idea among historians that the Cold War ended in Europe in 1989 with the collapse of East European communist regimes. Instead, he proposes that the Cold War ended in Europe, East Asia, and the Middle East at different times. Additionally, Professor Luthi will pursue the hypothesis that the end of the Cold War was not a short event (the collapse of East European communist regimes in 1989) but a long, drawn out process that started in East Asia in the 1960s. Lastly, he will explore the ways in which the events in East Asia, Europe, and Middle East are interconnected. The research program will allow graduate students to expand their professional networks, improve their methodological skills and acquaintance with the publication process. Research results will be initially communicated in the form of workshop presentations and conference papers, which will be then worked into several refereed journal articles. Finally, research of the whole program will lead to the publication a second monograph, tentatively entitled The Rise of the Post-Cold War World in East Asia, the Middle East, and Europe.
Inca Garcilaso de la Vega (son of a Spanish conqueror and an Inca princess) and Fernando de Alva Ixtlilxochitl (son of a Spaniard and a direct descendant of the last lord of Texcoco) were the first two published mestizo authors of the Americas. Their writings constitute a fundamental reference among the Chronicles of Indies (las Crónicas de Indias). Their publications and readings helped to shape how the Americas were perceived by both European and American audiences. By examining the writings of Garcilaso de la Vega and Ixtlilxochitl, Professor Macchi’s research will explore how the textual history of the Chronicles of Indies dialogues with the political representation of the American continent during the period of intense political reconfiguration that characterized the so-called Age ofRevolutions (1780-1830). Through archival research and textual analysis, Professor Fernanda Macchi will pursue three objectives. First, she will study how and why historical works of these two authors appeared in print in Spain and Mexico at the beginning of the 19th century, and will examine how the physical appearance, the editorial choices, and the incorporated paratexts, such as prologues, indexes, and dedications, conditioned their reading. Second, she will analyze the representations of the Ancient American empires which appeared in fictional literature at the time in both Europe and the Americas. Finally, she will study the reception and circulation of these historical and literary works. She asks, what was said at the time about them? How did they circulate? Were they read both in Europe and America? Throughout the project, Professor Macchi will work with graduate students who will receive training in research methodology, bibliography production and electronic publishing. This research program will culminate in a scholarly monograph, as well as one article for each of the three research objectives and a website presenting the findings to the general public.
The Roman Catholic Church, mediation, mediatization, and religious subjects in contemporary Latin America
Amount awarded: $110,940
Keywords: Catholic Church, globalization, popular religion, mediatization, saints, Mexico, Peru
This research brings together a bi-national pair of researchers from Canada and Mexico who work in the domains of the anthropology of religion, popular Catholicism, the Catholic Church, political imaginaries, and social mobilization. Using a novel, interdisciplinary conceptual approach, it investigates the mediatic strategies by which the Roman Catholic Church is currently attempting to maintain and expand the faith-strength of its congregations as well as its institutional authority and presence in Latin America. Together with Dr Margarita Zires (Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco), Dr Kristin Norget will examine the Roman Catholic Church’s current evangelization strategies vis-à-vis social, economic and politico-ideological structures of now global scale that shape the contemporary world. More specifically, this project will focus on several saint sites and pilgrimages in urban locales in Peru and Mexico, namely, the Señor de los Milagros in Lima and the Virgin of Guadalupe in Mexico City. These sacred sites and their surrounding religious practices will be used to study the effects of the Catholic Church’s increasing use of audiovisual mass media to engage with local, national and international Catholic populations, and the Church’s collusion with media conglomerates and the state to edify their power and authority. Drs Norget and Zires will also examine the growing overlap of sacred and mediatic domains. Their research activities will involve the training of students in various areas including archival research, transcription, codification of data, and dissemination of results. The outcome of this project will be communicated to the academic community through papers presented at conferences and journal in anthropology, media studies, and Latin American studies. Furthermore, a bilingual (English and Spanish) Internet blog will be developed and maintained in order to help disseminate research results to both academic and non-academic audiences worldwide.
The metaphysics of life in late medieval and early modern thought
Amount awarded: $66,744
Keywords: life: organism: automata: emotions: function: monsters: soul: substantial form: early modern philosophy: mediaeval philosophy
Two related problems lie at the core of the metaphysics and natural philosophy of late medieval and early modern thought. The first is how life emerges from the organization of material parts, none of which is alive prior to that organization. The second is how something which is one (an individual animal or plant) can also be an aggregate of distinct parts of matter. With this project, Professor Calvin Normore and his research collaborator Deborah Brown (University of Queensland) aim to trace the history of how these issues arose and to show that the early modern mechanists had available more subtle ways of conceiving of the unity of bodies, particularly organic bodies, than their critics thought and thus had the conceptual resources to make meaningful distinctions between organic and inorganic bodies. They will then pursue these aims by 1) examining in the Aristotelian tradition the notion of a 'soul' or the 'substantial form' of living things which accounts for their unity and life; 2) examining the debate between early mechanists, Epicureans, the Cambridge Platonists and preformationists over the sufficiency of materialist principles to account for organic unities; 3) drawing on these investigations in order to demonstrate how the metaphysics of material substances advanced by 17th-century mechanists can be interpreted in ways consistent with the idea that the organization of matter that constitutes an organic being is sufficient to account for life and is a unity logically prior to its parts. Graduate students will assist both investigators in collecting research materials, compiling an annotated bibliography, organizing research seminars, and constructing a website for students and scholars working on related themes. The results of this project will be presented at national conferences such as the Congress of the Humanities for each year of the grant period.
Avenging the people: Andrew Jackson and the ordeal of American democracy, 1770s-1820s
Amount awarded: $45,100
Keywords: vengeance, democracy, law, slavery (U.S.), violence, Andrew Jackson, politics (U.S.), western migration (U.S.), American Revolution, War of 1812, Creek Indians, Cherokee Indians, Seminole Indians, Gulf Coast (U.S.), frontier (U.S.)
The founders of the American republic shared both a basic faith in civil society and a profound aversion to vengeance. Their resulting efforts to regulate both white expansion into native lands and the spread of slavery into the western territories provoked a furious reaction in American society and culture. Andrew Jackson (1767-1840) was both the leader and embodiment of what Professor Jason Opal refers to as the “vengeance narrative.” The key objective of Professor Opal’s study is to understand both the roots and expression of this narrative. He will trace the social history of the southern borderlands where Jackson first rose to prominence during the decades around 1800. Using court records, territorial papers, and a wide range of archival materials, he will recreate the patterns of vengeance and violence that defined Jackson's world and made him a military hero and cultural icon. In addition, the research will investigate the crucial role of frontier slavery in shaping Jackson's ideas about law and punishment, and ultimately about democracy itself. Professor Opal considers Jackson the main character rather than the subject of the research, and hopes first and foremost to contribute to the ongoing debate over Andrew Jackson and his place in American political development. Student[s] participating in this study will be trained in relevant historiographies, as well as the collection, organization, management and analysis of research materials. Study results will be communicated in a variety of ways including presentations at conferences, published articles and a website. Already under contract with Oxford University Press, a major monograph will constitute the culmination of this work.
The post-Communist transformation has provided fertile ground for political and bureaucratic corruption and both the EU and Eastern European publics are demanding that governments tackle the problem. Professor Popova’s research will investigate the role of Eastern European judiciaries in prosecuting high-level political and bureaucratic corruption. The research will be focused on three objectives. First, she will identify Eastern European judiciaries and measure their involvement in prosecuting corrupt politicians and bureaucrats. Next, she will try to understand whether anticorruption efforts reflect an earnest effort by the courts to punish perpetrators, or if they represent vendettas by powerful political actors. Finally, the overall judicial effectiveness in prosecuting corruption will be evaluated. In order to address these questions, Professor Popova will construct a database of newspaper articles on high-level corruption prosecutions from 1996-2010 and use it to track the movement of cases through the legal process. In addition, she will travel to Bulgaria and Macedonia in order to collect primary source materials and conduct interviews with corruption trial participants (judges, defense lawyers, prosecutors) and observers (journalists and NGO analysts). Both, graduate and undergraduate students will participate at every stage of the investigation and receive mentoring in multi-method research. The results of the project will be communicated through conferences, research and policy-oriented articles, a website, and a book. This research is intended to generate significant interest among policy-makers at foreign aid agencies and international organizations, anticorruption NGO analysts and activists, and journalists covering corruption issues.
Growth through experimentation
Amount awarded: $60,000
Keywords: endogenous growth theory, productivity, firm dynamics, experimentation, innovation, firm entry and exit, selection, regulation
Recent research has documented the importance of shocks to individual firms' performance. They lead to enormous and persistent productivity differences across firms even in narrowly defined industries. This heterogeneity matters for economy-wide outcomes like aggregate productivity or growth. At the same time, firms can influence the risk they take and can innovate by experimenting with new products and processes. Because the success of experiments varies but successful ones can increase a firm's productivity, experimentation is a force that promotes both growth and heterogeneity. In this project, Professor Markus Poschke will collaborate with Alain Gabler (Swiss National Bank) with the objective of linking all the above observations in order to develop a complete understanding of firms' experimentation behavior and its aggregate implications. This will be achieved by building and evaluating a model where firms can conduct costly experimental attempts to improve their productivity. In the project, graduate students will be trained in the use of computational and statistical software, the collection of data and the preparation of academic papers. Results from the project will be disseminated through working papers, articles in refereed journals, conference presentations and seminars.
Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937), known as one of the founding figures of the age of electronic media, was one of the most enigmatic figures in the history of technology. The communication explosion of the past two decades would have been unthinkable without Marconi’s pioneering work. However, in spite of his major contributions to wireless communication technology, many aspects of Marconi’s life and career have never been looked at from a scholarly perspective. In this study, Professor Raboy will fill this void by producing the most comprehensive study to date of Marconi and his role in the evolution of global wireless radio communication. This research will trace the origins and emergence of today's networked system of global communication through Marconi’s contributions. Using archival materials in four countries and several languages, Prof. Raboy will research and critically analyze a vast array of sources including personal papers and correspondence, unpublished manuscripts, rare corporate and regulatory records, confidential as well as public documents, transcripts of international conference proceedings, and published material on Marconi. Students participating in this research will receive extensive training in historical and archival research methods, critical documentary analysis and the preparation of research notes. The central output of this research will be the first full critical biography of Guglielmo Marconi. The final results of the project will also be circulated at national and international scholarly venues, through publications in scholarly journals and presentations at several international conferences.
Phantom Witness: The 1964 Kitty Genovese murder and its cultural legacies
Amount awarded: $79,799
Keywords: cultural intermediation, mediate witnessing, bystanding, signal crime, phantom public
Professor Rentschler’s research centers on the widely publicized Genovese murder, which took place on March 13, 1964 when the 28-year old Catherine "Kitty" Genovese was raped and then killed near her home in Queens, NY. It was reported that 38 neighbors witnessed the assault and did not call the police. The case, which continues to circulate widely in public discourse and popular culture, has been restructured as a social psychological phenomenon known as the “bystander effect”. Upon the realization that the 38 witnesses had never been verified, Professor Rentschler became interested in this case and decided to examine the role journalists, TV producers, academic researchers and other cultural intermediaries played in representing 38 phantom witnesses as unverifiably real subjects. The aim of the research is to determine how this case and the bodies of knowledge produced around it in law, psychology, sociology, and urban studies tell a larger story about the role cultural intermediaries play in the construction and application of case studies. The project also examines the ethical and political implications, and possibilities, of a model of witnessing that is based in cultural intermediation. With student research assistance, the research will involve the compilation and analysis of news media and psychological research materials, archival research of unpublished materials and key informant interviews. The results of this project will be published in scholarly articles and a book on the cultural legacies of the murder.
Civic artisanship: discovering the past, inventing the future
Amount awarded: $96,297
Keywords: self-governance, civic studies, collective action, citizenship, historical institutionalism, social dilemmas
Over past thirty years or so an increasing number of social scientists and university institutions have sought to understand and strengthen civic politics, civic initiative and civic capacity so as to create a civic theory and practice for the future. In seeking to reverse the trend toward the increased rule of economic and political elites, this emerging public science affirms the idea of ordinary citizens as creative agents in the art of governance. Professor Filippo Sabetti’s research will give historical depth and theoretical foundation to this public science. This will be achieved by recovering the ideas and practices that characterized civic artisanship over the course of almost ten centuries of Italian history -- from the time of the "papal revolution" of 1050-1150 (Berman 1983) to liberal Italy in the nineteenth century. The three primary goals of this research are: 1) to survey and gather an extraordinarily rich set of case studies of ideas and practices of civic artisanship roughly between the twelfth and the twentieth centuries; 2) to retrieve and synthesize the vast amount of highly specialized knowledge that has accumulated in archives and published works; and 3) to give historical and theoretical foundations necessary to improve understanding of the public science of civic theory emerging among a growing number of social scientists and university institutions. Both primary and secondary sources materials will be collected and analyzed from four research sites in Florence, Milan, Naples and Palermo. Students participating in this research will gain training and experience in the areas of comparative historical analysis, the history of political thought and empirical study. The projected outcome of this research is a book to be published by a university press. In addition, results will be communicated through presentations at scholarly conferences, NGOs and civil society organizations, journal articles and a website accessible to the general public.
John Glassco (1909-1981) was a modernist poet, fiction writer, memoirist, translator and pornographer whose career spanned six decades. His books appeared between the late fifties, when his first volume of poems The Deficit Made Flesh was published, and the mid-seventies, when his landmark translation of The Complete Poems of Saint-Denys Garneau capped a pioneering career as a translator of Québécois poetry. Despite the widespread acclaim Glassco received in that period, including a Governor-General's Literary Award for his Selected Poems of 1971, and despite the formative roles he played in early scholarship on English poetry in Québec and in the opening up of Québécois poetry for monolingual English readers, no complete edition of his poems has ever appeared. Professor Trehearne will address this shortcoming by producing the first scholarly edition of The Complete Poems of John Glassco. The Complete Poems will fulfill specific research objectives vital to the renewal of Glassco’s reputation: an authoritative compilation of all Glassco’s poems; a thorough-going textual history and survey of variant versions; a glossing of the poems’ more abstruse diction, allusions, and contexts in extensive explanatory notes; and, in a substantial critical introduction, a discussion of Glassco’s canonical rise and fall, of the concerns and contexts of his poetry, and of new directions for criticism encouraged by the edition’s comprehensiveness. Students hired as research assistants will gain valuable training and experience in every phase of the research and editorial process, from locating materials to copy-editing. The final objective of this project is to publish the edition as one of the Canadian Poetry Press series “Canadian Modern Poetry: Texts and Contexts,” of which Professor Trehearne is the general editor.
Urban pleasure gardens and the transformation of public life in early modern Amsterdam
Amount awarded: $91,924
Keywords: popular culture, garden history, urban history, global history, popular entertainment, automata, technology and culture
There were a number of well-publicized civic sites that any early modern traveler to Amsterdam routinely visited: the Town Hall, the public theatre, the churches, the Jewish synagogue, the houses of correction, and the city orphanages. Civic guidebooks described in detail the histories and attractions of these places, and much subsequent scholarly attention has been paid to them. Professor Vanhaelen’s project seeks to understand a different kind of site - one less firmly tied to the institutions of religion and politics, but one that also figured largely on the tourist's itinerary: the courtyard gardens of privately owned inns. Popular displays at these courtyard gardens included sculpture, paintings, intricate hedge mazes, exotic animals and people from around the globe. While scholarship has often dismissed these gardens as marginal places of popular entertainment, Angela Vanhaelen believes that they served an important public function. With this grant, she intends to elucidate the potential impact and importance of these sites. She hypothesizes that the gardens created a new kind of space where a broad cross-section of society could access new forms of knowledge about the world through the eclectic displays. Moreover, she will explore how they made courtly and elite forms of entertainment accessible to ordinary people thereby creating opportunities for those separated by social rank, kinship or profession to gather and discuss their shared interests. The students trained and supervised through this research will prepare bibliographies, collect data and participate in the dissemination of results at scholarly conferences and public venues such as the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts and the National Gallery of Canada. The long term projected outcome of the research program is the publication of a scholarly book.
Relative prosodic boundary strength and its role in encoding syntactic structure
Amount awarded: $96,565
Keywords: intonation, syntax, prosody, phonology, phonetics, language production, language perception, incremental processing, parsing
Prosody encompasses all those acoustic aspects of an utterance that are due to factors other than the particular choice of words. In a conversation, both the listener, understanding the in-coming message, and the speaker, formulating a complex utterance, face many challenges comprehending and composing messages within the overall discourse context. In these processes, the prosody of an utterance plays an important but as-of-yet ill-understood role. In this program of research Professor Wagner asks: is prosodic phrasing encoded with categorically different prosodic boundaries or with boundaries that differ in strength relative to each other? How does this prosodic constituency map to syntactic constituency? What can prosody phrasing tell us about the incremental building of syntactic structure in speech? With the help of students, he will set out to answer these questions using a set of perception and production experiments. The results of this study will be communicated in a range of high-profile conferences and peer-reviewed journals in various different fields. Ultimately, the goal of this research program is to further our understanding of prosody. This will have implications in a wide range of areas, including in speech therapy, and in improving the comprehensibility of synthesized speech and the recognition rate in speech recognition systems.
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in how different components of the second language (L2) learner's grammar relate to (or interface with) each other and whether typical learner errors can be explained in terms of problems integrating knowledge at the interfaces. Together with co-applicant Professor Heather Goad (Linguistics, McGill), Professor Lydia White will study the interface between phonology and (morpho) syntax. The research builds on earlier work of Professors Goad and White, with a view to understanding which aspects of interface knowledge are problematic and which unproblematic for L2 learners. In the past, their work has focused mostly on the L2 acquisition of English, whereas the current program of research will investigate other L2s, including French, Korean and Spanish. In addition, their earlier studies were restricted to a consideration of morphology realizing tense and agreement, as well as articles and determiners. The current program will explore new morphological domains (including gender, number and clitics). A series of experiments will be conducted, investigating the performance of adult L2 learners of different L1 and L2 combinations, comparing spoken production of functional material with performance on a variety of other tasks, both online and offline. Results will be communicated through international conferences and scholarly publications.